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Smart Cities, Volume 7, Issue 1 (February 2024) – 28 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The paper reviews and benchmarks Automatic Passenger Counting (APC) systems—pressure, wireless, optical infrared sensors, and video imaging—key for public transport companies and transport authorities in understanding mobility patterns and planning and programming the service. Through interviews and a survey, a benchmark analysis is conducted using ten criteria: technology, accuracy, environment, coverage, interface, interference, robustness, price, pricing model, and system integration. KPIs are then developed to measure the performance and compare APC systems. The results of the benchmarking analysis offer insights into the costs and accuracy of different APC systems, enabling informed decision making for transport companies and authorities regarding system selection and implementation. View this paper
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32 pages, 2485 KiB  
Review
Edge Offloading in Smart Grid
by Gabriel Ioan Arcas, Tudor Cioara, Ionut Anghel, Dragos Lazea and Anca Hangan
Smart Cities 2024, 7(1), 680-711; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities7010028 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 926
Abstract
The management of decentralized energy resources and smart grids needs novel data-driven low-latency applications and services to improve resilience and responsiveness and ensure closer to real-time control. However, the large-scale integration of Internet of Things (IoT) devices has led to the generation of [...] Read more.
The management of decentralized energy resources and smart grids needs novel data-driven low-latency applications and services to improve resilience and responsiveness and ensure closer to real-time control. However, the large-scale integration of Internet of Things (IoT) devices has led to the generation of significant amounts of data at the edge of the grid, posing challenges for the traditional cloud-based smart-grid architectures to meet the stringent latency and response time requirements of emerging applications. In this paper, we delve into the energy grid and computational distribution architectures, including edge–fog–cloud models, computational orchestration, and smart-grid frameworks to support the design and offloading of grid applications across the computational continuum. Key factors influencing the offloading process, such as network performance, data and Artificial Intelligence (AI) processes, computational requirements, application-specific factors, and energy efficiency, are analyzed considering the smart-grid operational requirements. We conduct a comprehensive overview of the current research landscape to support decision-making regarding offloading strategies from cloud to fog or edge. The focus is on metaheuristics for identifying near-optimal solutions and reinforcement learning for adaptively optimizing the process. A macro perspective on determining when and what to offload in the smart grid is provided for the next-generation AI applications, offering an overview of the features and trade-offs for selecting between federated learning and edge AI solutions. Finally, the work contributes to a comprehensive understanding of edge offloading in smart grids, providing a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis to support cost–benefit analysis in decision-making regarding offloading strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Smart Grids)
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18 pages, 19556 KiB  
Article
Flood-Resilient Smart Cities: A Data-Driven Risk Assessment Approach Based on Geographical Risks and Emergency Response Infrastructure
by João Paulo Just Peixoto, Daniel G. Costa, Paulo Portugal and Francisco Vasques
Smart Cities 2024, 7(1), 662-679; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities7010027 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1007
Abstract
Flooding in urban areas is expected to become even more common due to climatic changes, putting pressure on cities to implement effective response measures. Practical mechanisms for assessing flood risk have become highly desired, but existing solutions have been devoted to evaluating only [...] Read more.
Flooding in urban areas is expected to become even more common due to climatic changes, putting pressure on cities to implement effective response measures. Practical mechanisms for assessing flood risk have become highly desired, but existing solutions have been devoted to evaluating only specific cities and consider only limited risk perspectives, constraining their general applicability. This article presents an innovative approach for assessing the flood risk of delimited urban areas by exploiting geospatial information from publicly available databases, providing a method that is applicable to any city in the world and requiring minimum configurations. A set of mathematical equations is defined for numerically assessing risk levels based on elevation, slope, and proximity to rivers, while the existence of emergency-related urban infrastructure is considered as a risk reduction factor. Then, computed risk levels are used to classify areas, allowing easy visualisation of flood risk for a city. This smart city approach not only serves as a valuable tool for assessing the expected flood risk based on different parameters but also facilitates the implementation of cutting-edge strategies to effectively mitigate critical situations, ultimately enhancing urban resilience to flood-related disaster. Full article
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29 pages, 15077 KiB  
Article
Toward Establishing a Tourism Data Space: Innovative Geo-Dashboard Development for Tourism Research and Management
by Dolores Ordóñez-Martínez, Joana Maria Seguí-Pons and Maurici Ruiz-Pérez
Smart Cities 2024, 7(1), 633-661; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities7010026 - 14 Feb 2024
Viewed by 899
Abstract
The data sharing strategy involves understanding the challenges and problems that can be solved through the collaboration of different entities sharing their data. The implementation of a data space in Mallorca is based on understanding the available data and identifying the problems that [...] Read more.
The data sharing strategy involves understanding the challenges and problems that can be solved through the collaboration of different entities sharing their data. The implementation of a data space in Mallorca is based on understanding the available data and identifying the problems that can be solved using them. The use of data through data spaces will contribute to the transformation of destinations into smart tourism destinations. Smart tourism destinations are considered as smart cities in which the tourism industry offers a new layer of complexity in which technologies, digitalization, and intelligence are powered by data. This study analyzes four scenarios in which geo-dashboards are developed: flood exposure of tourist accommodation, land-cover changes, human pressure, and tourist uses in urban areas. The results of applying the geo-dashboards to these different scenarios provide tourists and destination managers with valuable information for decision-making, highlighting the utility of this type of tool, and laying the foundations for a future tourism data space in Mallorca. Full article
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18 pages, 6916 KiB  
Article
Urban Design and Planning Participation in the Digital Age: Lessons from an Experimental Online Platform
by Stephen Marshall, David Farndon, Andrew Hudson-Smith, Athanasios Kourniotis and Nikos Karadimitriou
Smart Cities 2024, 7(1), 615-632; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities7010025 - 13 Feb 2024
Viewed by 809
Abstract
There is increasing use of digital technologies in urban planning, including in the generation of designs and the participative side of planning. We examine this digital planning by reporting on the application of an experimental online participatory platform in the regeneration of a [...] Read more.
