Special Issue "Cancer Nanomedicine"

A special issue of Cancers (ISSN 2072-6694).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Clare Hoskins

Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Nanomedicine; cancer nanotechnology; targeted drug delivery, pancreatic cancer; theranostics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cancer treatments are often hindered by the lack of drug specificity, poor physicochemical properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients, poor penetration ability and drug resistance. With the discovery and characterization of an increasing number of cancer types with little improvement of the ability to diagnose, treatment options or patient prognosis, more advanced technologies are urgently required.

Nanotechnology defines particulates within the 1x10-9 m range. Particulates within the nano-sized domain often exhibit unique properties compared to their larger size scale. These can be exploited in biomedicine for applications such as imaging, cell sorting, drug delivery and targeting.

Cancer nanomedicine is rapidly becoming one of the leading areas of promise for cancer therapy, with first-generation treatments already available to patients. This Special Issue invites articles and reviews which encompass the many areas under the nanomedicine umbrella, including diagnostics, drug delivery and advanced therapies.

Dr. Clare Hoskins
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cancers is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nanomedicine
  • targeted therapy
  • image guidance
  • tumour penetration
  • stimuli-responsive
  • theranostics
  • drug delivery
  • nanoparticle
  • nanoencapsulation
  • diagnosis.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Plant Virus-Like Particle In Situ Vaccine for Intracranial Glioma Immunotherapy
Cancers 2019, 11(4), 515; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040515
Received: 12 March 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 8 April 2019 / Published: 10 April 2019
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Abstract
Despite aggressive multi-modality treatment with surgery, radiation and chemotherapies, malignant glioma inevitably recurs and has dismal survival rates. Recent progress in immunotherapy has led to a resurgence of interest, and immunotherapies are being investigated for treatment of glioma. However, the unique brain anatomy [...] Read more.
Despite aggressive multi-modality treatment with surgery, radiation and chemotherapies, malignant glioma inevitably recurs and has dismal survival rates. Recent progress in immunotherapy has led to a resurgence of interest, and immunotherapies are being investigated for treatment of glioma. However, the unique brain anatomy and a highly immunosuppressive glioma microenvironment pose significant challenges to achieving efficacy. Thus, there is a critical need for assessment of next-generation immunotherapies for glioma. In this study, we have investigated the efficacy of the nanoparticle platform technology based on plant-derived Cowpea mosaic virus like particles (empty CPMV or eCPMV) to instigate a potent immune response against intracranial glioma. CPMV immunotherapy has been shown to efficiently reverse the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironments in pre-clinical murine models of dermal melanoma and metastatic melanoma, metastatic breast cancer, intraperitoneal ovarian cancer and in canine patients with oral melanoma. In the present study, we demonstrate that in situ administration of CPMV immunotherapy in the setting of glioma can effectively recruit unique subset of effector innate and adaptive immune cells to the brain parenchyma while reducing immune suppressive cellular population, leading to regression of intracranial glioma. The in situ CPMV nanoparticle vaccine offers a potent yet safe and localized immunotherapy for intracranial glioma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Nanomedicine)
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Open AccessArticle Improving Payload Capacity and Anti-Tumor Efficacy of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Using TAT Peptide Functionalized Polymeric Nanoparticles
Cancers 2019, 11(4), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040491
Received: 5 March 2019 / Revised: 27 March 2019 / Accepted: 2 April 2019 / Published: 6 April 2019
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Abstract
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) accumulate specifically in both primary tumors and metastases following systemic administration. However, the poor payload capacity of MSCs limits their use in small molecule drug delivery. To improve drug payload in MSCs, we explored polymeric nanoparticles that were functionalized [...] Read more.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) accumulate specifically in both primary tumors and metastases following systemic administration. However, the poor payload capacity of MSCs limits their use in small molecule drug delivery. To improve drug payload in MSCs, we explored polymeric nanoparticles that were functionalized with transactivator of transcription (TAT) peptide. Paclitaxel loaded poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (15–16% w/w paclitaxel; diameter of 225 ± 7 nm; and zeta potential of −15 ± 4 mV) were fabricated by emulsion-solvent evaporation method, followed by TAT-conjugation to the surface of nanoparticles via maleimide-thiol chemistry. Our studies demonstrated that TAT functionalization improved the intracellular accumulation and retention of nanoparticles in MSCs. Further, nano-engineering of MSCs did not alter the migration and differentiation potential of MSCs. Treatment with nano-engineered MSCs resulted in significant (p < 0.05) inhibition of tumor growth and improved survival (p < 0.0001) in a mouse orthotopic model of lung cancer compared to that with free or nanoparticle encapsulated drug. In summary, our results demonstrated that MSCs engineered using TAT functionalized nanoparticles serve as an efficient carrier for tumor specific delivery of anticancer drugs, resulting in greatly improved therapeutic efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Nanomedicine)
