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Cancers 2019, 11(3), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11030319

Graphene Oxide-Based Targeting of Extracellular Cathepsin D and Cathepsin L As A Novel Anti-Metastatic Enzyme Cancer Therapy

1
College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QF, UK
2
Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Science, University of Exeter Medical School, St Luke’s Campus, Exeter EX1 2LU, UK
3
William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London EC1M 6BQ, UK
4
School of Computing, Electronics and Mathematics, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 February 2019 / Revised: 26 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 6 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Nanomedicine)
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Abstract

Overexpression and secretion of the enzymes cathepsin D (CathD) and cathepsin L (CathL) is associated with metastasis in several human cancers. As a superfamily, extracellularly, these proteins may act within the tumor microenvironment to drive cancer progression, proliferation, invasion and metastasis. Therefore, it is important to discover novel therapeutic treatment strategies to target CathD and CathL and potentially impede metastasis. Graphene oxide (GO) could form the basis of such a strategy by acting as an adsorbent for pro-metastatic enzymes. Here, we have conducted research into the potential of targeted anti-metastatic therapy using GO to adsorb these pro-tumorigenic enzymes. Binding of CathD/L to GO revealed that CathD/L were adsorbed onto the surface of GO through its cationic and hydrophilic residues. This work could provide a roadmap for the rational integration of CathD/L-targeting agents into clinical settings. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphene oxide; adsorption; cathepsin D; cathepsin L; anti-metastatic enzyme cancer therapy graphene oxide; adsorption; cathepsin D; cathepsin L; anti-metastatic enzyme cancer therapy
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Tabish, T.A.; Pranjol, M.Z.I.; Horsell, D.W.; Rahat, A.A.M.; Whatmore, J.L.; Winyard, P.G.; Zhang, S. Graphene Oxide-Based Targeting of Extracellular Cathepsin D and Cathepsin L As A Novel Anti-Metastatic Enzyme Cancer Therapy. Cancers 2019, 11, 319.

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