Topic Editors

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, 80055 Portici, Italy
Dr. Carla Cirillo
ToNIC (Toulouse NeuroImaging Center) Inserm U1214/UPS, Chu Purpan Place Du Docteur Baylac Cs 60039, CEDEX 3, 31024 Toulouse, France
Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas M. D., Anderson Cancer Center, 1901 East Road, Unit 1950, Houston, TX 77054, USA

Non Herbal Nutraceutical, Probiotic, Vitamins and Fatty Acids in Cancer

Abstract submission deadline
closed (15 September 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 December 2022)
Viewed by
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Topic Information

Cancer is a multifactorial disease characterized by uncontrolled cell growth and the acquisition of metastatic properties. Globally, cancer remains a major human health problem. Therefore, it is very important to prevent or treat different types of cancer. In recent years, significant advances in anticancer therapy have involved the use of many plant-derived compounds or structural analogues derived from them. Medicinal plants, together with non-herbal nutraceuticals (e.g., fatty acids, probiotic), constitute a fundamental source of active ingredients capable of providing new molecules with anticancer activity and new molecular structures capable of inspiring the design of derivatives with improved therapeutic properties. Although many natural products of plant origin have already been isolated and characterized, the molecular mechanisms underlying their therapeutic effects remain unexplored. This Topic aims to contribute original articles and reviews (e.g., comprehensive review and systematic reviews) to the identification of chemopreventive agents that delay or block the carcinogenesis of human cancers.

Prof. Dr. Raffaele Capasso
Dr. Carla Cirillo
Dr. Paola Amero
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • cancer
  • chemoprevention
  • medicinal plants
  • secondary metabolites
  • microbiota and cancer
  • pharmacological interactions
  • natural products
  • preclinical and clinical trials in cancer
  • nutraceuticals and cancer
  • molecular mechanisms

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Biology
biology
3.6 5.7 2012 16.1 Days CHF 2700
Biomolecules
biomolecules
4.8 9.4 2011 16.3 Days CHF 2700
Cancers
cancers
4.5 8.0 2009 16.3 Days CHF 2900
Current Oncology
curroncol
2.8 3.3 1994 17.6 Days CHF 2200
Onco
onco
- - 2021 19 Days CHF 1000

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Published Papers (14 papers)

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14 pages, 416 KiB  
Review
Vitamin D and Multiple Myeloma: A Scoping Review
by Naghmeh Mirhosseini, Athanasios Psihogios, Meagan D. McLaren and Dugald Seely
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(3), 3263-3276; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30030248 - 11 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2292
Abstract
As the global incidence of multiple myeloma (MM) increases, the identification of modifiable risk factors for disease prevention becomes paramount. Maintaining optimal vitamin D status is a candidate for prevention efforts, based on pre-clinical evidence of a possible role in disease activity and [...] Read more.
As the global incidence of multiple myeloma (MM) increases, the identification of modifiable risk factors for disease prevention becomes paramount. Maintaining optimal vitamin D status is a candidate for prevention efforts, based on pre-clinical evidence of a possible role in disease activity and progression. A structured scoping review was performed to identify and describe human-level research regarding the association between vitamin D and MM risk and/or prognosis. Searches of three databases (OVID-Medline, OVID-Embase, and OVID-Cochrane Library) yielded 15 included publications. Vitamin D deficiency is fairly common among patients with MM, with 42.3% of participants in the studies identified as having a vitamin D deficiency. No included publication reported on vitamin D status and the risk of developing or being newly diagnosed with MM. Possible associations with vitamin D that warrant future exploration include the incident staging of MM disease, the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy, and survival/prognosis. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms associated with MM also warrant further investigation. Overall, this scoping review was effective in mapping the research regarding vitamin D and MM and may help support new hypotheses to better describe this association and to better address identified knowledge gaps in the literature. Full article
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17 pages, 720 KiB  
Review
Risk Factors and Prevention of Gastric Cancer Development—What Do We Know and What Can We Do?
by Paulina Helisz, Weronika Gwioździk, Karolina Krupa-Kotara, Mateusz Grajek, Joanna Głogowska-Ligus and Jerzy Słowiński
Onco 2023, 3(1), 26-42; https://doi.org/10.3390/onco3010003 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3642
Abstract
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related deaths. Gastric tumors show a high aggressiveness, which, in turn, contributes to a low survival rate of fewer than 12 months. Considering the above, it was decided to review the current [...] Read more.