There is increasing use of digital technologies in urban planning, including in the generation of designs and the participative side of planning. We examine this digital planning by reporting on the application of an experimental online participatory platform in the regeneration of a London housing estate, enabling reflection on participation processes and outcomes. Drawing on lessons learned, the paper synthesises a conceptual representation of online participation and a relational framework for understanding the participatory platform and its context. We subsequently develop a ‘matrix of participative space’, building on Arnstein’s ‘ladder of participation’, to present a two-dimensional framework of online participation, identifying cases of ‘participative deficit’ and ‘democratic deficit’. We conclude with implications for future digital participation in urban planning and design. Full article
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18 pages, 3116 KiB  
Article
Bibliometric Study on the Conceptualisation of Smart City and Education
by Debora Scala, Ángel Ignacio Aguilar Cuesta, Maria Ángeles Rodríguez-Domenech and María del Carmen Cañizares Ruiz
Smart Cities 2024, 7(1), 597-614; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities7010024 - 10 Feb 2024
Viewed by 783
Abstract
In recent years, research in the smart city sector has experienced exponential growth, establishing itself as a fundamental and multifaceted field of study. Education is one of the sectors of interest in smart cities. Concurrently, the extensive academic literature on smart cities makes [...] Read more.
In recent years, research in the smart city sector has experienced exponential growth, establishing itself as a fundamental and multifaceted field of study. Education is one of the sectors of interest in smart cities. Concurrently, the extensive academic literature on smart cities makes identifying the main areas of interest related to education, leading institutions and authors, potential interconnections between different disciplines, and existing gaps more complicated. This article maps the knowledge domain of education in smart cities through a bibliometric analysis to identify current trends, research networks, and topics of greatest interest. A total of 88 articles, published between 2000 and 2023, were examined using an interdisciplinary approach. The leading countries are mainly located in Europe and North America and include China. Bibliometrics provides an intellectual configuration of knowledge on education in smart cities; a co-word analysis identifies conceptual sub-domains in specific themes. In general, education within smart cities represents a universal challenge that requires a structured and interdisciplinary approach at all levels. Finally, this paper offers some suggestions for future research, adopting a more comprehensive view of the areas of investigation through a holistic analysis of stakeholders. Full article
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31 pages, 2728 KiB  
Review
Climate Change Mitigation through Modular Construction
by Zeerak Waryam Sajid, Fahim Ullah, Siddra Qayyum and Rehan Masood
Smart Cities 2024, 7(1), 566-596; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities7010023 - 08 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1503
Abstract
Modular construction (MC) is a promising concept with the potential to revolutionize the construction industry (CI). The sustainability aspects of MC, among its other encouraging facets, have garnered escalated interest and acclaim among the research community, especially in the context of climate change [...] Read more.
Modular construction (MC) is a promising concept with the potential to revolutionize the construction industry (CI). The sustainability aspects of MC, among its other encouraging facets, have garnered escalated interest and acclaim among the research community, especially in the context of climate change (CC) mitigation efforts. Despite numerous scholarly studies contributing to the understanding of MC, a holistic review of the prevailing literature that systematically documents the impact of utilizing MC on CC mitigation remains scarce. The study conducts a systematic literature review (SLR) of the pertinent literature retrieved from the Scopus repository to explore the relationship between MC and CC mitigation. Employing the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) protocol, the SLR was conducted on 31 shortlisted articles published between 2010 and 2023. The findings of the study reveal that MC can mitigate the climate crisis by reducing GHG emissions, curtailing resource intensiveness by enabling a circular economy (CE), fomenting energy efficiency, and fostering resourceful land use and management in the CI. A conceptual framework based on the findings of the previous literature is proposed in this study, which outlines several strategies for CC mitigation that can be implemented by the adoption of MC in the CI. The current study is a humble effort to review various offerings of MC to help mitigate CC in the era of striving for global sustainability. For industry practitioners and policymakers, this study highlights the viability of leveraging MC for CC mitigation, aiming to inspire better decision making for sustainable development in the CI. Similarly, for researchers, it presents MC as a potential tool for CC mitigation that can be further explored in terms of its associated factors, and focused frameworks can be developed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable and Smart Building)
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25 pages, 3396 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Smart Cities through Third-Party Logistics: Predicting Delivery Intensity
by Mariusz Kmiecik and Aleksandra Wierzbicka
Smart Cities 2024, 7(1), 541-565; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities7010022 - 08 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1025
Abstract
This article addresses the key and current issues of smart cities in the context of last-mile supply management. Specifically, it explores how third-party logistics (3PL) activities impact last-mile delivery management in smart cities. It examines how 3PL affects delivery volumes, expanding the predictive [...] Read more.
