Special Issue "Advanced Mechanical Modeling of Nanomaterials and Nanostructures"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Synthesis, Interfaces and Nanostructures".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (23 April 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Francesco Tornabene
grade E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Salento, 73100 Lecce, Italy
Interests: theory of shells, plates, arches and beams; generalised differential quadrature; FEM; SFEM; WFEM; IGA; SFIGA; WFIGA; advanced composite materials; functionally graded materials; nanomaterials and nanotechnology; variable angle tow composites
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Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

The continuous development of novel composite materials with increased mechanical performances and low density has encouraged the adoption of different components, such as functionally graded materials (FGMs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene nanoplatelets, or SMART constituents for many practical engineering applications, e.g., biomedicine, aerospace facilities, automotive industry, energy devices, and civil applications.

In a context where the recent requirements in design and manufacturing have led to an increased development of nanoshells, carbon nanotubes, and paramagnetic nanoparticles, this Special Issue aims at gathering together experts and young researchers for the mechanical modeling of materials and structures in the small-scale range. The physical and mechanical properties of small-scale structures are well known to be size-dependent. This represents a key aspect, largely explored both theoretically and computationally by means of advanced nonlocal approaches. These are here explored to handle both the continuum solid mechanics and fracture mechanics, for which the nonlocal aspect is a requisite for a realistic description of fracture, including the crack inception or propagation and the structural size effect related to the existence of a finite size fracture process zone. Advanced theories and high-performance computational modeling on the statics or dynamics of nano-systems and nano-structures are welcome, together with the development of enhanced nonlocal damage and fracturing models, able to capture the formation and propagation of the internal cracks related to the heterogeneity of complex materials and interfaces.

Prof. Dr. Rossana Dimitri
Prof. Francesco Tornabene
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Adhesion
  • Advanced computational methods
  • Complex materials
  • Composite nanobeams, nanoplates and nanoshells
  • Delamination
  • High-performance computational methods
  • Nano engineering
  • Nonlocal theories
  • Fracture mechanics
  • Size-effects

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Article
Nonlocal Analysis of the Flexural–Torsional Stability for FG Tapered Thin-Walled Beam-Columns
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(8), 1936; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11081936 - 27 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 636
Abstract
This paper addresses the flexural–torsional stability of functionally graded (FG) nonlocal thin-walled beam-columns with a tapered I-section. The material composition is assumed to vary continuously in the longitudinal direction based on a power-law distribution. Possible small-scale effects are included within the formulation according [...] Read more.
This paper addresses the flexural–torsional stability of functionally graded (FG) nonlocal thin-walled beam-columns with a tapered I-section. The material composition is assumed to vary continuously in the longitudinal direction based on a power-law distribution. Possible small-scale effects are included within the formulation according to the Eringen nonlocal elasticity assumptions. The stability equations of the problem and the associated boundary conditions are derived based on the Vlasov thin-walled beam theory and energy method, accounting for the coupled interaction between axial and bending forces. The coupled equilibrium equations are solved numerically by means of the differential quadrature method (DQM) to determine the flexural–torsional buckling loads associated to the selected structural system. A parametric study is performed to check for the influence of some meaningful input parameters, such as the power-law index, the nonlocal parameter, the axial load eccentricity, the mode number and the tapering ratio, on the flexural–torsional buckling load of tapered thin-walled FG nanobeam-columns, whose results could be used as valid benchmarks for further computational validations of similar nanosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Mechanical Modeling of Nanomaterials and Nanostructures)
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Article
Computational Study on Surface Bonding Based on Nanocone Arrays
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(6), 1369; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11061369 - 21 May 2021
Viewed by 683
Abstract
Surface bonding is an essential step in device manufacturing and assembly, providing mechanical support, heat transfer, and electrical integration. Molecular dynamics simulations of surface bonding and debonding failure of copper nanocones are conducted to investigate the underlying adhesive mechanism of nanocones and the [...] Read more.
