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Gluten-Free Diet in Celiac Disease—Forever and for All?
Open AccessArticle

The Relationship between Body Composition and a Gluten Free Diet in Children with Celiac Disease

Institute of Nursing and Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Rzeszów, 35959 Rzeszów, Poland
Pediatric Department, Clinical Provincial Hospital No. 2 in Rzeszów, Faculty of Medicine, University of Rzeszów, 35301 Rzeszów, Poland
Diabetic Outpatient Clinic, Medical Center “Beta-Med” Rzeszów, 35073 Rzeszów, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1817;
Received: 14 October 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 17 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gluten-Free Diet)
The primary and proven therapy, in cases of celiac disease (CD), is a rigorous gluten-free diet (GFD). However, there are reports of its negative effects in the form of nutritional deficiencies, obesity, and adverse changes in body composition. The study aimed to assess the impact of a GFD on the body composition of children with CD. In a case-controlled study (n = 41; mean age 10.81 y; SD = 3.96) children with CD, in various stages of treatment, underwent medical assessment. The control group consisted of healthy children and adolescents, strictly matched for gender and age in a 1:1 case-control manner. More than half of the examined children (n = 26) followed a GFD. CD children had significantly higher mean values of the fat free mass (FFM% = 80.68 vs. 76.66, p = 0.015), and total body water (TBW% = 65.22 vs. 60.47, p = 0.012), and lower mean values of the fat mass (FM% = 19.32 vs. 23.34, p = 0.015). Children who were on a GFD presented slightly higher, but not statistically significant, mean values of FM and FFM, than children who did not follow dietary recommendations (FM [kg] = 7.48 vs. 5.24, p = 0.064; FM% = 20.81 vs. 16.73, p = 0.087; FFM [kg] = 28.19 vs. 22.62, p = 0.110). After minimum one year of a GFD, CD children showed significantly higher values of FFM [kg] (p = 0.001), muscle mass (MM) [kg] (p < 0.001), TBW [L] (p < 0.001) and body cell mass (BCM) [kg] (p < 0.001). Furthermore, CD children who were on a GFD presented a significantly higher increase in weight (p = 0.034) and body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.021). The children adhering to a GFD demonstrate a tendency towards higher indices of selected body composition components. View Full-Text
Keywords: celiac disease; body composition; gluten free diet; children celiac disease; body composition; gluten free diet; children
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Więch, P.; Chmiel, Z.; Bazaliński, D.; Sałacińska, I.; Bartosiewicz, A.; Mazur, A.; Korczowski, B.; Binkowska-Bury, M.; Dąbrowski, M. The Relationship between Body Composition and a Gluten Free Diet in Children with Celiac Disease. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1817.

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