This article addresses the key and current issues of smart cities in the context of last-mile supply management. Specifically, it explores how third-party logistics (3PL) activities impact last-mile delivery management in smart cities. It examines how 3PL affects delivery volumes, expanding the predictive capabilities of logistics operators. A research question included in the Introduction of this paper is also posed to explore the problem in depth. The research conducted focuses mainly on a case study conducted on the operations of an international 3PL logistics operator. In addition, predictive methods are used to analyse the shipment volume data for individual barcodes in the two analysed cities in Poland. Currently, the concept of a smart city assumes the limited participation of logistics operators in creating improvements for cities. The case study analysis shows that in the cities studied, 3PL companies, through predictive actions, can regulate the flow of vehicles out of the logistics centre and into the city, thus influencing the traffic volume in the city. The research is limited to two cities in Poland implementing smart city solutions and one logistics operator. The research also does not include e-commerce. The authors acknowledge that the results obtained cannot be generalised to a larger scale. This paper bridges the research gap on 3PL activities for last-mile logistics improvements. In addition, the paper proposes the first concept related to the implementation of a 3PL company’s predictive activities associated with the operator’s ability to control the impact on urban traffic. Full article
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23 pages, 6087 KiB  
Article
Safety and Mobility Evaluation of Cumulative-Anticipative Car-Following Model for Connected Autonomous Vehicles
by Hafiz Usman Ahmed, Salman Ahmad, Xinyi Yang, Pan Lu and Ying Huang
Smart Cities 2024, 7(1), 518-540; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities7010021 - 06 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1041
Abstract
In the typical landscape of road transportation, about 90% of traffic accidents result from human errors. Vehicle automation enhances road safety by reducing driver fatigue and errors and improves overall mobility efficiency. The advancement of autonomous vehicle technology will significantly impact traffic safety, [...] Read more.
In the typical landscape of road transportation, about 90% of traffic accidents result from human errors. Vehicle automation enhances road safety by reducing driver fatigue and errors and improves overall mobility efficiency. The advancement of autonomous vehicle technology will significantly impact traffic safety, potentially saving more than 30,000 lives annually in the United States alone. The widespread acceptance of autonomous and connected autonomous vehicles (AVs and CAVs) will be a process spanning multiple decades, requiring their coexistence with traditional vehicles. This study explores the mobility and safety performance of CAVs in mixed-traffic environments using the cumulative-anticipative car-following (CACF) model. This research compares the CACF model with established Wiedemann 99 and cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) models using a VISSIM platform. The simulations include single-lane and multi-lane networks, incorporating sensitivity tests for mobility and safety parameters. The study reveals increased throughput, reduced delays, and enhanced travel times with CACF, emphasizing its advantages over CACC. Safety analyses demonstrate CACF’s ability to prevent traffic shockwaves and bottlenecks, emphasizing the significance of communication range and acceleration coefficients. The research recommends early investment in vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication technology, refining CACC logic, and expanding the study to diverse road scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Smart Transportation)
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22 pages, 6962 KiB  
Article
An Artificial Intelligence and Industrial Internet of Things-Based Framework for Sustainable Hydropower Plant Operations
by Fation T. Fera and Christos Spandonidis
Smart Cities 2024, 7(1), 496-517; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities7010020 - 06 Feb 2024
Viewed by 747
Abstract
Hydropower plays a crucial role in supplying electricity to developed nations and is projected to expand its capacity in various developing countries such as Sub-Saharan Africa, Argentina, Colombia, and Turkey. With the increasing demand for sustainable energy and the emphasis on reducing carbon [...] Read more.
Hydropower plays a crucial role in supplying electricity to developed nations and is projected to expand its capacity in various developing countries such as Sub-Saharan Africa, Argentina, Colombia, and Turkey. With the increasing demand for sustainable energy and the emphasis on reducing carbon emissions, the significance of hydropower plants is growing. Nevertheless, numerous challenges arise for these plants due to their aging infrastructure, impacting both their efficiency and structural stability. In order to tackle these issues, the present study has formulated a specialized real-time framework for identifying damage, with a particular focus on detecting corrosion in the conductors of generators within hydropower plants. It should be noted that corrosion processes can be highly complex and nonlinear, making it challenging to develop accurate physics-based models that capture all the nuances. Therefore, the proposed framework leverages autoencoder, an unsupervised, data-driven AI technology with the Mahalanobis distance, to capture the intricacies of corrosion and automate its detection. Rigorous testing shows that it can identify slight variations indicating conductor corrosion with over 80% sensitivity and a 5% false alarm rate for ‘medium’ to ‘high’ severity damage. By detecting and resolving corrosion early, the system reduces disruptions, streamlines maintenance, and mitigates unscheduled repairs’ negative effects on the environment. This enhances energy generation effectiveness, promotes hydroelectric facilities’ long-term viability, and fosters community prosperity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Cities and Industry 4.0)
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21 pages, 366 KiB  
Article
The Cybersecurity Applied by Online Travel Agencies and Hotels to Protect Users’ Private Data in Smart Cities
by Lázaro Florido-Benítez
Smart Cities 2024, 7(1), 475-495; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities7010019 - 04 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1671
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to analyse the cybersecurity in online travel agencies (OTAs) and hotel sectors to protect users’ private data in smart cities. Methodologically, this research uses a sample of information about cyberattacks that occurred during the period of 2000–2023 [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to analyse the cybersecurity in online travel agencies (OTAs) and hotel sectors to protect users’ private data in smart cities. Methodologically, this research uses a sample of information about cyberattacks that occurred during the period of 2000–2023 in companies operating as OTAs and in the travel, tourism, and food sectors, which was obtained from research articles. Then, we had to expand the research to include updated information about cyberattacks from digital newspapers, regulatory sources, and state data breach notification sites like CSIS, KonBriefing, EUROCONTROL, and GlobalData. The findings of the current research prove that hotels and OTAs were constantly exposed to cyberattacks in the period analysed, especially by data breaches and malware attacks; in fact, this is the main novelty of this research. In addition, these incidents were severe for both guests and tourism companies because their vulnerabilities and consequences affect the reputation of companies and smart cities where these firms operate, as well as consumer confidence. The results also showed that most of the cyberattacks examined in this manuscript were aimed at stealing information about the companies’ and users’ private data such as email addresses; credit card numbers, security codes, and expiration dates; and encoded magstripe data; among many other types of data. Cyberattacks and cyberthreats never disappear completely in the travel and tourism sectors because these illegal activities are closely related to the hacker’s thirst for power, fame, and wealth. Full article