Surface bonding is an essential step in device manufacturing and assembly, providing mechanical support, heat transfer, and electrical integration. Molecular dynamics simulations of surface bonding and debonding failure of copper nanocones are conducted to investigate the underlying adhesive mechanism of nanocones and the effects of separation distance, contact length, temperature, and size of the cones. It is found that van der Waals interactions and surface atom diffusion simultaneously contribute to bonding strength, and different adhesive mechanisms play a main role in different regimes. The results reveal that increasing contact length and decreasing separation distance can simultaneously contribute to increasing bonding strength. Furthermore, our simulations indicate that a higher temperature promotes diffusion across the interface so that subsequent cooling results in better adhesion when compared with cold bonding at the same lower temperature. It also reveals that maximum bonding strength was obtained when the cone angle was around 53°. These findings are useful in designing advanced metallic bonding processes at low temperatures and pressure with tenable performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Mechanical Modeling of Nanomaterials and Nanostructures)
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Article
Molecular Dynamics Simulation for the Effect of Fluorinated Graphene Oxide Layer Spacing on the Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Fluorinated Epoxy Resin
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(5), 1344; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11051344 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 831
Abstract
Traditional epoxy resin (EP) materials have difficulty to meet the performance requirements in the increasingly complex operating environment of the electrical and electronic industry. Therefore, it is necessary to study the design and development of new epoxy composites. At present, fluorinated epoxy resin [...] Read more.
Traditional epoxy resin (EP) materials have difficulty to meet the performance requirements in the increasingly complex operating environment of the electrical and electronic industry. Therefore, it is necessary to study the design and development of new epoxy composites. At present, fluorinated epoxy resin (F-EP) is widely used, but its thermal and mechanical properties cannot meet the demand. In this paper, fluorinated epoxy resin was modified by ordered filling of fluorinated graphene oxide (FGO). The effect of FGO interlayer spacing on the thermal and mechanical properties of the composite was studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. It is found that FGO with ordered filling can significantly improve the thermal and mechanical properties of F-EP, and the modification effect is better than that of FGO with disordered filling. When the interlayer spacing of FGO is about 9 Å, the elastic modulus, glass transition temperature, thermal expansion coefficient, and thermal conductivity of FGO are improved with best effect. Furthermore, we calculated the micro parameters of different systems, and analyzed the influencing mechanism of ordered filling and FGO layer spacing on the properties of F-EP. It is considered that FGO can bind the F-EP molecules on both sides of the nanosheets, reducing the movement ability of the molecular segments of the materials, so as to achieve the enhancement effect. The results can provide new ideas for the development of high-performance epoxy nanocomposites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Mechanical Modeling of Nanomaterials and Nanostructures)
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Article
Fabrication of Pressure Sensor Using Electrospinning Method for Robotic Tactile Sensing Application
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(5), 1320; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11051320 - 17 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 899
Abstract
Tactile sensors are widely used by the robotics industries over decades to measure force or pressure produced by external stimuli. Piezoelectric-based pressure sensors have intensively been investigated as promising candidates for tactile sensing applications. In contrast, piezoelectric-based pressure sensors are expensive due to [...] Read more.
Tactile sensors are widely used by the robotics industries over decades to measure force or pressure produced by external stimuli. Piezoelectric-based pressure sensors have intensively been investigated as promising candidates for tactile sensing applications. In contrast, piezoelectric-based pressure sensors are expensive due to their high cost of manufacturing and expensive base materials. Recently, an effect similar to the piezoelectric effect has been identified in non-piezoelectric polymers such as poly(d,l-lactic acid (PDLLA), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and polystyrene. Hence investigations were conducted on alternative materials to find their suitability. In this article, we used inexpensive atactic polystyrene (aPS) as the base polymer and fabricated functional fibers using an electrospinning method. Fiber morphologies were studied using a field-emission scanning electron microscope and proposed a unique pressure sensor fabrication method. A fabricated pressure sensor was subjected to different pressures and corresponding electrical and mechanical characteristics were analyzed. An open circuit voltage of 3.1 V was generated at 19.9 kPa applied pressure, followed by an integral output charge (ΔQ), which was measured to calculate the average apparent piezoelectric constant dapp and was found to be 12.9 ± 1.8 pC N−1. A fabricated pressure sensor was attached to a commercially available robotic arm to mimic the tactile sensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Mechanical Modeling of Nanomaterials and Nanostructures)
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Article
Development of an Innovative and Green Method to Obtain Nanoparticles in Aqueous Solution from Carbon-Based Waste Ashes
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(3), 577; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11030577 - 25 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 598
Abstract
In this study, an original and green procedure to produce water-based solutions containing nanometric recycled carbon particles is proposed. The nanometric particles are obtained starting from carbon waste ashes, produced by the wooden biomass pyro-gasification plant CMD (Costruzioni motori diesel) ECO20. The latter [...] Read more.
