Special Issue "Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2021"

A special issue of Journal of Composites Science (ISSN 2504-477X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Francesco Tornabene
grade E-Mail Website
Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Composites Science, I am pleased to announce this Special Issue, entitled “Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2021”. This Special Issue will be a collection of articles from Editorial Board Members, Guest Editors, and Leading Researchers discussing new knowledge or new cutting-edge developments in the science of composites in 2021. Potential topics include but are not limited to the following items:

  • Fiber-reinforced composites;
  • Novel composites;
  • Nanocomposites;
  • Biomedical composites;
  • Energy composites;
  • Modeling, nondestructive evaluation;
  • Processing and manufacturing, properties and performance;
  • Repair, testing, nanotechnology;
  • Physics, chemistry, and mechanics characterization of composites

All of the accepted papers in this Special Issue will be published free of charge in open access.

Dr. Francesco Tornabene
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Composites Science is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
In Vivo Effects of Two In-Office Vital Tooth Bleaching Systems on Enamel Permeability
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(4), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5040098 - 04 Apr 2021
Viewed by 265
Abstract
Tooth bleaching is a common treatment for the amelioration of the aesthetic of discoloured teeth. In this context, there are two common approaches that employ concentrated solutions (30–40 wt.%) of either hydrogen peroxide or carbamide peroxide as bleaching agents. However, there is an [...] Read more.
Tooth bleaching is a common treatment for the amelioration of the aesthetic of discoloured teeth. In this context, there are two common approaches that employ concentrated solutions (30–40 wt.%) of either hydrogen peroxide or carbamide peroxide as bleaching agents. However, there is an ongoing debate on the possible adverse effects of these different treatments on tooth health, such as variation of the enamel structure, surface morphology, and chemistry, which also affect tooth sensitivity. In the present work, a study on the effect of the two bleaching agents, a 35 wt.% solution of hydrogen peroxide and a 30 wt.% solution of carbamide peroxide, on the permeability and surface morphology of enamel is reported. The investigation was carried out on replicas of incisors obtained after different treatment times and for several patients, employing scanning electron microscopy to study the morphological features of the treated teeth. The significance of the analytical study was corroborated by a statistical analysis of the results. The collected data suggest that hydrogen peroxide treatment increases the enamel permeability, and this could be related with tooth sensitivity, whereas the carbamide peroxide solution increases the formation of precipitates on the tooth enamel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2021)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Replacement of Metal Parts by BFRP Composites into a Highly Efficient Electrical Prototype
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(4), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5040095 - 01 Apr 2021
Viewed by 268
Abstract
This work intends to evaluate the use of epoxy composite materials reinforced with basalt fibers as replacement to metallic mechanical parts of a highly efficient electrical prototype. The analysis of the behavior of the original metallic bracket was made and an optimization process [...] Read more.
This work intends to evaluate the use of epoxy composite materials reinforced with basalt fibers as replacement to metallic mechanical parts of a highly efficient electrical prototype. The analysis of the behavior of the original metallic bracket was made and an optimization process was carried out in order to achieve the most suitable geometry and stacking sequence if produced in composite material. Finite element analysis using Siemens NX12 and experimental tests to the produced composite part were performed in order to access it. It was verified that the total weight of the composite part shows a 45% reduction. The composite part shows a higher deformation than the metallic one due to basalt fiber’s higher flexibility. However, the advantages added by the new component largely compensate for the disadvantages that may have been added without compromising its performance. Obtained results show that the use of basalt fiber reinforced composites as the material of mechanical parts of a highly efficient electrical prototype that is a good alternative. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2021)
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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Objective Optimization of Functionally Graded Beams Using a Genetic Algorithm with Non-Dominated Sorting
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(4), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5040092 - 30 Mar 2021
Viewed by 245
Abstract
A mixed layer-wise (LW) higher-order shear deformation theory (HSDT) is developed for the thermal buckling analysis of simply-supported, functionally graded (FG) beams subjected to a uniform temperature change. The material properties of the FG beam are assumed to be dependent on the thickness [...] Read more.