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Open AccessArticle Targeted siRNA Nanoparticles for Mammary Carcinoma Therapy
Cancers 2019, 11(4), 442; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040442
Received: 17 February 2019 / Revised: 22 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 29 March 2019
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Abstract
Non-viral, polymeric-based, siRNA nanoparticles (NPs) have been proposed as promising gene delivery systems. Encapsulating siRNA in targeted NPs could confer improved biological stability, extended half-life, enhanced permeability, effective tumor accumulation, and therapy. In this work, a peptide derived from apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB-P), the [...] Read more.
Non-viral, polymeric-based, siRNA nanoparticles (NPs) have been proposed as promising gene delivery systems. Encapsulating siRNA in targeted NPs could confer improved biological stability, extended half-life, enhanced permeability, effective tumor accumulation, and therapy. In this work, a peptide derived from apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB-P), the protein moiety of low-density lipoprotein, was used to target siRNA-loaded PEGylated NPs to the extracellular matrix/proteoglycans (ECM/PGs) of a mammary carcinoma tumor. siRNA against osteopontin (siOPN), a protein involved in breast cancer development and progression, was encapsulated into PEGylated poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs using the double emulsion solvent diffusion technique. The NPs obtained possessed desired physicochemical properties including ~200 nm size, a neutral surface charge, and high siOPN loading of ~5 µg/mg. ApoB-P-targeted NPs exhibited both enhanced binding to isolated ECM and internalization by MDA-MB-231 human mammary carcinoma cells, in comparison to non-targeted NPs. Increased accumulation of the targeted NPs was achieved in the primary mammary tumor of mice xenografted with MDA-MB-231 mammary carcinoma cells as well as in the lungs, one of the main sites affected by metastases. siOPN NPs treatment resulted in significant inhibition of tumor growth (similar bioactivity of both formulations), accompanied with significant reduction of OPN mRNA levels (~40% knockdown of mRNA levels). We demonstrated that targeted NPs possessed enhanced tumor accumulation with increased therapeutic potential in mice models of mammary carcinoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Nanomedicine)
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Open AccessArticle Graphene Oxide-Based Targeting of Extracellular Cathepsin D and Cathepsin L As A Novel Anti-Metastatic Enzyme Cancer Therapy
Cancers 2019, 11(3), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11030319
Received: 9 February 2019 / Revised: 26 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 6 March 2019
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Abstract
Overexpression and secretion of the enzymes cathepsin D (CathD) and cathepsin L (CathL) is associated with metastasis in several human cancers. As a superfamily, extracellularly, these proteins may act within the tumor microenvironment to drive cancer progression, proliferation, invasion and metastasis. Therefore, it [...] Read more.
Overexpression and secretion of the enzymes cathepsin D (CathD) and cathepsin L (CathL) is associated with metastasis in several human cancers. As a superfamily, extracellularly, these proteins may act within the tumor microenvironment to drive cancer progression, proliferation, invasion and metastasis. Therefore, it is important to discover novel therapeutic treatment strategies to target CathD and CathL and potentially impede metastasis. Graphene oxide (GO) could form the basis of such a strategy by acting as an adsorbent for pro-metastatic enzymes. Here, we have conducted research into the potential of targeted anti-metastatic therapy using GO to adsorb these pro-tumorigenic enzymes. Binding of CathD/L to GO revealed that CathD/L were adsorbed onto the surface of GO through its cationic and hydrophilic residues. This work could provide a roadmap for the rational integration of CathD/L-targeting agents into clinical settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Nanomedicine)
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Open AccessArticle PDL-1 Antibody Drug Conjugate for Selective Chemo-Guided Immune Modulation of Cancer
Cancers 2019, 11(2), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020232
Received: 23 January 2019 / Revised: 8 February 2019 / Accepted: 14 February 2019 / Published: 16 February 2019
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Abstract
Targeting immune checkpoint molecules such as programmed death ligand-1 (PDL1) is an emerging strategy for anti-cancer therapy. However, transient expression of PDL1 and difficulty in tumor stroma penetration has limited the utility of anti-PDL1 therapy. To overcome these limitations, we report a new [...] Read more.
Targeting immune checkpoint molecules such as programmed death ligand-1 (PDL1) is an emerging strategy for anti-cancer therapy. However, transient expression of PDL1 and difficulty in tumor stroma penetration has limited the utility of anti-PDL1 therapy. To overcome these limitations, we report a new conjugate between the clinically approved PDL1 antibody (PDL1 AB) and drug Doxorubicin (Dox), named PDL1-Dox. We conjugated PDL1-Dox through a hydrazone linker containing a polyethylene glycol (PEG) spacer, which allows it to dissociate in a tumor environment and improves solubility. The purpose of using Dox is to disrupt the tumor extracellular environment so that PDL-1 antibody can penetrate the tumor core. PDL1-Dox demonstrates significant cell killing, disruption of tumor spheroid and induction of apoptosis in a breast cancer cell line. Significant release of IFN-γ suggests PDL1-Dox can upmodulate T cell activation. Optical imaging of dye conjugate supports the selective tumor targeting ability and core penetration of the construct. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Nanomedicine)
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Graphical abstract

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