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Open AccessReview

Mood Disorders and Gluten: It’s Not All in Your Mind! A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

1
The School of Allied Health and Community, University of Worcester, Worcester WR2 6AJ, UK
2
Department of Gastroenterology, Mid-Central District Health Board, Palmerston North Hospital, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1708; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111708
Received: 14 October 2018 / Revised: 30 October 2018 / Accepted: 6 November 2018 / Published: 8 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gluten-Free Diet)
Gluten elimination may represent an effective treatment strategy for mood disorders in individuals with gluten-related disorders. However, the directionality of the relationship remains unclear. We performed a systematic review of prospective studies for effects of gluten on mood symptoms in patients with or without gluten-related disorders. Six electronic databases (CINAHL, PsycINFO, Medline, Web of Science, Scopus and Cochrane Library) were searched, from inception to 8 August 2018, for prospective studies published in English. Meta-analyses with random-effects were performed. Three randomised-controlled trials and 10 longitudinal studies comprising 1139 participants fit the inclusion criteria. A gluten-free diet (GFD) significantly improved pooled depressive symptom scores in GFD-treated patients (Standardised Mean Difference (SMD) −0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.55 to −0.20; p < 0.0001), with no difference in mean scores between patients and healthy controls after one year (SMD 0.01, 95% CI −0.18 to 0.20, p = 0.94). There was a tendency towards worsening symptoms for non-coeliac gluten sensitive patients during a blinded gluten challenge vs. placebo (SMD 0.21, 95% CI −0.58 to 0.15; p = 0.25). Our review supports the association between mood disorders and gluten intake in susceptible individuals. The effects of a GFD on mood in subjects without gluten-related disorders should be considered in future research. View Full-Text
Keywords: gluten-related disorders; gluten-free diet; coeliac disease; non-coeliac gluten sensitivity; irritable bowel syndrome; mood disorders; affective disorders; depression; major depressive disorder; mental health; nutrition gluten-related disorders; gluten-free diet; coeliac disease; non-coeliac gluten sensitivity; irritable bowel syndrome; mood disorders; affective disorders; depression; major depressive disorder; mental health; nutrition
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MDPI and ACS Style

Busby, E.; Bold, J.; Fellows, L.; Rostami, K. Mood Disorders and Gluten: It’s Not All in Your Mind! A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1708.

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