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Special Issue "Plant Extracts: Biological and Pharmacological Activity"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Raffaele Capasso

Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Naples, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: role of cannabinoid, vanilloid and kappa-opioid receptors in the gastrointestinal tract; ethnopharmacological studies on medicinal plants; clinical pharmacology of herbal products; nutritional pharmacology
Guest Editor
Dr. Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli

Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Florence, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +390552758395
Interests: pharmacology; pedicinal plants; chronic pain; nervous system pathologies and treatment; glia; cholinergic receptors; opioid receptors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The use of plant extracts in therapy dates back many years. Plant extracts have been commonly used over the years for the treatment and prevention of chronic and acute diseases, and health promotion.

Although many plant extracts have been studied, many others have not, therefore, a Special Issue on the pharmacology of plant extracts is timely.

This Special Issue aims to comprehensively highlight the newest discoveries in plant extract products with an emphasis on pharmacological activity.

I cordially invite authors to contribute original articles, as well as reviews, that unravel new biological activity of naturally-occurring products to help create greater opportunities for their future use.

Dr. Raffaele Capasso
Dr. Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • plant extracts
  • medicinal plants
  • biological activity
  • medical use
  • plant side effects
  • pharmacological interactions

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
Hepatotoxicity of a Cannabidiol-Rich Cannabis Extract in the Mouse Model
Molecules 2019, 24(9), 1694; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24091694
Received: 11 April 2019 / Revised: 29 April 2019 / Accepted: 29 April 2019 / Published: 30 April 2019
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Abstract
The goal of this study was to investigate Cannabidiol (CBD) hepatotoxicity in 8-week-old male B6C3F1 mice. Animals were gavaged with either 0, 246, 738, or 2460 mg/kg of CBD (acute toxicity, 24 h) or with daily doses of 0, 61.5, 184.5, or [...] Read more.
The goal of this study was to investigate Cannabidiol (CBD) hepatotoxicity in 8-week-old male B6C3F1 mice. Animals were gavaged with either 0, 246, 738, or 2460 mg/kg of CBD (acute toxicity, 24 h) or with daily doses of 0, 61.5, 184.5, or 615 mg/kg for 10 days (sub-acute toxicity). These doses were the allometrically scaled mouse equivalent doses (MED) of the maximum recommended human maintenance dose of CBD in EPIDIOLEX® (20 mg/kg). In the acute study, significant increases in liver-to-body weight (LBW) ratios, plasma ALT, AST, and total bilirubin were observed for the 2460 mg/kg dose. In the sub-acute study, 75% of mice gavaged with 615 mg/kg developed a moribund condition between days three and four. As in the acute phase, 615 mg/kg CBD increased LBW ratios, ALT, AST, and total bilirubin. Hepatotoxicity gene expression arrays revealed that CBD differentially regulated more than 50 genes, many of which were linked to oxidative stress responses, lipid metabolism pathways and drug metabolizing enzymes. In conclusion, CBD exhibited clear signs of hepatotoxicity, possibly of a cholestatic nature. The involvement of numerous pathways associated with lipid and xenobiotic metabolism raises serious concerns about potential drug interactions as well as the safety of CBD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Extracts: Biological and Pharmacological Activity)
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Open AccessArticle
Ameliorative Effect and Mechanism of the Purified Anthraquinone-Glycoside Preparation from Rheum Palmatum L. on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Molecules 2019, 24(8), 1454; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24081454
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 27 March 2019 / Accepted: 4 April 2019 / Published: 12 April 2019
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Abstract
Rheum palmatum L. is a traditional Chinese medicine with various pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and detoxification effects. In this study, the mechanism of the hypoglycemic effect of purified anthraquinone-Glycoside from Rheum palmatum L. (PAGR) in streptozotocin (STZ) and high-fat diet induced type [...] Read more.