15 pages, 3912 KiB  
Article
Predicting Autonomous Driving Behavior through Human Factor Considerations in Safety-Critical Events
by Jamal Raiyn and Galia Weidl
Smart Cities 2024, 7(1), 460-474; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities7010018 - 01 Feb 2024
Viewed by 685
Abstract
This paper investigates the ability of autonomous driving systems to predict outcomes by considering human factors like gender, age, and driving experience, particularly in the context of safety-critical events. The primary objective is to equip autonomous vehicles with the capacity to make plausible [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the ability of autonomous driving systems to predict outcomes by considering human factors like gender, age, and driving experience, particularly in the context of safety-critical events. The primary objective is to equip autonomous vehicles with the capacity to make plausible deductions, handle conflicting data, and adjust their responses in real-time during safety-critical situations. A foundational dataset, which encompasses various driving scenarios such as lane changes, merging, and navigating complex intersections, is employed to enable vehicles to exhibit appropriate behavior and make sound decisions in critical safety events. The deep learning model incorporates personalized cognitive agents for each driver, considering their distinct preferences, characteristics, and requirements. This personalized approach aims to enhance the safety and efficiency of autonomous driving, contributing to the ongoing development of intelligent transportation systems. The efforts made contribute to advancements in safety, efficiency, and overall performance within autonomous driving systems. To describe the causal relationship between external factors like weather conditions and human factors, and safety-critical driver behaviors, various data mining techniques can be applied. One commonly used method is regression analysis. Additionally, correlation analysis is employed to reveal relationships between different factors, helping to identify the strength and direction of their impact on safety-critical driver behavior. Full article
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15 pages, 1417 KiB  
Article
Engaging Young People in the Development of Innovative Nature-Inspired Technologies for Carbon Sequestration in Cities: Case Studies from Portugal
by Manuela Moreira da Silva, Lurdes Ferreira, Teresa Sarmento and Catarina Selada
Smart Cities 2024, 7(1), 445-459; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities7010017 - 31 Jan 2024
Viewed by 823
Abstract
Currently, cities are the most vulnerable places on the planet to the effects of global change, both anthropogenic and climate-related, and this is not compatible with harmony and well-being regarding the economy, nature, and future generations. Young people have a unique potential to [...] Read more.
Currently, cities are the most vulnerable places on the planet to the effects of global change, both anthropogenic and climate-related, and this is not compatible with harmony and well-being regarding the economy, nature, and future generations. Young people have a unique potential to catalyze the transformative sustainable change that the planet needs now, as they are the first generation to grow up with tangible impacts of climate change. We tested a new strategy to empower young people to foster carbon neutrality in cities by engaging them in ecosystem services quantification and technological innovation to increase CO2 sequestration in two Portuguese cities. The species with best performance for carbon sequestration were M. exelsa in Porto and O. europea in Loulé, and for air pollutant removal and hydrological regulation were P. hispanica in Porto and P. pinea in Loulé. Through the innovative advanced summer program SLI, a nature-based learning experience, young people developed two new concepts of technological solutions to accelerate city decarbonization by designing a hedge for air pollution hotspots and a biodevice to be placed at bus stops using autochthonous shrubs and mosses. Initiatives like SLI contribute to a greater awareness among young people about the drivers that brought us to the current climate emergency, motivating them towards more balanced lifestyles and creating innovative nature-based solutions towards a smart and sustainable city. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multidisciplinary Research on Smart Cities)
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31 pages, 4041 KiB  
Review
Smart Cities and Urban Energy Planning: An Advanced Review of Promises and Challenges
by Saeed Esfandi, Safiyeh Tayebi, John Byrne, Job Taminiau, Golkou Giyahchi and Seyed Ali Alavi
Smart Cities 2024, 7(1), 414-444; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities7010016 - 31 Jan 2024
Viewed by 2743
Abstract
This review explores the relationship between urban energy planning and smart city evolution, addressing three primary questions: How has research on smart cities and urban energy planning evolved in the past thirty years? What promises and hurdles do smart city initiatives introduce to [...] Read more.
This review explores the relationship between urban energy planning and smart city evolution, addressing three primary questions: How has research on smart cities and urban energy planning evolved in the past thirty years? What promises and hurdles do smart city initiatives introduce to urban energy planning? And why do some smart city projects surpass energy efficiency and emission reduction targets while others fall short? Based on a bibliometric analysis of 9320 papers published between January 1992 and May 2023, five dimensions were identified by researchers trying to address these three questions: (1) energy use at the building scale, (2) urban design and planning integration, (3) transportation and mobility, (4) grid modernization and smart grids, and (5) policy and regulatory frameworks. A comprehensive review of 193 papers discovered that previous research prioritized technological advancements in the first four dimensions. However, there was a notable gap in adequately addressing the inherent policy and regulatory challenges. This gap often led to smart city endeavors underperforming relative to their intended objectives. Overcoming the gap requires a better understanding of broader issues such as environmental impacts, social justice, resilience, safety and security, and the affordability of such initiatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multidisciplinary Research on Smart Cities)
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44 pages, 623 KiB  
Article
On the Adoption of Smart Home Technology in Switzerland: Results from a Survey Study Focusing on Prevention and Active Healthy Aging Aspects
by Raphael Iten, Joël Wagner and Angela Zeier Röschmann
Smart Cities 2024, 7(1), 370-413; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities7010015 - 30 Jan 2024
Viewed by 635
Abstract
Smart home (SH) technologies offer advancements in comfort, energy management, health, and safety. There is increasing interest in technology-enabled home services from scholars and professionals, particularly to meet the needs of a growing aging population. Yet, current research focuses on assisted living scenarios [...] Read more.