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related deaths. Gastric tumors show a high aggressiveness, which, in turn, contributes to a low survival rate of fewer than 12 months. Considering the above, it was decided to review the current scientific studies that indicate the potential prevention of gastric cancer and clarify the relationship between gastric cancer and the composition of the microorganisms inhabiting the human body. Accordingly, a review paper was prepared based on 97 scientific sources from 2011 to 2022. Particular attention was paid to the most recent scientific studies from the last five years, which account for more than 80% of the cited sources. Taking care of one’s overall health, including undertaking treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection, and following a diet high in anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory ingredients are the most important factors in reducing the risk of developing gastric cancer. Full article
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42 pages, 1967 KiB  
Systematic Review
Nutraceuticals as Supportive Therapeutic Agents in Diabetes and Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: A Systematic Review
by Iveta Mikolaskova, Tatjana Crnogorac-Jurcevic, Bozena Smolkova and Luba Hunakova
Biology 2023, 12(2), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12020158 - 19 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2333
Abstract
The correlation between pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and diabetes-related mechanisms support the hypothesis that early therapeutic strategies targeting diabetes can contribute to PDAC risk reduction and treatment improvement. A systematic review was conducted, using PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases, to evaluate the [...] Read more.
The correlation between pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and diabetes-related mechanisms support the hypothesis that early therapeutic strategies targeting diabetes can contribute to PDAC risk reduction and treatment improvement. A systematic review was conducted, using PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases, to evaluate the current evidence from clinical studies qualitatively examining the efficacy of four natural products: Curcumin—Curcuma longa L.; Thymoquinone—Nigella sativa L.; Genistein—Glycine max L.; Ginkgo biloba L.; and a low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and PDAC treatment. A total of 28 clinical studies were included, showing strong evidence of inter-study heterogeneity. Used as a monotherapy or in combination with chemo-radiotherapy, the studied substances did not significantly improve the treatment response of PDAC patients. However, pronounced therapeutic efficacy was confirmed in T2D. The natural products and low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet, combined with the standard drugs, have the potential to improve T2D treatment and thus potentially reduce the risk of cancer development and improve multiple biological parameters in PDAC patients. Full article
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24 pages, 806 KiB  
Review
The Anti- and Pro-Tumorigenic Role of Microbiota and Its Role in Anticancer Therapeutic Strategies
by Giulia Greco, Sabrina Donati Zeppa, Deborah Agostini, Giuseppe Attisani, Claudio Stefanelli, Fabio Ferrini, Piero Sestili and Carmela Fimognari
Cancers 2023, 15(1), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15010190 - 28 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1712
Abstract
Human gut microbiota physiologically and actively participates as a symbiont to a wide number of fundamental biological processes, such as absorption and metabolism of nutrients, regulation of immune response and inflammation; gut microbiota plays also an antitumor role. However, dysbiosis, resulting from a [...] Read more.
Human gut microbiota physiologically and actively participates as a symbiont to a wide number of fundamental biological processes, such as absorption and metabolism of nutrients, regulation of immune response and inflammation; gut microbiota plays also an antitumor role. However, dysbiosis, resulting from a number of different situations—dysmicrobism, infections, drug intake, age, diet—as well as from their multiple combinations, may lead to tumorigenesis and is associated with approximately 20% of all cancers. In a diagnostic, prognostic, therapeutic, and epidemiological perspective, it is clear that the bifaceted role of microbiota needs to be thoroughly studied and better understood. Here, we discuss the anti- and pro-tumorigenic potential of gut and other microbiota districts along with the causes that may change commensal bacteria from friend to foes. Full article
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17 pages, 14915 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Short Chain Fatty Acids Produced by Selected Potential Probiotic Lactobacillus Strains
by Suchera Thananimit, Nuntiya Pahumunto and Rawee Teanpaisan
Biomolecules 2022, 12(12), 1829; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12121829 - 7 Dec 2022
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3360
Abstract
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly butyrate, have received considerable attention with regard to their anti-cancer efficacy in delaying or preventing colorectal cancer. Several studies have reported that certain probiotic strains could produce SCFAs; however, different strains yielded different amounts of SCFAs. This study [...] Read more.