Rheum palmatum L. is a traditional Chinese medicine with various pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and detoxification effects. In this study, the mechanism of the hypoglycemic effect of purified anthraquinone-Glycoside from Rheum palmatum L. (PAGR) in streptozotocin (STZ) and high-fat diet induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in rats was investigated. The rats were randomly divided into normal (NC), T2DM, metformin (Met), low, middle (Mid), and high (Hig) does of PAGR groups. After six weeks of continuous administration of PAGR, the serum indices and tissue protein expression were determined, and the pathological changes in liver, kidney, and pancreas tissues were observed. The results showed that compared with the type 2 diabetes mellitus group, the fasting blood glucose (FBG), total cholesterol (TC), and triglyceride (TG) levels in the serum of rats in the PAGR treatment groups were significantly decreased, while superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) levels were noticeably increased. The expression of Fas ligand (FasL), cytochrome C (Cyt-c), and caspase-3 in pancreatic tissue was obviously decreased, and the pathological damage to the liver, kidney, and pancreas was improved. These indicate that PAGR can reduce oxidative stress in rats with diabetes mellitus by improving blood lipid metabolism and enhancing their antioxidant capacity, thereby regulating the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway to inhibitβ-cell apoptosis and improve β-cell function. Furthermore, it can regulate Fas/FasL-mediated apoptosis signaling pathway to inhibit β-cell apoptosis, thereby lowering blood glucose levels and improving T2DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Extracts: Biological and Pharmacological Activity)
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Open AccessArticle
Solvent Fractionation and Acetone Precipitation for Crude Saponins from Eurycoma longifolia Extract
Molecules 2019, 24(7), 1416; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071416
Received: 22 March 2019 / Revised: 2 April 2019 / Accepted: 2 April 2019 / Published: 10 April 2019
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Abstract
Eurycoma longifolia is a popular folk medicine in South East Asia. This study was focused on saccharide-containing compounds including saponins, mainly because of their medical potentials. Different organic solvents such as ethyl acetate, butanol, and chloroform were used to fractionate the phytochemical groups, [...] Read more.
Eurycoma longifolia is a popular folk medicine in South East Asia. This study was focused on saccharide-containing compounds including saponins, mainly because of their medical potentials. Different organic solvents such as ethyl acetate, butanol, and chloroform were used to fractionate the phytochemical groups, which were consequently precipitated in cold acetone. Solvent fractionation was found to increase the total saponin content based on colorimetric assay using vanillin and sulfuric acid. Ethyl acetate fraction and its precipitate were showed to have the highest crude saponins after acetone precipitation. The samples were shown to have anti-proliferative activity comparable with tamoxifen (IC50 = 110.6 µg/mL) against human breast cancer cells. The anti-proliferative activities of the samples were significantly improved from crude extract (IC50 = 616.3 µg/mL) to ethyl acetate fraction (IC50 = 185.4 µg/mL) and its precipitate (IC50 = 153.4 µg/mL). LC-DAD-MS/MS analysis revealed that the saccharide-containing compounds such as m/z 497, 610, 723, 836, and 949 were abundant in the samples, and they could be ionized in negative ion mode. The compounds consisted of 226 amu monomers with UV-absorbing property at 254 nm, and were tentatively identified as formylated hexoses. To conclude, solvent fractionation and acetone precipitation could produce saccharide-containing compounds including saponins with higher anti-proliferative activity than crude extract against MCF-7 cells. This is the first study to use non-toxic solvents for fractionation of bioactive compounds from highly complex plant extract of E. longifolia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Extracts: Biological and Pharmacological Activity)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of the Biological Activities and Characterization of Bioactive Constituents of Ophiorrhiza rugosa var. prostrata (D.Don) & Mondal Leaves through In Vivo, In Vitro, and In Silico Approaches
Molecules 2019, 24(7), 1367; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071367
Received: 13 March 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 4 April 2019 / Published: 8 April 2019
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Abstract
Ophiorrhiza rugosa var. prostrata is one of the most frequently used ethnomedicinal plants by the indigenous communities of Bangladesh. This study was designed to investigate the antidiarrheal, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic and antibacterial activities of the ethanol extract of O. rugosa leaves (EEOR). The leaves [...] Read more.
Ophiorrhiza rugosa var. prostrata is one of the most frequently used ethnomedicinal plants by the indigenous communities of Bangladesh. This study was designed to investigate the antidiarrheal, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic and antibacterial activities of the ethanol extract of O. rugosa leaves (EEOR). The leaves were extracted with ethanol and subjected to in vivo antidiarrheal screening using the castor oil-induced diarrhea, enteropooling, and gastrointestinal transit models. Anti-inflammatory efficacy was evaluated using the histamine-induced paw edema test. In parallel, in vitro anthelmintic and antibacterial activities were evaluated using the aquatic worm and disc diffusion assays respectively. In all three diarrheal models, EEOR (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) showed obvious inhibition of diarrheal