Smart home (SH) technologies offer advancements in comfort, energy management, health, and safety. There is increasing interest in technology-enabled home services from scholars and professionals, particularly to meet the needs of a growing aging population. Yet, current research focuses on assisted living scenarios developed for elderly individuals with health impairments, and neglects to explore the potential of SHs in prevention. We aim to improve comprehension and guide future research on the value of SH technology for risk prevention with a survey assessing the adoption of SHs by older adults based on novel ad hoc collected data. Our survey is based on the theoretical background derived from the extant body of literature. In addition to established adoption factors and user characteristics, it includes previously unexamined elements such as active and healthy aging parameters, risk and insurance considerations, and social and hedonic dimensions. Descriptive results and regression analyses indicate that a vast majority of individuals acknowledge the preventive benefits of SHs. Additionally, we observe that individuals with higher levels of social activity, technology affinity, and knowledge of SHs tend to report greater interest. Moreover, perceived enjoyment and perceived risk emerge as central elements for SH adoption. Our research indicates that considering lifestyle factors when examining technology adoption and emphasizing the preventive benefits present possibilities for both future studies and practical implementations. Full article
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45 pages, 4000 KiB  
Review
The Convergence of Intelligent Tutoring, Robotics, and IoT in Smart Education for the Transition from Industry 4.0 to 5.0
by Amr Adel
Smart Cities 2024, 7(1), 325-369; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities7010014 - 30 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1996
Abstract
This review paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the automation of smart education in the context of Industry 5.0 from 78 papers, focusing on the integration of advanced technologies and the development of innovative, effective, and ethical educational solutions for the future workforce. [...] Read more.
This review paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the automation of smart education in the context of Industry 5.0 from 78 papers, focusing on the integration of advanced technologies and the development of innovative, effective, and ethical educational solutions for the future workforce. As the world transitions into an era characterized by human–machine collaboration and rapidly evolving technologies, there is an urgent need to recognize the pivotal role of smart education in preparing individuals for the opportunities and challenges presented by the new industrial landscape. The paper examines key components of smart education, including intelligent tutoring systems, adaptive learning environments, learning analytics, and the application of the Internet of Things (IoT) in education. It also discusses the role of advanced technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning (ML), robotics, and augmented and virtual reality (AR/VR) in shaping personalized and immersive learning experiences. The review highlights the importance of smart education in addressing the growing demand for upskilling and reskilling, fostering a culture of lifelong learning, and promoting adaptability, resilience, and self-improvement among learners. Furthermore, the paper delves into the challenges and ethical considerations associated with the implementation of smart education, addressing issues such as data privacy, the digital divide, teacher and student readiness, and the potential biases in AI-driven systems. Through a presentation of case studies and examples of successful smart education initiatives, the review aims to inspire educators, policymakers, and industry stakeholders to collaborate and innovate in the design and implementation of effective smart education solutions. Conclusively, the paper outlines emerging trends, future directions, and potential research opportunities in the field of smart education, emphasizing the importance of continuous improvement and the integration of new technologies to ensure that education remains relevant and effective in the context of Industry 5.0. By providing a holistic understanding of the key components, challenges, and potential solutions associated with smart education, this review paper seeks to contribute to the ongoing discourse surrounding the automation of smart education and its role in preparing the workforce for the future of work. Full article
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23 pages, 3486 KiB  
Article
Benchmarking the Functional, Technical, and Business Characteristics of Automated Passenger Counting Products
by Cristina Pronello, Luca Baratti and Deepan Anbarasan
Smart Cities 2024, 7(1), 302-324; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities7010013 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 707
Abstract
Urban transport planning and the integration of various mobility options have become increasingly complex, necessitating a thorough understanding of user mobility patterns and their diverse needs. This paper focuses on benchmarking different Automatic Passenger Counting (APC) technologies, which play a key role in [...] Read more.
Urban transport planning and the integration of various mobility options have become increasingly complex, necessitating a thorough understanding of user mobility patterns and their diverse needs. This paper focuses on benchmarking different Automatic Passenger Counting (APC) technologies, which play a key role in Mobility as a Service (MaaS) systems. APC systems provide valuable data for analysing mobility patterns and informing decisions about resource allocation. Our study presents a comprehensive data collection and benchmark analysis of APC solutions. The literature review emphasises the significance of passenger counting for transport companies and discusses various existing APC technologies, such as pressure sensors, wireless sensors, optical infrared sensors (IR), and video image technology. Real-world applications of APC systems are examined, highlighting experimental results and their potential for improving accuracy. The methodology outlines the data collection process, which involved identifying APC companies, conducting interviews with companies and customers, and administering an ad hoc survey to gather specific information about APC systems. The collected data were used to establish criteria and key performance indicators (KPIs) for the benchmarking analysis. The benchmarking analysis compares APC devices and companies based on ten criteria: technology, accuracy, environment, coverage, interface, interference, robustness (for devices), price, pricing model, and system integration (for companies). KPIs were developed to measure performance and make comparison easier. The results of the benchmarking analysis offer insights into the costs and accuracy of different APC systems, enabling informed decision making regarding system selection and implementation. The findings fill a research gap and provide valuable information for transport companies and policy makers, and we offer a comprehensive analysis of APC systems, highlighting their strengths, weaknesses, and business strategies. The paper concludes by discussing limitations and suggesting future research directions for APC technologies. Full article
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25 pages, 1674 KiB  
Review
Sensors in Civil Engineering: From Existing Gaps to Quantum Opportunities
by Boris Kantsepolsky and Itzhak Aviv
Smart Cities 2024, 7(1), 277-301; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities7010012 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1294
Abstract
The vital role of civil engineering is to enable the development of modern cities and establish foundations for smart and sustainable urban environments of the future. Advanced sensing technologies are among the instrumental methods used to enhance the performance of civil engineering infrastructures [...] Read more.