In this study, an original and green procedure to produce water-based solutions containing nanometric recycled carbon particles is proposed. The nanometric particles are obtained starting from carbon waste ashes, produced by the wooden biomass pyro-gasification plant CMD (Costruzioni motori diesel) ECO20. The latter is an integrated system combining a downdraft gasifier, a spark-ignition internal combustion engine, an electric generator and syngas cleaning devices, and it can produce electric and thermal power up to 20 kWe and 40 kWth. The carbon-based ashes (CA) produced by the CMD ECO20 plant were, first, characterized by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and microcomputed tomography (microCT). Afterward, they were reduced in powder by using a milling mortar and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The optimization of an original procedure to reduce the dimensions of the ashes in an aqueous solution was then developed by using ball milling and sonication techniques, and the nanometric dimensions of the particles dispersed in water were estimated by dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements in the order of 300 nm. Finally, possible industrial applications for the nanomaterials obtained from the waste ashes are suggested, including, for example, inks for Aerosol Jet® Printing (AJ® P). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Mechanical Modeling of Nanomaterials and Nanostructures)
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Article
Atomistic Modelling of Size-Dependent Mechanical Properties and Fracture of Pristine and Defective Cove-Edged Graphene Nanoribbons
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(7), 1422; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10071422 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 914
Abstract
Cove-edged graphene nanoribbons (CGNR) are a class of nanoribbons with asymmetric edges composed of alternating hexagons and have remarkable electronic properties. Although CGNRs have attractive size-dependent electronic properties their mechanical properties have not been well understood. In practical applications, the mechanical properties such [...] Read more.
Cove-edged graphene nanoribbons (CGNR) are a class of nanoribbons with asymmetric edges composed of alternating hexagons and have remarkable electronic properties. Although CGNRs have attractive size-dependent electronic properties their mechanical properties have not been well understood. In practical applications, the mechanical properties such as tensile strength, ductility and fracture toughness play an important role, especially during device fabrication and operation. This work aims to fill a gap in the understanding of the mechanical behaviour of CGNRs by studying the edge and size effects on the mechanical response by using molecular dynamic simulations. Pristine graphene structures are rarely found in applications. Therefore, this study also examines the effects of topological defects on the mechanical behaviour of CGNR. Ductility and fracture patterns of CGNR with divacancy and topological defects are studied. The results reveal that the CGNR become stronger and slightly more ductile as the width increases in contrast to normal zigzag GNR. Furthermore, the mechanical response of defective CGNRs show complex dependency on the defect configuration and distribution, while the direction of the fracture propagation has a complex dependency on the defect configuration and position. The results also confirm the possibility of topological design of graphene to tailor properties through the manipulation of defect types, orientation, and density and defect networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Mechanical Modeling of Nanomaterials and Nanostructures)
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Article
Multi-Scale Analysis and Testing of Tensile Behavior in Polymers with Randomly Oriented and Agglomerated Cellulose Nanofibers
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(4), 700; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10040700 - 07 Apr 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1327
Abstract
Cellulose nanofiber (CNF) has been accepted as a valid nanofiller that can improve the mechanical properties of composite materials by mechanical and chemical methods. The purpose of this work is to numerically and experimentally evaluate the mechanical behavior of CNF-reinforced polymer composites under [...] Read more.
Cellulose nanofiber (CNF) has been accepted as a valid nanofiller that can improve the mechanical properties of composite materials by mechanical and chemical methods. The purpose of this work is to numerically and experimentally evaluate the mechanical behavior of CNF-reinforced polymer composites under tensile loading. Finite element analysis (FEA) was conducted using a model for the representative volume element of CNF/epoxy composites to determine the effective Young’s modulus and the stress state within the composites. The possible random orientation of the CNFs was considered in the finite element model. Tensile tests were also conducted on the CNF/epoxy composites to identify the effect of CNFs on their tensile behavior. The numerical findings were then correlated with the test results. The present randomly oriented CNF/epoxy composite model provides a means for exploring the property interactions across different length scales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Mechanical Modeling of Nanomaterials and Nanostructures)
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Article
Buckling Behavior of FG-CNT Reinforced Composite Conical Shells Subjected to a Combined Loading
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030419 - 28 Feb 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 1059
Abstract
The buckling behavior of functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced composite conical shells (FG-CNTRC-CSs) is here investigated by means of the first order shear deformation theory (FSDT), under a combined axial/lateral or axial/hydrostatic loading condition. Two types of CNTRC-CSs are considered herein, namely, a [...] Read more.