stool frequency, reduction of the volume and weight of the intestinal contents, and significant inhibition of intestinal motility. Also, EEOR manifested dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity. Anthelmintic action was deemed significant (P < 0.001) with respect to the onset of paralysis and helminth death. EEOR also resulted in strong zones of inhibition when tested against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. GC-MS analysis identified 30 compounds within EEOR, and of these, 13 compounds documented as bioactive showed good binding affinities to M3 muscarinic acetylcholine, 5-HT3, tubulin and GlcN-6-P synthase protein targets in molecular docking experiments. Additionally, ADME/T and PASS analyses revealed their drug-likeness, likely safety upon consumption and possible pharmacological activities. In conclusion, our findings scientifically support the ethnomedicinal use and value of this plant, which may provide a potential source for future development of medicines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Extracts: Biological and Pharmacological Activity)
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro and In Situ Characterization of the Intestinal Absorption of Capilliposide B and Capilliposide C from Lysimachia capillipes Hemsl
Molecules 2019, 24(7), 1227; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071227
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 25 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 28 March 2019
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Abstract
The goal of this investigation was to determine the processes and mechanism of intestinal absorption for capilliposide B (CAPB) and capilliposide C (CAPC) from the Chinese herb, Lysimachia capillipes Hemsl. An analysis of basic parameters, such as drug concentrations, time, and behavior in [...] Read more.
The goal of this investigation was to determine the processes and mechanism of intestinal absorption for capilliposide B (CAPB) and capilliposide C (CAPC) from the Chinese herb, Lysimachia capillipes Hemsl. An analysis of basic parameters, such as drug concentrations, time, and behavior in different intestinal segments was analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The susceptibility of CAPB and CAPC to various inhibitors such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor (verapamil); multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) inhibitor (indomethacin); cytochrome P450 protein 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibitor (ketoconazole); and the co-inhibitor of P-gp, MRP2 and CYP3A4 (cyclosporine A) were assessed using both caco-2 cell monolayer and single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) models. As a result, CAPB and CAPC are both poorly absorbed in the intestines and exhibited segment-dependent permeability. The intestinal permeability of CAPB and CAPC were significantly increased by the co-treatment of verapamil, indomethacin. In addition, the intestinal permeability of CAPB was also enhanced by ketoconazole and cyclosporine A. It can be concluded that the intestinal absorption mechanisms of CAPB and CAPC involve processes such as facilitated passive diffusion, efflux transporters, and enzyme-mediated metabolism. Both CAPB and CAPC are suggested to be substrates of P-gp and MRP2. However, CAPB may interact with the CYP3A4 system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Extracts: Biological and Pharmacological Activity)
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Open AccessArticle
3′-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-α,4,2′,4′,6′-pentahydroxy-dihydrochalcone, from Bark of Eysenhardtia polystachya Prevents Diabetic Nephropathy via Inhibiting Protein Glycation in STZ-Nicotinamide Induced Diabetic Mice
Molecules 2019, 24(7), 1214; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071214
Received: 5 February 2019 / Revised: 20 March 2019 / Accepted: 22 March 2019 / Published: 28 March 2019
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Abstract
Previous studies have shown that accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) can be the cause of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in diabetic patients. Dihydrochalcone 3′-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl α,4,2′,4′,6′-pentahydroxy–dihydrochalcone (1) is a powerful antiglycation compound previously isolated from Eysenhardtia polystachya [...] Read more.
Previous studies have shown that accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) can be the cause of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in diabetic patients. Dihydrochalcone 3′-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl α,4,2′,4′,6′-pentahydroxy–dihydrochalcone (1) is a powerful antiglycation compound previously isolated from Eysenhardtia polystachya. The aim was to investigate whether (1) was able to protect against diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice, which displayed renal dysfunction markers such as body weight, creatinine, uric acid, serum urea, total urinary protein, and urea nitrogen in the blood (BUN). In addition, pathological changes were evaluated including glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the kidney, as well as in circulation level and pro-inflammatory markers ICAM-1 levels in diabetic mice. After 5 weeks, these elevated markers of dihydrochalcone treatment (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) were significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated. In addition, they ameliorate the indices of renal inflammation as indicated by ICAM-1 markers. The kidney and circulatory AGEs levels in diabetic mice were significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated by (1) treatment. Histological analysis of kidney tissues showed an important recovery in its structure compared with the diabetic group. It was found that the compound (1) attenuated the renal damage in diabetic mice by inhibiting AGEs formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Extracts: Biological and Pharmacological Activity)