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly butyrate, have received considerable attention with regard to their anti-cancer efficacy in delaying or preventing colorectal cancer. Several studies have reported that certain probiotic strains could produce SCFAs; however, different strains yielded different amounts of SCFAs. This study explored the ability to produce SCFAs of the following probiotic strains: Lacticaseibacillus paracasei SD1, Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus SD4, Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus SD11, and Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG. L. paracasei SD1 and L. rhamnosus SD11 exhibited high butyrate production, particularly when the strains were combined. The functions of the SCFAs were further characterized; the SCFAs exerted a positive anti-cancer effect in the colon via various actions, including inhibiting the growth of the pathogens related to colon cancer, such as Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis; suppressing the growth of cancer cells; and stimulating the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and antimicrobial peptides, especially human β-defensin-2. In addition, the SCFAs suppressed pathogen-stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially IL-8. The results of this study indicated that selected probiotic strains, particularly L. paracasei SD1 in combination with L. rhamnosus SD11, may serve as good natural sources of bio-butyrate, which may be used as biotherapy for preventing or delaying the progression of colon cancer. Full article
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18 pages, 2312 KiB  
Article
Dietary EPA+DHA Mitigate Hepatic Toxicity and Modify the Oxylipin Profile in an Animal Model of Colorectal Cancer Treated with Chemotherapy
by Md Monirujjaman, Oliver F. Bathe and Vera C. Mazurak
Cancers 2022, 14(22), 5703; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14225703 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2568
Abstract
Irinotecan (CPT-11) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) are commonly used to treat metastatic colorectal cancer, but chemotherapy-associated steatosis/steatohepatitis (CASSH) frequently accompanies their use. The objective of this study was to determine effect of CPT-11+5-FU on liver toxicity, liver oxylipins, and cytokines, and to explore whether [...] Read more.
Irinotecan (CPT-11) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) are commonly used to treat metastatic colorectal cancer, but chemotherapy-associated steatosis/steatohepatitis (CASSH) frequently accompanies their use. The objective of this study was to determine effect of CPT-11+5-FU on liver toxicity, liver oxylipins, and cytokines, and to explore whether these alterations could be modified by dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the form of fish oil (EPA+DHA). Tumor-bearing animals were administered CPT-11+5-FU and maintained on a control diet or a diet containing EPA+DHA (2.3 g/100 g). Livers were collected one week after chemotherapy for the analysis of oxylipins, cytokines, and markers of liver pathology (oxidized glutathione, GSSH; 4-hydroxynonenal, 4-HNE, and type-I collagen fiber). Dietary EPA+DHA prevented the chemotherapy-induced increases in liver GSSH (p < 0.011) and 4-HNE (p < 0.006). Compared with the tumor-bearing animals, ten oxylipins were altered (three/ten n-6 oxylipins were elevated while seven/ten n-3 oxylipins were reduced) following chemotherapy. Reductions in the n-3 fatty-acid-derived oxylipins that were evident following chemotherapy were restored by dietary EPA+DHA. Liver TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 were elevated (p < 0.05) following chemotherapy; dietary EPA+DHA reduced IL-6 (p = 0.09) and eotaxin (p = 0.007) levels. Chemotherapy-induced liver injury results in distinct alterations in oxylipins and cytokines, and dietary EPA+DHA attenuates these pathophysiological effects. Full article
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12 pages, 570 KiB  
Systematic Review
Music Therapy as a Form of Nonpharmacologic Pain Modulation in Patients with Cancer: A Systematic Review of the Current Literature
by Christopher Rennie, Dylan S. Irvine, Evan Huang and Jeffrey Huang
Cancers 2022, 14(18), 4416; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14184416 - 11 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4904
Abstract
Aims and Objectives: To consolidate and summarize the current literature surrounding the use of music therapy as an effective noninvasive adjunct to conventional cancer therapy, especially as a low-risk alternative for pain management and anesthetic use in cancer patients. Background: Current studies have [...] Read more.