A mixed layer-wise (LW) higher-order shear deformation theory (HSDT) is developed for the thermal buckling analysis of simply-supported, functionally graded (FG) beams subjected to a uniform temperature change. The material properties of the FG beam are assumed to be dependent on the thickness and temperature variables, and the effective material properties are estimated using either the rule of mixtures or the Mori–Tanaka scheme. The results shown in the numerical examples indicate the mixed LW HSDT solutions for critical temperature change parameters are in excellent agreement with the accurate solutions available in the literature. A multi-objective optimization of FG beams is presented to maximize the critical temperature change parameters and to minimize their total mass using a non-dominated sorting-based genetic algorithm. Some specific forms for the volume fractions of the constituents of the FG beam are assumed in advance, such as the one- and three-parameter power-law functions. The former is used in the thermal buckling analysis of the FG beams for comparison purposes, and the latter is used in their optimal design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2021)
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Open AccessArticle
S-N Curve Characterisation for Composite Materials and Prediction of Remaining Fatigue Life Using Damage Function
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(3), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5030076 - 07 Mar 2021
Viewed by 530
Abstract
S-N curve characterisation and prediction of remaining fatigue life are studied using polyethylene terephthalate glycol-modified (PETG). A new simple method for finding a data point at the lowest number of cycles for the Kim and Zhang S-N curve model is proposed to avoid [...] Read more.
S-N curve characterisation and prediction of remaining fatigue life are studied using polyethylene terephthalate glycol-modified (PETG). A new simple method for finding a data point at the lowest number of cycles for the Kim and Zhang S-N curve model is proposed to avoid the arbitrary choice of loading rate for tensile testing. It was demonstrated that the arbitrary choice of loading rate may likely lead to an erroneous characterisation for the prediction of the remaining fatigue life. The previously proposed theoretical method for predicting the remaining fatigue life of composite materials involving the damage function was verified at a stress ratio of 0.4 for the first time. Both high to low and low to high loadings were conducted for predicting the remaining fatigue lives and a good agreement between predictions and experimental results was found. Fatigue damage consisting of cracks and whitening is described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2021)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimizing Precursors and Reagents for the Development of Alkali-Activated Binders in Ambient Curing Conditions
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(2), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5020059 - 20 Feb 2021
Viewed by 347
Abstract
Alkali-activated binders (AABs) are developed through the activation of aluminosilicate-rich materials using alkaline reagents. The characteristics of AABs developed using a novel dry-mixing technique incorporating powder-based reagents/activators are extensively explored. A total of forty-four binder mixes are assessed in terms of their fresh [...] Read more.
Alkali-activated binders (AABs) are developed through the activation of aluminosilicate-rich materials using alkaline reagents. The characteristics of AABs developed using a novel dry-mixing technique incorporating powder-based reagents/activators are extensively explored. A total of forty-four binder mixes are assessed in terms of their fresh and hardened state properties. The influence of mono/binary/ternary combinations of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs)/precursors and different types/combinations/dosages of powder-based reagents on the strength and workability properties of different binder mixes are assessed to determine the optimum composition of precursors and the reagents. The binary (55% fly ash class C and 45% ground granulated blast furnace slag) and ternary (25% fly ash class C, 35% fly ash class F and 40% ground granulated blast furnace slag) binders with reagent-2 (calcium hydroxide and sodium sulfate = 2.5:1) exhibited desired workability and 28-day compressive strengths of 56 and 52 MPa, respectively. Microstructural analyses (in terms of SEM/EDS and XRD) revealed the formation of additional calcium aluminosilicate hydrate with sodium or mixed Ca/Na compounds in binary and ternary binders incorporating reagent-2, resulting in higher compressive strength. This research confirms the potential of producing powder-based cement-free green AABs incorporating binary/ternary combinations of SCMs having the desired fresh and hardened state properties under ambient curing conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2021)
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Open AccessArticle
Mechanical and FEA-Assisted Characterization of Fused Filament Fabricated Triply Periodic Minimal Surface Structures
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5020058 - 17 Feb 2021
Viewed by 557
Abstract
This paper investigates the mechanical behavior of additive manufactured Triply Periodic Minimal Surface (TPMS) structures, such as Gyroid, Schwarz Diamond and Schwarz Primitive. Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) technique was utilized in order to fabricate lattice structures with different relative densities, at 10%, 20% [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the mechanical behavior of additive manufactured Triply Periodic Minimal Surface (TPMS) structures, such as Gyroid, Schwarz Diamond and Schwarz Primitive. Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) technique was utilized in order to fabricate lattice structures with different relative densities, at 10%, 20% and 30%, using Polylactic acid (PLA). The test specimens were formed by structural TPMS unit cells and they were tested under quasi-static compression. A finite element analysis (FEA) was performed in order to predict their stress-strain behavior and compare with the experimental results. The results revealed that each architecture influences the mechanical properties of the structure differently depending on the impact of size effect. The structures were designed as sandwich structures (with a top and bottom plate) to avoid significant deterioration of the mechanical behavior, due to the size effect and this was achieved at high relative densities. The Schwarz Diamond structure demonstrated the highest mechanical strength compared with the other architectures, while the Gyroid structure also revealed a similar mechanical performance. In addition, Schwarz Primitive structure showed increased energy absorption especially during plastic deformation. The overall results revealed that the integrity of the mechanical properties of the studied TPMS FFF printed structures deteriorates, as the relative density of the structures decreases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2021)
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Open AccessArticle
On the Use of Molecular Dynamics Simulations for Elucidating Fine Structural, Physico-Chemical and Thermomechanical Properties of Lignocellulosic Systems: Historical and Future Perspectives
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5020055 - 10 Feb 2021
Viewed by 499
Abstract
The use of Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations for predicting subtle structural, thermomechanical and related characteristics of lignocellulosic systems is studied. A historical perspective and the current state of the art are discussed. The use of parameterised MD force fields, scaling up simulations via [...] Read more.