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant, α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities and Potential Constituents of Canarium tramdenum Bark
Molecules 2019, 24(3), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24030605
Received: 13 January 2019 / Revised: 6 February 2019 / Accepted: 7 February 2019 / Published: 9 February 2019
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Abstract
The fruits of Canarium tramdenum are commonly used as foods and cooking ingredients in Vietnam, Laos, and the southeast region of China, whilst the leaves are traditionally used for treating diarrhea and rheumatism. This study was conducted to investigate the potential use of [...] Read more.
The fruits of Canarium tramdenum are commonly used as foods and cooking ingredients in Vietnam, Laos, and the southeast region of China, whilst the leaves are traditionally used for treating diarrhea and rheumatism. This study was conducted to investigate the potential use of this plant bark as antioxidants, and α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitors. Five different extracts of C. tramdenum bark (TDB) consisting of the extract (TDBS) and factional extracts hexane (TDBH), ethyl acetate (TDBE), butanol (TDBB), and water (TDBW) were evaluated. The TDBS extract contained the highest amount of total phenolic (112.14 mg gallic acid equivalent per g dry weight), while the TDBB extract had the most effective antioxidant capacity compared to other extracts. Its IC50 values were 12.33, 47.87, 33.25, and 103.74 µg/mL in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis (ABTS), reducing power (RP), and nitric oxide (NO) assays, respectively. Meanwhile, the lipid peroxidation inhibition of the four above extracts was proximate to that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as a standard antioxidant. The result of porcine pancreatic α-amylase inhibition showed that TDB extracts have promising effects which are in line with the commercial diabetic inhibitor acarbose. Interestingly, the inhibitory ability on α-glucosidase of all the extracts was higher than that of acarbose. Among the extracts, the TDBB extract expressed the strongest activity on the enzymatic reaction (IC50 = 18.93 µg/mL) followed by the TDBW extract (IC50 = 25.27 µg/mL), TDBS (IC50 = 28.17 µg/mL), and TDBE extract (IC50 = 141.37 µg/mL). The phytochemical constituents of the TDB extract were identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The principal constituents included nine phenolics, eight terpenoids, two steroids, and five compounds belonging to other chemical classes, which were the first reported in this plant. Among them, the presence of α- and β-amyrins were identified by GC-MS and appeared as the most dominant constituents in TDB extracts (1.52 mg/g). The results of this study revealed that C. tramdenum bark possessed rich phenolics and terpenoids, which might confer on reducing risks from diabetes. A high quantity of α- and β-amyrins highlighted the potentials of anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-tumor, and hepatoprotective properties of C. tramdenum bark. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Extracts: Biological and Pharmacological Activity)
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Open AccessArticle
Metabolomics Profiling Reveals Rehmanniae Radix Preparata Extract Protects against Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis Mainly via Intervening Steroid Hormone Biosynthesis
Molecules 2019, 24(2), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24020253
Received: 4 December 2018 / Revised: 2 January 2019 / Accepted: 5 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
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Abstract
Rehmanniae Radix Preparata (RR), the dry rhizome of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch., is a traditional herbal medicine for improving the liver and kidney function. Ample clinical and pharmacological experiments show that RR can prevent post-menopausal osteoporosis and senile osteoporosis. In the present study, in [...] Read more.