Aims and Objectives: To consolidate and summarize the current literature surrounding the use of music therapy as an effective noninvasive adjunct to conventional cancer therapy, especially as a low-risk alternative for pain management and anesthetic use in cancer patients. Background: Current studies have proposed that music therapy may be effective as a noninvasive adjunct to conventional cancer therapy in managing numerous outcomes in cancer patients. However, the findings of these investigations have not been consolidated and analyzed on a large scale. Therefore, focusing a systematic review on the effects of music therapy as an adjunct to conventional cancer therapy would give a better understanding of which intervention approaches are associated with better clinical outcomes for cancer patients. Design: A systematic review. Methods: A review of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the effectiveness of music therapy in physical, cognitive, and psychosocial outcomes for cancer patients alone or in conjunction with standard therapy was implemented. We conducted searches using the PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library databases for all articles meeting the search criteria up until the time of article extraction in May, 2022. Only studies published in English were included. Two reviewers independently extracted data on participant and intervention characteristics. The main outcome variables included pain, anxiety, quality of life, mood, sleep disorders, fatigue, heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation. Results: Of the 202 initially identified articles, 25 randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria for evaluation. Of the 25 studies, 23 (92.0%) reported statistically and clinically significant improvements across the outcome variables. Two of the studies (8.00%) found no significant positive effect from music therapy in any of the aforementioned outcomes variables. Conclusion: Music therapy, both as a standalone treatment and when used in conjunction with other pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic modalities, has a generally beneficial effect across several physiologic and psychosocial aspects of cancer. Full article
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14 pages, 456 KiB  
Systematic Review
Controversial Link between Cannabis and Anticancer Treatments—Where Are We and Where Are We Going? A Systematic Review of the Literature
by Bianca Hanganu, Diana Elena Lazar, Irina Smaranda Manoilescu, Veronica Mocanu, Doina Butcovan, Camelia Liana Buhas, Andreea Silvana Szalontay and Beatrice Gabriela Ioan
Cancers 2022, 14(16), 4057; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14164057 - 22 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4055
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Cannabinoids are currently used in cancer patients primarily for their pain-relieving and antiemetic properties. The aim of our review was to synthesize all available data of studies evaluating the therapeutic efficacy of cannabis in combination with oncological treatments in cancer [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Cannabinoids are currently used in cancer patients primarily for their pain-relieving and antiemetic properties. The aim of our review was to synthesize all available data of studies evaluating the therapeutic efficacy of cannabis in combination with oncological treatments in cancer patients and to explore ongoing studies with different goals and medical areas registered in the field of oncology worldwide. Materials and Methods: This study was performed in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. A search using MEDLINE/PubMed database was performed between 1 January 2006 and 1 March 2022. Search terms included the following: cannabidiol, cannabis, CBD, dronabinol, endocannabinoids, medical marijuana, nabiximols, nabilone, THC, and cancer. All studies that examined the efficacy of cannabis administered during oncological treatments, regardless of cancer localization, subtype, and sample size, were considered eligible. Results: In three studies, cannabis was administered to patients with glioblastoma, and in two other studies, cannabis was used in combination with immunotherapy in various cancer subgroups. The results of the clinical trials in cancer patients are not sufficient to draw conclusions at this time. Interestingly, several other studies addressing the systemic effects of cannabinoids in cancer patients are currently listed in the U.S. National Library of Medicine’s registry on the ClinicalTrials.gov website. However, only one of the registered studies examined the efficacy of cannabinoids as a potential option for systemic cancer treatment. Conclusions: Although cannabis is touted to the public as a cancer cure, clinical trials need to clarify which combinations of chemotherapeutic agents with cannabinoids are useful for cancer patients. Full article
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10 pages, 2820 KiB  
Article
Immunohistochemical Detection of the Presence of Vitamin D Receptor in Childhood Solid Tumors
by Orsolya Juhász, Noémi Jákob, Hajnalka Rajnai, Marcell Imrei and Miklós Garami
Cancers 2022, 14(14), 3295; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14143295 - 6 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1665
Abstract
Background: Our previous work has shown a correlation between lower vitamin D levels in children with cancer and adverse prognosis. It suggests that supplying vitamin D is reasonable. VDR expression in childhood solid tumors has been linked to tumor characteristics and patient survival [...] Read more.