The use of Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations for predicting subtle structural, thermomechanical and related characteristics of lignocellulosic systems is studied. A historical perspective and the current state of the art are discussed. The use of parameterised MD force fields, scaling up simulations via high performance computing and intrinsic molecular mechanisms influencing the mechanical, thermal and chemical characteristics of lignocellulosic systems and how these can be predicted and modelled using MD is shown. Individual discussions on the MD simulations of the lignin, cellulose, lignin-carbohydrate complex (LCC) and how MD can elucidate the role of water on the surface and microstructural characteristics of these lignocellulosic systems is shown. In addition, the use of MD for unearthing molecular mechanisms behind lignin-enzyme interactions during precipitation processes and the deforming/structure weakening brought about by cellulosic interactions in some lignocellulosic systems is both predicted and quantified. MD results from relatively smaller systems comprised of several hundred to a few thousand atoms and massive multi-million atom systems are both discussed. The versatility and effectiveness of MD based on its ability to provide viable predictions from both smaller and massive starting systems is presented in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2021)
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Open AccessArticle
Enhancement in Interply Toughness of BMI Composites Using Micro-Thin Films
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5020049 - 04 Feb 2021
Viewed by 411
Abstract
Nowadays, laminated composites are widely used in the aerospace sector. All laminates have interply/interlaminar interfaces even if they are made using automated processes. The interfaces act as the areas of weaknesses and the potential crack initiation regions. Hence, any enhancement in the crack [...] Read more.
Nowadays, laminated composites are widely used in the aerospace sector. All laminates have interply/interlaminar interfaces even if they are made using automated processes. The interfaces act as the areas of weaknesses and the potential crack initiation regions. Hence, any enhancement in the crack initiation and propagation resistance is always sought after. Usage of polymeric thin films is one of the promising and viable ways to achieve this. It is also easy to incorporate micro-thin films into any automation process. In the present study, different customized thin films that are compatible with Glass/BMI composites are fabricated. Fracture toughness tests in Mode I (opening mode), Mode II (sliding mode) and Mixed Mode I/II are conducted respectively using Double Cantilever Beam (DCB), End Notch Flexure (ENF) and Mixed Mode Bending (MMB) test specimens. This paper discusses the manufacturing of compatible micro-thin films. The various challenges faced during the manufacturing and incorporation of thin films are presented. The results of the various fracture toughness tests are examined. Mechanisms through which the different films help in resisting the crack initiation and propagation are deliberated and discussed. The incorporation of this technique in Automated Fiber Placement (AFP) is also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2021)
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Open AccessArticle
Hydroxyapatite-Based Magnetic Bionanocomposite as Pharmaceuticals Carriers in Chitosan Scaffolds
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5020037 - 21 Jan 2021
Viewed by 632
Abstract
Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a bioceramic very similar to the mineral component of bones and teeth. It is well established that osteoblasts grow better onto HA-coated metals than on metals alone. Herein, the preparation of a new system consisting of magnetite (Fe3O [...] Read more.
Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a bioceramic very similar to the mineral component of bones and teeth. It is well established that osteoblasts grow better onto HA-coated metals than on metals alone. Herein, the preparation of a new system consisting of magnetite (Fe3O4) and HA functionalized with oleic acid and simvastatin (SIMV), and incorporated in chitosan (CHI) scaffolds, was undertaken. HA was synthesized by the hydrothermal method, while Fe3O4 was synthesized by co-precipitation. The polymer matrix was obtained using a 2% CHI solution, and allowed to stir for 2 h. The final material was freeze-dried to produce scaffolds. The magnetic properties remained unchanged after the formation of the composite, as well as after the preparation of the scaffolds, maintaining the superparamagnetism. CHI scaffolds were analyzed by scanning electronic spectroscopy (SEM) and showed a high porosity, with very evident cavities, which provides the functionality of bone growth support during the remineralization process in possible regions affected by bone tissue losses. The synthesized composite showed an average particle size between 15 and 23 nm for particles (HA and Fe3O4). The scaffolds showed considerable porosity, which is important for the performance of various functions of the tissue structure. Moreover, the addition of simvastatin in the system can promote bone formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2021)
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Open AccessArticle
Designing Sensing Devices Using Porous Composite Materials
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5010035 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 547
Abstract
The need for portable and inexpensive analytical devices for various critical issues has led researchers to seek novel materials to construct them. Soft porous materials, such as paper and sponges, are ideal candidates for fabricating such devices due to their light weight and [...] Read more.