Rehmanniae Radix Preparata (RR), the dry rhizome of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch., is a traditional herbal medicine for improving the liver and kidney function. Ample clinical and pharmacological experiments show that RR can prevent post-menopausal osteoporosis and senile osteoporosis. In the present study, in vivo and in vitro experiments, as well as a UHPLC-Q/TOF-MS-based metabolomics study, were used to explore the preventing effect of RR on glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) and its underlying mechanisms. As a result, RR significantly enhanced bone mineral density (BMD), improved the micro-architecture of trabecular bone, and intervened in biochemical markers of bone metabolism in dexamethasone (DEX)-treated rats. For the in vitro experiment, RR increased the cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, enhanced the extracellular matrix mineralization level, and improved the expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and osteopontin (OPN) in DEX-injured osteoblasts. For the metabolomics study, a total of 27 differential metabolites were detected in the DEX group vs. the control group, of which 10 were significantly reversed after RR treatment. These metabolites were majorly involved in steroid hormone biosynthesis, sex steroids regulation, and amino acid metabolism. By metabolic pathway and Western blotting analysis, it was further ascertained that RR protected against DEX-induced bone loss, mainly via interfering steroid hormone biosynthesis, as evidenced by the up-regulation of cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) and aromatase (CYP19A1), and the down-regulation of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD11B1). Collectively, these results indicated that RR had a notable preventing effect on GIOP, and the action mechanism might be related to steroid hormone biosynthesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Extracts: Biological and Pharmacological Activity)
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Open AccessArticle
Modulatory Effect of Guinep (Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq) Fruit Pulp Extract on Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Damage in Rats. Identification of Major Metabolites Using High Resolution UHPLC Q-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry
Molecules 2019, 24(2), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24020235
Received: 25 December 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract
Guinep is traditionally used in the management of cardiovascular ailments. This study aims to evaluate its medicinal constituents and effects in the management of myocardial injury in an experimental isoproterenol (ISO) rat model. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four groups: Group 1 [...] Read more.
Guinep is traditionally used in the management of cardiovascular ailments. This study aims to evaluate its medicinal constituents and effects in the management of myocardial injury in an experimental isoproterenol (ISO) rat model. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four groups: Group 1 was the control group; Group 2 received M. bijugatus extract (100 mg/Kg; MB) for six weeks; Group 3 was given ISO (85 mg/Kg) i.p. twice during a 24-hour period; and Group 4 was given ISO (85 mg/Kg) i.p. and MB extract (100 mg/Kg) for six weeks. The MB was administered orally by gavage, daily. The blood pressure of conscious animals was measured, while ECG was performed under anesthesia. Blood and serum were collected for biochemical and hematological analysis. The ISO group treated with MB showed a significant decrease (p < 0.001) in (SBP), diastolic (DBP), mean arterial (MAP) and heart rate (HR) compared to the ISO only group. Conversely, MB treated rats that were not induced with ISO displayed a significant decreases (p < 0.001) in SBP, DBP, MAP, and HR. ISO significantly elevated the ST segment (p < 0.001) and shortened the QTc interval (p < 0.05), which were recovered after treatment with 100 mg/Kg of MB. In addition, the results showed a significant decrease (p < 0.001) in the heart to body weight ratio of the ISO group treated with MB compared to the ISO only group. Furthermore, the extract normalized the hematological values depressed by the ISO while significantly elevating the platelet count. UHPLC high-resolution orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis results revealed the presence of several antioxidants like vitamin C and related compounds, phenolic acids, flavonoid, fatty acids (oxylipins), and terpene derivatives. The results of this study indicated that Melicoccus bijugatus did display some cardio-protective effects in relation to myocardial injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Extracts: Biological and Pharmacological Activity)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Lamium Plants—A Comprehensive Review on Health Benefits and Biological Activities
Molecules 2019, 24(10), 1913; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24101913
Received: 16 April 2019 / Revised: 8 May 2019 / Accepted: 14 May 2019 / Published: 17 May 2019
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Abstract
This work is an updated snapshot of Lamium plants and their biological activities. The main features of the plant are described and the components of its essential oils are summarized. The traditional medicinal uses of Lamium plants has been reported. The presence of [...] Read more.