The vital role of civil engineering is to enable the development of modern cities and establish foundations for smart and sustainable urban environments of the future. Advanced sensing technologies are among the instrumental methods used to enhance the performance of civil engineering infrastructures and address the multifaceted challenges of future cities. Through this study, we discussed the shortcomings of traditional sensors in four primary civil engineering domains: construction, energy, water, and transportation. Then, we investigated and summarized the potential of quantum sensors to contribute to and revolutionize the management of civil engineering infrastructures. For the water sector, advancements are expected in monitoring water quality and pressure in water and sewage infrastructures. In the energy sector, quantum sensors may facilitate renewables integration and improve grid stability and buildings’ energy efficiency. The most promising progress in the construction field is the ability to identify subsurface density and underground structures. In transportation, these sensors create many fresh avenues for real-time traffic management and smart mobility solutions. As one of the first-in-the-field studies offering the adoption of quantum sensors across four primary domains of civil engineering, this research establishes the basis for the discourse about the scope and timeline for deploying quantum sensors to real-world applications towards the quantum transformation of civil engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Urban Sensing Technologies)
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23 pages, 39348 KiB  
Article
Efficient Decoder and Intermediate Domain for Semantic Segmentation in Adverse Conditions
by Xiaodong Chen, Nan Jiang, Yifeng Li, Guangliang Cheng, Zheng Liang, Zuobin Ying, Qi Zhang and Runsheng Zhao
Smart Cities 2024, 7(1), 254-276; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities7010011 - 19 Jan 2024
Viewed by 658
Abstract
In smart city contexts, traditional methods for semantic segmentation are affected by adverse conditions, such as rain, fog, or darkness. One challenge is the limited availability of semantic segmentation datasets, specifically for autonomous driving in adverse conditions, and the high cost of labeling [...] Read more.
In smart city contexts, traditional methods for semantic segmentation are affected by adverse conditions, such as rain, fog, or darkness. One challenge is the limited availability of semantic segmentation datasets, specifically for autonomous driving in adverse conditions, and the high cost of labeling such datasets. To address this problem, unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA) is commonly employed. In UDA, the source domain contains data from good weather conditions, while the target domain contains data from adverse weather conditions. The Adverse Conditions Dataset with Correspondences (ACDC) provides reference images taken at different times but in the same location, which can serve as an intermediate domain, offering additional semantic information. In this study, we introduce a method that leverages both the intermediate domain and frequency information to improve semantic segmentation in smart city environments. Specifically, we extract the region with the largest difference in standard deviation and entropy values from the reference image as the intermediate domain. Secondly, we introduce the Fourier Exponential Decreasing Sampling (FEDS) algorithm to facilitate more reasonable learning of frequency domain information. Finally, we design an efficient decoder network that outperforms the DAFormer network by reducing network parameters by 28.00%. When compared to the DAFormer work, our proposed approach demonstrates significant performance improvements, increasing by 6.77%, 5.34%, 6.36%, and 5.93% in mean Intersection over Union (mIoU) for Cityscapes to ACDC night, foggy, rainy, and snowy, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Smart Transportation)
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21 pages, 3794 KiB  
Article
Urban Traffic Congestion Prediction: A Multi-Step Approach Utilizing Sensor Data and Weather Information
by Nikolaos Tsalikidis, Aristeidis Mystakidis, Paraskevas Koukaras, Marius Ivaškevičius, Lina Morkūnaitė, Dimosthenis Ioannidis, Paris A. Fokaides, Christos Tjortjis and Dimitrios Tzovaras
Smart Cities 2024, 7(1), 233-253; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities7010010 - 19 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1329
Abstract
The continuous growth of urban populations has led to the persistent problem of traffic congestion, which imposes adverse effects on quality of life, such as commute times, road safety, and the local air quality. Advancements in Internet of Things (IoT) sensor technology have [...] Read more.
The continuous growth of urban populations has led to the persistent problem of traffic congestion, which imposes adverse effects on quality of life, such as commute times, road safety, and the local air quality. Advancements in Internet of Things (IoT) sensor technology have contributed to a plethora of new data streams regarding traffic conditions. Therefore, the recognition and prediction of traffic congestion patterns utilizing such data have become crucial. To that end, the integration of Machine Learning (ML) algorithms can further enhance Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), contributing to the smart management of transportation systems and effectively tackling traffic congestion in cities. This study seeks to assess a wide range of models as potential solutions for an ML-based multi-step forecasting approach intended to improve traffic congestion prediction, particularly in areas with limited historical data. Various interpretable predictive algorithms, suitable for handling the complexity and spatiotemporal characteristics of urban traffic flow, were tested and eventually shortlisted based on their predictive performance. The forecasting approach selects the optimal model in each step to maximize the accuracy. The findings demonstrate that, in a 24 h step prediction, variating Ensemble Tree-Based (ETB) regressors like the Light Gradient Boosting Machine (LGBM) exhibit superior performances compared to traditional Deep Learning (DL) methods. Our work provides a valuable contribution to short-term traffic congestion predictions and can enable more efficient scheduling of daily urban transportation. Full article
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25 pages, 8799 KiB  
Article
Fit Islands: Designing a Multifunctional Virtual Urban Community to Promote Healthy Aging for Chinese Older Adults
by Zixin Shen, Rongbo Hu, Dong Wan and Thomas Bock
Smart Cities 2024, 7(1), 208-232; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities7010009 - 18 Jan 2024
Viewed by 829
Abstract
Within the context of an aging global population, the demographic structure of emerging economies is undergoing a dramatic transformation. Emerging economies have a large population base and rapid economic development, but they are ill-prepared to deal with population aging. Limited resources force many [...] Read more.
