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Review

Thirty Years of Cancer Nanomedicine: Success, Frustration, and Hope

1
Department of Biotecnology and Bioscience, University of Milano-Bicocca, piazza della Scienza 2, 20126 Milano, Italy
2
Unit of Respiratory Diseases, IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Foundation, 27100 Pavia, Italy
3
Nanomedicine Laboratory, ICS Maugeri, via S. Maugeri 10, 27100 Pavia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this paper.
Cancers 2019, 11(12), 1855; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11121855
Received: 31 October 2019 / Revised: 21 November 2019 / Accepted: 22 November 2019 / Published: 25 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Nanomedicine)
Starting with the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect discovery, nanomedicine has gained a crucial role in cancer treatment. The advances in the field have led to the approval of nanodrugs with improved safety profile and still inspire the ongoing investigations. However, several restrictions, such as high manufacturing costs, technical challenges, and effectiveness below expectations, raised skeptical opinions within the scientific community about the clinical relevance of nanomedicine. In this review, we aim to give an overall vision of the current hurdles encountered by nanotherapeutics along with their design, development, and translation, and we offer a prospective view on possible strategies to overcome such limitations. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer nanomedicine; EPR effect; tumor microenvironment; nanoparticles; nano–bio interactions; clinical translation cancer nanomedicine; EPR effect; tumor microenvironment; nanoparticles; nano–bio interactions; clinical translation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Salvioni, L.; Rizzuto, M.A.; Bertolini, J.A.; Pandolfi, L.; Colombo, M.; Prosperi, D. Thirty Years of Cancer Nanomedicine: Success, Frustration, and Hope. Cancers 2019, 11, 1855. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11121855

AMA Style

Salvioni L, Rizzuto MA, Bertolini JA, Pandolfi L, Colombo M, Prosperi D. Thirty Years of Cancer Nanomedicine: Success, Frustration, and Hope. Cancers. 2019; 11(12):1855. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11121855

Chicago/Turabian Style

Salvioni, Lucia, Maria A. Rizzuto, Jessica A. Bertolini, Laura Pandolfi, Miriam Colombo, and Davide Prosperi. 2019. "Thirty Years of Cancer Nanomedicine: Success, Frustration, and Hope" Cancers 11, no. 12: 1855. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11121855

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