The buckling behavior of functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced composite conical shells (FG-CNTRC-CSs) is here investigated by means of the first order shear deformation theory (FSDT), under a combined axial/lateral or axial/hydrostatic loading condition. Two types of CNTRC-CSs are considered herein, namely, a uniform distribution or a functionally graded (FG) distribution of reinforcement, with a linear variation of the mechanical properties throughout the thickness. The basic equations of the problem are here derived and solved in a closed form, using the Galerkin procedure, to determine the critical combined loading for the selected structure. First, we check for the reliability of the proposed formulation and the accuracy of results with respect to the available literature. It follows a systematic investigation aimed at checking the sensitivity of the structural response to the geometry, the proportional loading parameter, the type of distribution, and volume fraction of CNTs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Mechanical Modeling of Nanomaterials and Nanostructures)
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Article
Buckling Behavior of Nanobeams Placed in Electromagnetic Field Using Shifted Chebyshev Polynomials-Based Rayleigh-Ritz Method
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(9), 1326; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9091326 - 16 Sep 2019
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 1521
Abstract
In the present investigation, the buckling behavior of Euler–Bernoulli nanobeam, which is placed in an electro-magnetic field, is investigated in the framework of Eringen’s nonlocal theory. Critical buckling load for all the classical boundary conditions such as “Pined–Pined (P-P), Clamped–Pined (C-P), Clamped–Clamped (C-C), [...] Read more.
In the present investigation, the buckling behavior of Euler–Bernoulli nanobeam, which is placed in an electro-magnetic field, is investigated in the framework of Eringen’s nonlocal theory. Critical buckling load for all the classical boundary conditions such as “Pined–Pined (P-P), Clamped–Pined (C-P), Clamped–Clamped (C-C), and Clamped-Free (C-F)” are obtained using shifted Chebyshev polynomials-based Rayleigh-Ritz method. The main advantage of the shifted Chebyshev polynomials is that it does not make the system ill-conditioning with the higher number of terms in the approximation due to the orthogonality of the functions. Validation and convergence studies of the model have been carried out for different cases. Also, a closed-form solution has been obtained for the “Pined–Pined (P-P)” boundary condition using Navier’s technique, and the numerical results obtained for the “Pined–Pined (P-P)” boundary condition are validated with a closed-form solution. Further, the effects of various scaling parameters on the critical buckling load have been explored, and new results are presented as Figures and Tables. Finally, buckling mode shapes are also plotted to show the sensitiveness of the critical buckling load. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Mechanical Modeling of Nanomaterials and Nanostructures)
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Article
Modeling Analysis of Silk Fibroin/Poly(ε-caprolactone) Nanofibrous Membrane under Uniaxial Tension
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(8), 1149; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9081149 - 10 Aug 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1532
Abstract
Evaluating the mechanical ability of nanofibrous membranes during processing and end uses in tissue engineering is important. We propose a geometric model to predict the uniaxial behavior of randomly oriented nanofibrous membrane based on the structural characteristics and tensile properties of single nanofibers. [...] Read more.
Evaluating the mechanical ability of nanofibrous membranes during processing and end uses in tissue engineering is important. We propose a geometric model to predict the uniaxial behavior of randomly oriented nanofibrous membrane based on the structural characteristics and tensile properties of single nanofibers. Five types of silk fibroin (SF)/poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers were prepared with different mixture ratios via an electrospinning process. Stress–strain responses of single nanofibers and nanofibrous membranes were tested. We confirmed that PCL improves the flexibility and ductility of SF/PCL composite membranes. The applicability of the analytical model was verified by comparison between modeling prediction and experimental data. Experimental stress was a little lower than the modeling results because the membranes were not ideally uniform, the nanofibers were not ideally straight, and some nanofibers in the membranes were not effectively loaded. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Mechanical Modeling of Nanomaterials and Nanostructures)
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Article
Detwinning Mechanism for Nanotwinned Cubic Boron Nitride with Unprecedented Strength: A First-Principles Study
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(8), 1117; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9081117 - 03 Aug 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1977
Abstract
Synthesized nanotwinned cubic boron nitride (nt-cBN) and nanotwinned diamond (nt-diamond) exhibit extremely high hardness and excellent stability, in which nanotwinned structure plays a crucial role. Here we reveal by first-principles calculations a strengthening mechanism of detwinning, which is induced by partial slip on [...] Read more.
Synthesized nanotwinned cubic boron nitride (nt-cBN) and nanotwinned diamond (nt-diamond) exhibit extremely high hardness and excellent stability, in which nanotwinned structure plays a crucial role. Here we reveal by first-principles calculations a strengthening mechanism of detwinning, which is induced by partial slip on a glide-set plane. We found that continuous partial slip in the nanotwinned structure under large shear strain can effectively delay the structural graphitization and promote the phase transition from twin structure to cubic structure, which helps to increase the maximum strain range and peak stress. Moreover, ab initio molecular dynamics simulation reveals a stabilization mechanism for nanotwin. These results can help us to understand the unprecedented strength and stability arising from the twin boundaries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Mechanical Modeling of Nanomaterials and Nanostructures)
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