Special Issue "Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2019"

A special issue of Journal of Composites Science (ISSN 2504-477X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2019.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Francesco Tornabene

Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: theory of shells, plates, arches, and beams; generalized differential quadrature; FEM; SFEM; WFEM; IGA; SFIGA; WFIGA; advanced composite materials; functionally graded materials; nanomaterials and nanotechnology; variable angle tow composites

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Composites Science, I am pleased to announce this Special Issue, entitled "Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2019". This Special Issue will be a collection of articles from Editorial Board Members and leading researchers discussing new knowledge or new cutting-edge developments in the science of composites. Potential topics include but are not limited to the following items:

  • Fiber reinforced composites;
  • Novel composites;
  • Nanocomposites;
  • Biomedical composites;
  • Energy composites;
  • Modeling, nondestructive evaluation;
  • Processing and manufacturing, properties and performance;
  • Repair, testing, nanotechnology;
  • Physics, chemistry, and mechanics characterization of composites.

All of the accepted papers in this Special Issue will be published free of charge in open access.

Prof. Dr. Francesco Tornabene
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Composites Science is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Nano Organoclay and Wax on the Machining Temperature and Mechanical Properties of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP)
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(3), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3030085
Received: 25 June 2019 / Revised: 8 August 2019 / Accepted: 13 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
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Abstract
Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) are appreciated for their high mechanical properties and lightness. Due to their heterogeneous nature, CFRP machining remains delicate. Damages are caused on the material and early tool wear occurs. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of [...] Read more.
Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) are appreciated for their high mechanical properties and lightness. Due to their heterogeneous nature, CFRP machining remains delicate. Damages are caused on the material and early tool wear occurs. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of fillers on CFRP machinability and mechanical behavior. CFRP laminates were fabricated by the vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) process, using a modified epoxy resin. Three fillers (organoclay, hydrocarbon wax, and wetting agent) were mixed with the resin prior to the laminate infusion. Milling tests were performed with polycrystalline diamond (PCD) tools, equipped with thermocouples on their teeth. Machinability was then studied through the cutting temperatures and forces. Tensile, flexural, and short-beam tests were carried out on all samples to investigate the effects of fillers on mechanical properties. Fillers, especially wax, allowed us to observe an improvement in machinability. The best improvement was observed with 1% wax and 2% organoclay, which allowed a significant decrease in the cutting forces and the temperatures, and no deteriorations were seen on mechanical properties. These results demonstrate that upgrades to CFRP machining through the addition of nanoclays and wax is a path to explore. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2019)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Evaluation of Critical Parameters in Tensile Strength Measurement of Single Fibres
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(3), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3030069
Received: 8 May 2019 / Revised: 25 June 2019 / Accepted: 7 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
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Abstract
Mechanical properties of fibre reinforced composites are primarily dependent on those of fibres. Fibre properties are used for estimating the damage and strength behaviour of composite materials and structures. Tensile strength of fibres is commonly determined by single fibre tensile tests, which is [...] Read more.
Mechanical properties of fibre reinforced composites are primarily dependent on those of fibres. Fibre properties are used for estimating the damage and strength behaviour of composite materials and structures. Tensile strength of fibres is commonly determined by single fibre tensile tests, which is challenging and is prone to measurement errors. In this study, different possible sources of errors due to experimental limitations in the fibre testing process were identified. Their effect on fibre tensile strength was analytically modelled. This model was used to evaluate the uncertainty in experimentally determined fibre strength. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to rank the relative significance of input quantities on the calculated fibre strength. Since composite models require fibre properties determined at very small gauge lengths, the results of the sensitivity analysis were extrapolated to determine critical parameters for tests done at those small gauge lengths of a few millimetres. It was shown that, for sufficiently long fibres, their strength depends mainly on the diameter and failure force; however, for shorter gauge lengths, the effects of misalignment become very significant. The knowledge of uncertainty would be useful in estimating the reliability of the predictions made by composite strength models on the damage and failure behaviour of composite materials and structures. Minimising the influence of critical parameters on fibre strength would help in designing improved single fibre testing systems capable of determining fibre strength more accurately. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2019)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Effect of Different Types of Block Copolymers on Morphology, Mechanical Properties, and Fracture Mechanisms of Bisphenol-F Based Epoxy System
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3030068
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 19 June 2019 / Accepted: 1 July 2019 / Published: 4 July 2019
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Abstract
The effect of adding different types of soft block copolymer on the tensile properties, fracture mechanic properties, and thermo-mechanical properties of bisphenol F based epoxy resin were studied. Two different self-assembling block copolymers, (a) constituting of a center block of poly (butyl acrylate) [...] Read more.
The effect of adding different types of soft block copolymer on the tensile properties, fracture mechanic properties, and thermo-mechanical properties of bisphenol F based epoxy resin were studied. Two different self-assembling block copolymers, (a) constituting of a center block of poly (butyl acrylate) and two side blocks of poly (methyl) methacrylate-co-polar co-monomer (BCP 1) and (b) poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(butylene oxide) (PEO-PBO) diblock copolymer (BCP 2), were used with an epoxy-hardener system. The maximum fracture toughness and fracture energy were measured as KIc = 2.75 MPa·m1/2 and GIc = 2.37 kJ/m2 for the 10 wt % of BCP 1 modified system, which were 366% and 2270% higher in comparison to reference epoxy system, and a 63% reduction in tensile strength was also observed. Similarly, for BCP2 modified systems, the maximum value of KIc = 1.65 MPa·m1/2 and GIc = 1.10 kJ/m2 was obtained for epoxy modified with 12 wt % of BCP2 and a reduction of 32% in tensile strength. The fracture toughness and fracture energy were co-related to the plastic zone size for all the modified systems. Finally, the analysis of the fracture surfaces revealed the toughening micro-mechanisms of the nanocomposites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2019)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Analysis and Evaluation of Fiber Orientation Reconstruction Methods
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3030067
Received: 24 May 2019 / Revised: 14 June 2019 / Accepted: 1 July 2019 / Published: 4 July 2019
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Abstract
The calculation of the fiber orientation of short fiber-reinforced plastics with the Fokker–Planck equation requires a considerable numerical effort, which is practically not feasible for injection molding simulations. Therefore, only the fiber orientation tensors are determined, i.e., by the Folgar–Tucker equation, which requires [...] Read more.
The calculation of the fiber orientation of short fiber-reinforced plastics with the Fokker–Planck equation requires a considerable numerical effort, which is practically not feasible for injection molding simulations. Therefore, only the fiber orientation tensors are determined, i.e., by the Folgar–Tucker equation, which requires much less computational effort. However, spatial fiber orientation must be reconstructed from the fiber orientation tensors in advance for structural simulations. In this contribution, two reconstruction methods were investigated and evaluated using generated test scenarios and experimentally measured fiber orientation. The reconstruction methods include spherical harmonics up to the 8th order and the method of maximum entropy, with which a Bingham distribution is reconstructed. It is shown that the quality of the reconstruction depends massively on the original fiber orientation to be reconstructed. If the original distribution can be regarded as a Bingham distribution in good approximation, the method of maximum entropy is superior to spherical harmonics. If there is no Bingham distribution, spherical harmonics is more suitable due to its greater flexibility, but only if sufficiently high orders of the fiber orientation tensor can be determined exactly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2019)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Role of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes in the Mechanical, Thermal, Rheological, and Electrical Properties of PP/PLA/MWCNTs Nanocomposites
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3030064
Received: 9 June 2019 / Revised: 23 June 2019 / Accepted: 25 June 2019 / Published: 1 July 2019
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (7655 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polypropylene/polylactic acid (PP/PLA) blend (10–40% of PLA) and PP/PLA/MWCNTs nanocomposites (0.5, 1, and 2 wt% of MWCNTs) were prepared via melt compounding. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a co-continuous PLA phase in the PP/PLA blends with high PLA content. Moreover, the addition of 2 [...] Read more.
Polypropylene/polylactic acid (PP/PLA) blend (10–40% of PLA) and PP/PLA/MWCNTs nanocomposites (0.5, 1, and 2 wt% of MWCNTs) were prepared via melt compounding. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a co-continuous PLA phase in the PP/PLA blends with high PLA content. Moreover, the addition of 2 wt% multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) increased the tensile modulus and tensile strength of the PP/PLA40% by 60% and 95%, respectively. A conductive network was found with the addition of 2 wt% MWCNTs, where the electrical conductivity of the PP/PLA increased by nine orders of magnitude. At 2 wt% MWCNTs, a solid network within the composite was characterized by rheological assessment, where the composite turned from nonterminal to terminal behavior. Soil burial testing of the PP/PLA blend within 30 days in natural humus compost soil featured suitable biodegradation, which indicates the PP/PLA blend is as an appropriate candidate for food packing applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2019)
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Other