Within the context of an aging global population, the demographic structure of emerging economies is undergoing a dramatic transformation. Emerging economies have a large population base and rapid economic development, but they are ill-prepared to deal with population aging. Limited resources force many older adults to face health issues such as chronic diseases and loss of physical independence, exacerbating the burden of traditional family and societal elderly care. Uncontrollable events such as the COVID-19 pandemic and regional conflicts have exacerbated the plight of older adults. Improving the quality of life and health of older adults has become a development priority in emerging economies in the face of a rapidly aging population. The development of smart cities has brought with it many available digital technologies, and the consequent development of smart aging offers endless possibilities for improving the quality of life and health of older people, making cities more inclusive of older people. Researchers from developed economies have attempted to address the health issues of older adults through a technology that combines physical exercise and digital technology called Exergame. However, existing projects are not suitable for older adults in emerging economies due to differences in national conditions. The aim of this project is therefore to propose a universal approach to designing a health-promoting Exergame system in the format of a virtual urban community to help emerging economies cope with aging populations, making cities more inclusive. To verify the feasibility of this approach, the authors designed an expandable Exergame called “Fit Islands”, using China as a case study. Based on the initial demonstration, the authors conducted functional tests. The result is that Fit Islands can meet the development objective of motivating Chinese older people to increase their physical activity, providing initial evidence of the feasibility of an Exergame system to promote healthy aging in emerging economies. The application of Fit Islands demonstrates the feasibility of the universal Exergame development method, which can, in principle, provide comprehensive and practical guidance for other countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inclusive Smart Cities)
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29 pages, 8934 KiB  
Article
Delay and Energy Efficient Offloading Strategies for an IoT Integrated Water Distribution System in Smart Cities
by Nibi Kulangara Velayudhan, Aiswarya S, Aryadevi Remanidevi Devidas and Maneesha Vinodini Ramesh
Smart Cities 2024, 7(1), 179-207; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities7010008 - 16 Jan 2024
Viewed by 898
Abstract
In the fast-moving world of information and communications technologies, one significant issue in metropolitan cities is water scarcity and the need for an intelligent water distribution system for sustainable water management. An IoT-based monitoring system can improve water distribution system management and mitigate [...] Read more.
In the fast-moving world of information and communications technologies, one significant issue in metropolitan cities is water scarcity and the need for an intelligent water distribution system for sustainable water management. An IoT-based monitoring system can improve water distribution system management and mitigate challenges in the distribution network networks such as leakage, breakage, theft, overflow, dry running of pumps and so on. However, the increase in the number of communication and sensing devices within smart cities has evoked challenges to existing communication networks due to the increase in delay and energy consumption within the network. The work presents different strategies for efficient delay and energy offloading in IoT-integrated water distribution systems in smart cities. Different IoT-enabled communication network topology diagrams are proposed, considering the different water network design parameters, land cover patterns and wireless channels for communication. From these topologies and by considering all the relevant communication parameters, the optimum communication network architecture to continuously monitor a water distribution network in a metropolitan city in India is identified. As a case study, an IoT design and analysis model is studied for a secondary metropolitan city in India. The selected study area is in Kochi, India. Based on the site-specific model and land use and land cover pattern, delay and energy modeling of the IoT-based water distribution system is discussed. Algorithms for node categorisation and edge-to-fog allocation are discussed, and numerical analyses of delay and energy models are included. An approximation of the delay and energy of the network is calculated using these models. On the basis of these study results, and state transition diagrams, the optimum placement of fog nodes linked with edge nodes and a cloud server could be carried out. Also, by considering different scenarios, up to a 40% improvement in energy efficiency can be achieved by incorporating a greater number of states in the state transition diagram. These strategies could be utilized in implementing delay and energy-efficient IoT-enabled communication networks for site-specific applications. Full article
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16 pages, 2940 KiB  
Article
Using Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) to Predict the Influence of Weather on the Thermal Soaring Capabilities of Sailplanes for Smart City Applications
by Maren Schnieder
Smart Cities 2024, 7(1), 163-178; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities7010007 - 15 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 828
Abstract
Background: Drones, also known as unmanned aerial vehicles, could potentially be a key part of future smart cities by aiding traffic management, infrastructure inspection and maybe even last mile delivery. This paper contributes to the research on managing a fleet of soaring aircraft [...] Read more.
Background: Drones, also known as unmanned aerial vehicles, could potentially be a key part of future smart cities by aiding traffic management, infrastructure inspection and maybe even last mile delivery. This paper contributes to the research on managing a fleet of soaring aircraft by gaining an understanding of the influence of the weather on soaring capabilities. To do so, machine learning algorithms were trained on flight data, which was recorded in the UK over the past ten years at selected gliding clubs (i.e., sailplanes). Methods: A random forest regressor was trained to predict the flight duration and a random forest (RF) classifier was used to predict whether at least one flight on a given day managed to soar in thermals. SHAP (SHapley Additive exPlanations), a form of explainable artificial intelligence (AI), was used to understand the predictions given by the models. Results: The best RF have a mean absolute error of 5.7 min (flight duration) and an accuracy of 81.2% (probability of soaring in a thermal on a given day). The explanations derived from SHAP are in line with the common knowledge about the effect of weather systems to predict soaring potential. However, the key conclusion of this study is the importance of combining human knowledge with machine learning to devise a holistic explanation of a machine learning model and to avoid misinterpretations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Smart Transportation)
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22 pages, 381 KiB  
Systematic Review
A Review on Key Innovation Challenges for Smart City Initiatives
by Rui José and Helena Rodrigues
Smart Cities 2024, 7(1), 141-162; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities7010006 - 02 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2258
Abstract
Smart city initiatives are being promoted across the world to address major urban challenges, and they all share a common belief in the transformative power of digital technologies. However, the pace of innovation in smart cities seems to be much slower than the [...] Read more.
