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Open AccessArticle

Anticancer Activity of Smallanthus sonchifolius Methanol Extract against Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

1
Department of Chemistry, Loikaw University, Loikaw 09013, Myanmar
2
College of Pharmacy and Natural Products Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Raffaele Capasso and Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli
Molecules 2019, 24(17), 3054; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24173054
Received: 22 July 2019 / Revised: 19 August 2019 / Accepted: 21 August 2019 / Published: 22 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Extracts: Biological and Pharmacological Activity)
Background: This research aimed to investigate the cytotoxicity of methanol extract of Smallanthus sonchifolius leaf (YLE) against a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2). This plant is currently used as a traditional herbal remedy in the treatment of liver diseases in some rural parts of Myanmar. Methods: The cytotoxic activity of the plant extract against the cancerous cell line was assessed using an MTT assay. YLE demonstrated a significant effect (IC50 = 58.2 ± 1.9 μg/mL) on anti-cancer activity, which was further investigated using various assays including an in vitro cell migration assay, a colony formation assay, cell cycle analysis, western blot analysis, and a ROS assay. The significance of the phytochemical constituents of YLE could be identified using LC/Q-TOF-MS techniques. Results: We putatively identified the active components in YLE, which were possibly melampolide-type sesquiterpenoids. YLE showed an inhibitory effect on HepG2 cell proliferation and cell migration. YLE also induced cell cycle arrest and necrosis in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, YLE significantly suppressed ROS formation in HepG2 cells. Conclusions: These findings suggest that YLE is sufficient for application as a promising anti-liver drug in herbal medicine. View Full-Text
Keywords: S. sonchifolius leaf; HepG2 cells; MTT assay; cell cycle arrest; anti-liver cancer drug; antioxidant S. sonchifolius leaf; HepG2 cells; MTT assay; cell cycle arrest; anti-liver cancer drug; antioxidant
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MDPI and ACS Style

Myint, P.P.; Dao, T.T.P.; Kim, Y.S. Anticancer Activity of Smallanthus sonchifolius Methanol Extract against Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells. Molecules 2019, 24, 3054.

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