Background: Our previous work has shown a correlation between lower vitamin D levels in children with cancer and adverse prognosis. It suggests that supplying vitamin D is reasonable. VDR expression in childhood solid tumors has been linked to tumor characteristics and patient survival in only a few studies. Methods: For this study, 177 children with solid tumors were selected whose biopsies and tumor tissue formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were available for immunohistochemical analysis at Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary). Results: We found that non-significant VDR expression was associated with a significantly less favorable prognosis (p = 0.0061) in the examined childhood solid tumors. There was a clinically significant association; non-significant VDR expression had more than 14-fold odds of an unfavorable prognosis (OR = 14.74). The rate of VDR expression differed significantly between tumor types (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: In conclusion, VDR expression measured by IHC staining is inversely associated with aggressive characteristics in different childhood cancers. The downregulation of VDR expression in more aggressive childhood cancers suggests that functional vitamin D activity may slow or block cancer progression. Full article
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65 pages, 3524 KiB  
Systematic Review
Phytochemicals for the Prevention and Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma: Preclinical and Clinical Evidence and Molecular Mechanisms
by Essa M. Bajalia, Farah B. Azzouz, Danielle A. Chism, Derrek M. Giansiracusa, Carina G. Wong, Kristina N. Plaskett and Anupam Bishayee
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3278; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133278 - 4 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3796
Abstract
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is associated with about 90% of renal malignancies, and its incidence is increasing globally. Plant-derived compounds have gained significant attention in the scientific community for their preventative and therapeutic effects on cancer. To evaluate the anticancer potential of phytocompounds [...] Read more.
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is associated with about 90% of renal malignancies, and its incidence is increasing globally. Plant-derived compounds have gained significant attention in the scientific community for their preventative and therapeutic effects on cancer. To evaluate the anticancer potential of phytocompounds for RCC, we compiled a comprehensive and systematic review of the available literature. Our work was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses criteria. The literature search was performed using scholarly databases such as PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect and keywords such as renal cell carcinoma, phytochemicals, cancer, tumor, proliferation, apoptosis, prevention, treatment, in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies. Based on in vitro results, various phytochemicals, such as phenolics, terpenoids, alkaloids, and sulfur-containing compounds, suppressed cell viability, proliferation and growth, showed cytotoxic activity, inhibited invasion and migration, and enhanced the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs in RCC. In various animal tumor models, phytochemicals suppressed renal tumor growth, reduced tumor size, and hindered angiogenesis and metastasis. The relevant antineoplastic mechanisms involved upregulation of caspases, reduction in cyclin activity, induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via modulation of a plethora of cell signaling pathways. Clinical studies demonstrated a reduced risk for the development of kidney cancer and enhancement of the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs. Both preclinical and clinical studies displayed significant promise of utilizing phytochemicals for the prevention and treatment of RCC. Further research, confirming the mechanisms and regulatory pathways, along with randomized controlled trials, are needed to establish the use of phytochemicals in clinical practice. Full article
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15 pages, 4516 KiB  
Article
Cannabidiol and Cannabigerol Inhibit Cholangiocarcinoma Growth In Vitro via Divergent Cell Death Pathways
by Michael J. Viereckl, Kelsey Krutsinger, Aaron Apawu, Jian Gu, Bryana Cardona, Donovan Barratt and Yuyan Han
Biomolecules 2022, 12(6), 854; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12060854 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 6116
Abstract
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a rare and highly lethal disease with few effective treatment options. Cannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG) are non-psychedelic components extracted from cannabis. These non-psychoactive compounds have shown anti-proliferative potential in other tumor models; however, the efficacy of CBD and [...] Read more.