This work is an updated snapshot of Lamium plants and their biological activities. The main features of the plant are described and the components of its essential oils are summarized. The traditional medicinal uses of Lamium plants has been reported. The presence of these chemicals i.e., hydroxycinnamic acids, iridoids, secoiridoids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenylpropanoids, phytoecdysteroids, benzoxazinoids, betaine can provide biological activities. After the discussion of antioxidant properties documented for Lamium plants, the biological activities, studied using in vitro models, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive activity, and pain therapy and cytotoxicity and cytoprotective activity are here described and discussed. Finally, targeted examples of in vivo studies are reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Extracts: Biological and Pharmacological Activity)
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Open AccessReview
Cucurbits Plants: A Key Emphasis to Its Pharmacological Potential
Molecules 2019, 24(10), 1854; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24101854
Received: 2 April 2019 / Revised: 9 May 2019 / Accepted: 13 May 2019 / Published: 14 May 2019
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Abstract
Cucurbita genus has received a renowned interest in the last years. This plant species, native to the Americas, has served worldwide folk medicine for treating gastrointestinal diseases and intestinal parasites, among other clinical conditions. These pharmacological effects have been increasingly correlated with their [...] Read more.
Cucurbita genus has received a renowned interest in the last years. This plant species, native to the Americas, has served worldwide folk medicine for treating gastrointestinal diseases and intestinal parasites, among other clinical conditions. These pharmacological effects have been increasingly correlated with their nutritional and phytochemical composition. Among those chemical constituents, carotenoids, tocopherols, phenols, terpenoids, saponins, sterols, fatty acids, and functional carbohydrates and polysaccharides are those occurring in higher abundance. However, more recently, a huge interest in a class of triterpenoids, cucurbitacins, has been stated, given its renowned biological attributes. In this sense, the present review aims to provide a detailed overview to the folk medicinal uses of Cucurbita plants, and even an in-depth insight on the latest advances with regards to its antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer effects. A special emphasis was also given to its clinical effectiveness in humans, specifically in blood glucose levels control in diabetic patients and pharmacotherapeutic effects in low urinary tract diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Extracts: Biological and Pharmacological Activity)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Use of Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Epilepsy: Efficacy and Security in Clinical Trials
Molecules 2019, 24(8), 1459; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24081459
Received: 20 March 2019 / Revised: 11 April 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 12 April 2019
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Abstract
Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the cannabinoids with non-psychotropic action, extracted from Cannabis sativa. CBD is a terpenophenol and it has received a great scientific interest thanks to its medical applications. This compound showed efficacy as anti-seizure, antipsychotic, neuroprotective, antidepressant and anxiolytic. [...] Read more.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the cannabinoids with non-psychotropic action, extracted from Cannabis sativa. CBD is a terpenophenol and it has received a great scientific interest thanks to its medical applications. This compound showed efficacy as anti-seizure, antipsychotic, neuroprotective, antidepressant and anxiolytic. The neuroprotective activity appears linked to its excellent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the use of CBD, in addition to common anti-epileptic drugs, in the severe treatment-resistant epilepsy through an overview of recent literature and clinical trials aimed to study the effects of the CBD treatment in different forms of epilepsy. The results of scientific studies obtained so far the use of CBD in clinical applications could represent hope for patients who are resistant to all conventional anti-epileptic drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Extracts: Biological and Pharmacological Activity)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Content of several components and antioxidant potential of borage (Borago officinalis L.) seeds

Andrzej Borowy

University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Department of Horticultural Seed Production and Nursery, Akademicka 13, 20-033 Lublin, Poland

Abstract: Detailed description of seeds of Polish borago ecotype, content of macroelements and phenolic compounds, content and composition of oil and and essential oil obtained from the seeds as well as their antioxidant activity will be presented in the paper.

 

Functional phenolic compounds in aerial parts of Vaccinium species as waste by-products source: towards pharmaceutical and biological properties

Corneliu Tanase

Botanical Pharmaceutical, University of Medicine Pharmacy Sciences and Technology of Târgu Mures, Strada Gheorghe Marinescu 38, Târgu Mureș

 

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