The need for portable and inexpensive analytical devices for various critical issues has led researchers to seek novel materials to construct them. Soft porous materials, such as paper and sponges, are ideal candidates for fabricating such devices due to their light weight and high availability. More importantly, their great compatibility toward modifications and add-ons allows them to be customized to match different objectives. As a result, porous material-based composites have been extensively used to construct sensing devices applied in various fields, such as point-of-care testing, environmental sensing, and human motion detection. In this article, we present fundamental thoughts on how to design a sensing device based on these interesting composite materials and provide correlated examples for reader’s references. First, a rundown of devices made with porous composite materials starting from their fabrication techniques and compatible detection methods is given. Thereafter, illustrations are provided on how device function and property improvements are achieved with a delicate use of composite materials. This includes extending device lifetime by using polymer films to protect the base material, while signal readout can be enhanced by a careful selection of protective cover and the application of advanced photo image analysis techniques. In addition to chemical sensors, mechanical responsive devices based on conductive composite materials are also discussed with a focus on base material selection and platform design. We hope the ideas and discussions presented in this article can help researchers interested in designing sensing devices understand the importance and usefulness of composite materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2021)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigating the Effect of Interface Morphology in Adhesively Bonded Composite Wavy-Lap Joints
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5010032 - 17 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 520
Abstract
Joints and interfaces are one of the key aspects of the design and production of composite structures. This paper investigates the effect of adhesive–adherend interface morphology on the mechanical behavior of wavy-lap joints with the aim to improve the mechanical performance. Intentional deviation [...] Read more.
Joints and interfaces are one of the key aspects of the design and production of composite structures. This paper investigates the effect of adhesive–adherend interface morphology on the mechanical behavior of wavy-lap joints with the aim to improve the mechanical performance. Intentional deviation from a flat joint plane was introduced in different bond angles (0°, 60°, 90° and 120°) and the joints were subjected to a quasi-static tensile load. Comparisons were made regarding the mechanical behavior of the conventional flat joint and the wavy joints. The visible failure modes that occurred within each of the joint configurations was also highlighted and explained. Load vs. displacement graphs were produced and compared, as well as the failure modes discussed both visually and qualitatively. It was observed that distinct interface morphologies result in variation in the load–displacement curve and damage types. The wavy-lap joints experience a considerably higher displacement due to the additional bending in the joint area, and the initial damage starts occurring at a higher displacement. However, the load level had its maximum value for the single-lap joints. Our findings provide insight for the development of different interface morphology angle variation to optimize the joints behavior, which is widely observed in some biological systems to improve their performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2021)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Single-Lap and Block Shear Test Methods in Adhesively Bonded Composite Joints
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5010027 - 15 Jan 2021
Viewed by 416
Abstract
Adhesive bonding is increasingly being used for composite structures, especially in aerospace and automotive industries. One common joint configuration used to test adhesive strength is the single-lap shear joint, which has been widely studied and shown to produce significant normal (peeling) stresses. When [...] Read more.
Adhesive bonding is increasingly being used for composite structures, especially in aerospace and automotive industries. One common joint configuration used to test adhesive strength is the single-lap shear joint, which has been widely studied and shown to produce significant normal (peeling) stresses. When bonding composite structures, the normal stresses are capable of causing delamination before the adhesive bond fails, providing inconclusive engineering data regarding the bonding strength. An alternative test is the block shear joint, which uses a shorter sample geometry and a compressive-shear loading to reduce normal stresses. Analytical models proposed by Goland and Reissner and Hart-Smith are used to compare the edge-bending moment for the two joint configurations. The stress distributions along the bondline are also compared using finite element analysis. Experimental tests are conducted to evaluate these analyses and the failure modes of each configuration are recorded. Block shear samples demonstrate a joint strength over 100% higher than single-lap shear specimen bonded with the same adhesive material. The lower joint strength measured in single-lap shear is found to be potentially misleading due to delamination of the composite adherend. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2021)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
The Effect of Modifications of Activated Carbon Materials on the Capacitive Performance: Surface, Microstructure, and Wettability
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5030066 - 26 Feb 2021
Viewed by 374
Abstract
In this review, the efforts done by different research groups to enhance the performance of the electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), regarding the effect of the modification of activated carbon structures on the electrochemical properties, are summarized. Activated carbon materials with various porous textures, [...] Read more.