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a rare and highly lethal disease with few effective treatment options. Cannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG) are non-psychedelic components extracted from cannabis. These non-psychoactive compounds have shown anti-proliferative potential in other tumor models; however, the efficacy of CBD and CBG in CCA is unknown. Furthermore, two cell death pathways are implicated with CBD resulting in autophagic degeneration and CBG in apoptosis. HuCC-T1 cells, Mz-ChA-1 cells (CCA cell lines) and H69 cells (immortalized cholangiocytes), were treated with CBD and CBG for 24 to 48 h. The influence of these cannabinoids on proliferation was assessed via MTT assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle were evaluated via Annexin-V apoptosis assay and propidium iodide, respectively. The expression of proliferation biomarker Ki-67, apoptosis biomarker BAX, and autophagic flux biomarkers LC3b and LAMP1 were evaluated via immunofluorescence. Cell migration and invasion were evaluated via wound healing assay and trans-well migration invasion assays, respectively. The colony formation was evaluated via colony formation assay. In addition, the expression of autophagy gene LC3b and apoptosis genes BAX, Bcl-2, and cleaved caspase-3 were evaluated via Western blot. CBD and CBG are non-selective anti-proliferative agents yielding similar growth curves in CCA; both cannabinoids are effective, yet CBG is more active at lower doses. Low doses of CBD and CBG enhanced immortalized cholangiocyte activity. The reduction in proliferation begins immediately and occurs maximally within 24 h of treatment. Moreover, a significant increase in the late-stage apoptosis and a reduction in the number of cells in S stage of the cell cycle indicates both CBD and CBG treatment could promote apoptosis and inhibit mitosis in CCA cells. The fluorescent expression of BAX and LC3b was significantly enhanced with CBD treatment when compared to control. LAMP1 and LC3b colocalization could also be observed with CBD and CBG treatment indicating changes in autophagic flux. A significant inhibition of migration, invasion and colony formation ability was shown in both CBD and CBG treatment in CCA. Western blot showed an overall decrease in the ratio of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 with respect to pro-apoptotic protein BAX with CBG treatment. Furthermore, CBD treatment enhanced the expression of Type II cell death (autophagic degeneration) protein LC3b, which was reduced in CBG-treated CCA cells. Meanwhile, CBG treatment upregulated Type I cell death (programmed apoptosis) protein cleaved caspase-3. CBD and CBG are effective anti-cancer agents against CCA, capable of inhibiting the classic hallmarks of cancer, with a divergent mechanism of action (Type II or Type I respectively) in inducing these effects. Full article
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22 pages, 3124 KiB  
Review
Repurposing Vitamin C for Cancer Treatment: Focus on Targeting the Tumor Microenvironment
by Wen-Ning Li, Shi-Jiao Zhang, Jia-Qing Feng and Wei-Lin Jin
Cancers 2022, 14(11), 2608; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14112608 - 25 May 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 5442
Abstract
Based on the enhanced knowledge on the tumor microenvironment (TME), a more comprehensive treatment landscape for targeting the TME has emerged. This microenvironment provides multiple therapeutic targets due to its diverse characteristics, leading to numerous TME-targeted strategies. With multifaced activities targeting tumors and [...] Read more.