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Open AccessDiscussion
Research and Development in Carbon Fibers and Advanced High-Performance Composites Supply Chain in Europe: A Roadmap for Challenges and the Industrial Uptake
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(3), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3030086 (registering DOI)
Received: 30 June 2019 / Revised: 5 August 2019 / Accepted: 19 August 2019 / Published: 22 August 2019
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Abstract
Structural materials, typically based on metal, have been gradually substituted by high-performance composites based on carbon fibers, embedded in a polymer matrix, due to their potential to provide lighter, stronger, and more durable solutions. In the last decades, the composites industry has witnessed [...] Read more.
Structural materials, typically based on metal, have been gradually substituted by high-performance composites based on carbon fibers, embedded in a polymer matrix, due to their potential to provide lighter, stronger, and more durable solutions. In the last decades, the composites industry has witnessed a sustained growth, especially due to diffusion of these materials in key markets, such as the construction, wind energy, aeronautics, and automobile sectors. Carbon fibers are, by far, the most widely used fiber in high-performance applications. This important technology has huge potential for the future and it is expected to have a significant impact in the manufacturing industry within Europe and, therefore, coordination and strategic roadmapping actions are required. To lead a further drive to develop the potential of composites into new sectors, it is important to establish strategic roadmapping actions, including the development of business and cost models, supply chains implementation, and development, suitability for high volume markets and addressing technology management. Europe already has a vibrant and competitive composites industry that is supported by several research centers, but for its positioning in a forefront position in this technology, further challenges are still required to be addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2019)
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