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Cancers 2019, 11(4), 515; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040515

Plant Virus-Like Particle In Situ Vaccine for Intracranial Glioma Immunotherapy

1
Department of Neurological Surgery, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
2
Department of NanoEngineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
3
University Hospitals-Cleveland Medical Center & the Seidman Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
4
Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
5
Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
6
Department of Bioengineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
7
Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 12 March 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 8 April 2019 / Published: 10 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Nanomedicine)
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Abstract

Despite aggressive multi-modality treatment with surgery, radiation and chemotherapies, malignant glioma inevitably recurs and has dismal survival rates. Recent progress in immunotherapy has led to a resurgence of interest, and immunotherapies are being investigated for treatment of glioma. However, the unique brain anatomy and a highly immunosuppressive glioma microenvironment pose significant challenges to achieving efficacy. Thus, there is a critical need for assessment of next-generation immunotherapies for glioma. In this study, we have investigated the efficacy of the nanoparticle platform technology based on plant-derived Cowpea mosaic virus like particles (empty CPMV or eCPMV) to instigate a potent immune response against intracranial glioma. CPMV immunotherapy has been shown to efficiently reverse the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironments in pre-clinical murine models of dermal melanoma and metastatic melanoma, metastatic breast cancer, intraperitoneal ovarian cancer and in canine patients with oral melanoma. In the present study, we demonstrate that in situ administration of CPMV immunotherapy in the setting of glioma can effectively recruit unique subset of effector innate and adaptive immune cells to the brain parenchyma while reducing immune suppressive cellular population, leading to regression of intracranial glioma. The in situ CPMV nanoparticle vaccine offers a potent yet safe and localized immunotherapy for intracranial glioma. View Full-Text
Keywords: intracranial glioma; immunotherapy; CPMV; viral nanoparticles; in situ vaccine intracranial glioma; immunotherapy; CPMV; viral nanoparticles; in situ vaccine
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kerstetter-Fogle, A.; Shukla, S.; Wang, C.; Beiss, V.; Harris, P.L.R.; Sloan, A.E.; Steinmetz, N.F. Plant Virus-Like Particle In Situ Vaccine for Intracranial Glioma Immunotherapy. Cancers 2019, 11, 515.

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