Based on the enhanced knowledge on the tumor microenvironment (TME), a more comprehensive treatment landscape for targeting the TME has emerged. This microenvironment provides multiple therapeutic targets due to its diverse characteristics, leading to numerous TME-targeted strategies. With multifaced activities targeting tumors and the TME, vitamin C is renown as a promising candidate for combination therapy. In this review, we present new advances in how vitamin C reshapes the TME in the immune, hypoxic, metabolic, acidic, neurological, mechanical, and microbial dimensions. These findings will open new possibilities for multiple therapeutic avenues in the fight against cancer. We also review the available preclinical and clinical evidence of vitamin C combined with established therapies, highlighting vitamin C as an adjuvant that can be exploited for novel therapeutics. Finally, we discuss unresolved questions and directions that merit further investigation. Full article
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15 pages, 28721 KiB  
Article
SFN Enhanced the Radiosensitivity of Cervical Cancer Cells via Activating LATS2 and Blocking Rad51/MDC1 Recruitment to DNA Damage Site
by Shiyu Wang, Yanan Wang, Xiangnan Liu, Yongbin Yang, Sufang Wu and Yuan Liu
Cancers 2022, 14(8), 1872; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14081872 - 8 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2326
Abstract
Background: Sulforaphane (SFN) is one kind of phytochemical anticancer drug. It inhibits cancer cell proliferation and promotes cell apoptosis while the mechanism behind is still uncertain. We aimed to explore its downstream target and the radiotherapy sensitization mechanism in cervical cancer. Methods: We [...] Read more.
Background: Sulforaphane (SFN) is one kind of phytochemical anticancer drug. It inhibits cancer cell proliferation and promotes cell apoptosis while the mechanism behind is still uncertain. We aimed to explore its downstream target and the radiotherapy sensitization mechanism in cervical cancer. Methods: We treated established cervical cancer cells line (SiHa, HeLa, C33A) with SFN followed by irradiation, and explored its survival, apoptosis, and DNA damage repair in vitro and validated the radiosensitivity of SFN treatment in vivo. We conducted mRNA sequencing to identify differentially expressed mRNAs after SFN treatment. We further investigated SFN downstream target and its involvement in DNA damage repair under irradiation. Results: We found that SFN inhibited the survival of cervical cancer cells under radiotherapy treatment in vitro and prolonged the survival period after radiotherapy in the mouse tumorigenic model. SFN increased the protein expression of LATS2 and promoted apoptosis of cervical cancer cells. Overexpressed LATS2 decreased the cellular survival rate of cervical cancer cells. Additionally, SFN treatment and LATS2 overexpression prevented MDC1 and Rad51 from accumulating in the nucleus in cervical cancer cells after being exposed to ionized radiation. LATS2 loss intervened with SFN-alleviated RAD51 and MDC1 nucleus accumulation and resumed the repairment of DNA damage. Conclusion: We identified SFN as cervical cancer cells radiotherapy sensitizer and LATS2 served as a downstream target of SFN treatment. SFN treatment resulted in the inhibition of the homologous recombination (HR) pathway, and LATS2 has an indispensable contribution to this SFN-facilitated radiotherapy sensitization. Full article
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23 pages, 2052 KiB  
Review
Minerals and Cancer: Overview of the Possible Diagnostic Value
by Sascha Venturelli, Christian Leischner, Thomas Helling, Olga Renner, Markus Burkard and Luigi Marongiu
Cancers 2022, 14(5), 1256; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14051256 - 28 Feb 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4011
Abstract
Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide and is expected to increase by one-third over the next two decades, in parallel with the growing proportion of the elderly population. Treatment and control of cancer incidence is a global issue. Since there [...] Read more.
Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide and is expected to increase by one-third over the next two decades, in parallel with the growing proportion of the elderly population. Treatment and control of cancer incidence is a global issue. Since there is no clear way to prevent or cure this deadly malignancy, diagnostic, predictive, and prognostic markers for oncological diseases are of great therapeutic value. Minerals and trace elements are important micronutrients for normal physiological function of the body. They are abundant in natural food sources and are regularly included in dietary supplements whereas highly processed industrial food often contains reduced or altered amounts of them. In modern society, the daily intake, storage pools, and homeostasis of these micronutrients are dependent on certain dietary habits and can be thrown out of balance by malignancies. The current work summarizes the data on minerals and trace elements associated with abnormal accumulation or depletion states in tumor patients and discusses their value as potential tumor-associated biomarkers that could be introduced into cancer therapy. Full article
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