In this review, the efforts done by different research groups to enhance the performance of the electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), regarding the effect of the modification of activated carbon structures on the electrochemical properties, are summarized. Activated carbon materials with various porous textures, surface chemistry, and microstructure have been synthesized using several different techniques by different researchers. Micro-, meso-, and macroporous textures can be obtained through the activation/carbonization process using various activating agents. The surface chemistry of activated carbon materials can be modified via: (i) the carbonization of heteroatom-enriched compounds, (ii) post-treatment of carbon materials with reactive heteroatom sources, and (iii) activated carbon combined both with metal oxide materials dan conducting polymers to obtain composites. Intending to improve the EDLCs performance, the introduction of heteroatoms into an activated carbon matrix and composited activated carbon with either metal oxide materials or conducting polymers introduced a pseudo-capacitance effect, which is an additional contribution to the dominant double-layer capacitance. Such tricks offer high capacitance due to the presence of both electrical double layer charge storage mechanism and faradic charge transfer. The surface modification by attaching suitable heteroatoms such as phosphorus species increases the cell operating voltage, thereby improving the cell performance. To establish a detailed understanding of how one can modify the activated carbon structure regarding its porous textures, the surface chemistry, the wettability, and microstructure enable to enhance the performance of the EDLCs is discussed here in detail. This review discusses the basic key parameters which are considered to evaluate the performance of EDLCs such as cell capacitance, operating voltage, equivalent series resistance, power density, and energy density, and how these are affected by the modification of the activated carbon framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2021)
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Open AccessReview
Nanocomposites for Enhanced Osseointegration of Dental and Orthopedic Implants Revisited: Surface Functionalization by Carbon Nanomaterial Coatings
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5010023 - 14 Jan 2021
Viewed by 588
Abstract
Over the past few decades, carbon nanomaterials, including carbon nanofibers, nanocrystalline diamonds, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, carbon nanodots, and graphene and its derivatives, have gained the attention of bioengineers and medical researchers as they possess extraordinary physicochemical, mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties. Recently, surface [...] Read more.
Over the past few decades, carbon nanomaterials, including carbon nanofibers, nanocrystalline diamonds, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, carbon nanodots, and graphene and its derivatives, have gained the attention of bioengineers and medical researchers as they possess extraordinary physicochemical, mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties. Recently, surface functionalization with carbon nanomaterials in dental and orthopedic implants has emerged as a novel strategy for reinforcement and as a bioactive cue due to their potential for osseointegration. Numerous developments in fabrication and biological studies of carbon nanostructures have provided various novel opportunities to expand their application to hard tissue regeneration and restoration. In this minireview, the recent research trends in surface functionalization of orthopedic and dental implants with coating carbon nanomaterials are summarized. In addition, some seminal methodologies for physicomechanical and electrochemical coatings are discussed. In conclusion, it is shown that further development of surface functionalization with carbon nanomaterials may provide innovative results with clinical potential for improved osseointegration after implantation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2021)
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Open AccessReview
Biomimetics and Composite Materials toward Efficient Mobility: A Review
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5010022 - 13 Jan 2021
Viewed by 739
Abstract
The development of new materials has always been strictly related to the rise of new technologies and progressively efficient systems. However, cutting-edge materials might not be enough to ensure the effectiveness of a given product if the design guidelines used do not favor [...] Read more.
The development of new materials has always been strictly related to the rise of new technologies and progressively efficient systems. However, cutting-edge materials might not be enough to ensure the effectiveness of a given product if the design guidelines used do not favor the specific advantages of this material. Polymeric composites are known for their excellent mechanical properties, but current manufacturing techniques and the relatively narrow expertise in the field amongst engineers impose the challenge to provide the most suitable designs to certain applications. Bio-inspired designs, supported by thousands of years of evolution of nature, have shown to be extremely profitable tools for the design of optimized yet structurally complex shapes in which the tailoring aspect of polymeric composites perfectly fit. Bearing in mind the current but old-fashioned designs of auto-parts and vehicles built with metals with little or no topological optimization, the present work addresses how biomimicry is being applied in the mobility industry nowadays to provide lightweight structures and efficient designs. A general overview of biomimicry is made regarding vehicles, approaching how the use of composite materials has already contributed to successful cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2021)
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