Smart city initiatives are being promoted across the world to address major urban challenges, and they all share a common belief in the transformative power of digital technologies. However, the pace of innovation in smart cities seems to be much slower than the rapid and profoundly disruptive transformations brought about by digital innovation in many other domains. To develop new insights about the main causes behind this relatively modest success, this study provides a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) on the connection between major smart city challenges and the essential properties of digital innovation. The review involved the qualitative analysis of 44 research papers reporting on smart city innovation practices and outcomes. The results characterize five major challenge categories for smart city innovation: Strategic vision; Organizational Capabilities and Agility; Technology Domestication; Ecosystem Development; and Transboundary Innovation. This study also explores the connections between these challenges and concrete digital innovation practices in smart city initiatives. The main conclusion is that current innovation practices in smart cities are not properly aligned with what the research literature commonly describes as core properties of digital innovation and that this might be a major cause behind the limited progress in smart city initiatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Innovation and Transformation for Smart Cities)
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42 pages, 6425 KiB  
Article
Implementation of a Trust-Based Framework for Substation Defense in the Smart Grid
by Kwasi Boakye-Boateng, Ali A. Ghorbani and Arash Habibi Lashkari
Smart Cities 2024, 7(1), 99-140; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities7010005 - 30 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1346
Abstract
The Smart Grid is a cyber-integrated power grid that manages electricity generation, transmission, and distribution to consumers and central to its functioning is the substation. However, integrating cyber-infrastructure into the substation has increased its attack surface. Notably, sophisticated attacks such as the PipeDream [...] Read more.
The Smart Grid is a cyber-integrated power grid that manages electricity generation, transmission, and distribution to consumers and central to its functioning is the substation. However, integrating cyber-infrastructure into the substation has increased its attack surface. Notably, sophisticated attacks such as the PipeDream APT exploit multiple device protocols, such as Modbus, DNP3, and IEC61850. The substation’s constraints pose challenges for implementing security measures such as encryption and intrusion detection systems. To address this, we propose a comprehensive trust-based framework aimed at enhancing substation security. The framework comprises a trust model, a risk posture model, and a trust transferability model. The trust model detects protocol-based attacks on Intelligent Electronic Devices and SCADA HMI systems, while the risk posture model dynamically assesses the substation’s risk posture. The trust transferability model evaluates the feasibility of transferring and integrating a device and its trust capabilities into a different substation. The practical substation emulation involves a Docker-based testbed, employing a multi-agent architecture with a real-time Security Operations Center-influenced dashboard. Assessment involves testing against attacks guided by the MITRE ICS ATT&CK framework. Our framework displays resilience against diverse attacks, identifies malicious behavior, and rewards trustworthy devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Smart Grids)
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21 pages, 5360 KiB  
Article
Intelligent Waste-Volume Management Method in the Smart City Concept
by Khrystyna Lipianina-Honcharenko, Myroslav Komar, Oleksandr Osolinskyi, Volodymyr Shymanskyi, Myroslav Havryliuk and Vita Semaniuk
Smart Cities 2024, 7(1), 78-98; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities7010004 - 29 Dec 2023
Viewed by 887
Abstract
This research paper proposes an innovative approach to urban waste management using intelligent methods of classification, clustering, and forecasting. The application of this approach allows for more efficient waste management and contributes to the sustainable development of the urban environment. The aim of [...] Read more.
This research paper proposes an innovative approach to urban waste management using intelligent methods of classification, clustering, and forecasting. The application of this approach allows for more efficient waste management and contributes to the sustainable development of the urban environment. The aim of this research is to develop an intelligent method for urban waste management, which includes clustering of waste sources, accurate forecasting of waste volumes, and evaluation of forecast results. To achieve this goal, a real dataset with city characteristics and waste data was used. On account of the war in Ukraine, the authors faced the problem of obtaining open data on waste in Ukraine, so it was decided to use data from another city (Singapore). The results show the high efficiency of the developed method. Comparison of the obtained results with the results of the nearest similar works shows that the main feature of this study is the high accuracy of waste-volume forecasting using the XGBoost model, which reached a level of up to 98%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multidisciplinary Research on Smart Cities)
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27 pages, 20053 KiB  
Article
Smart Grid Resilience for Grid-Connected PV and Protection Systems under Cyber Threats
by Feras Alasali, Awni Itradat, Salah Abu Ghalyon, Mohammad Abudayyeh, Naser El-Naily, Ali M. Hayajneh and Anas AlMajali
Smart Cities 2024, 7(1), 51-77; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities7010003 - 22 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1278
Abstract
In recent years, the integration of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) and communication networks has presented significant challenges to power system control and protection, primarily as a result of the emergence of smart grids and cyber threats. As the use of grid-connected solar Photovoltaic [...] Read more.
In recent years, the integration of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) and communication networks has presented significant challenges to power system control and protection, primarily as a result of the emergence of smart grids and cyber threats. As the use of grid-connected solar Photovoltaic (PV) systems continues to increase with the use of intelligent PV inverters, the susceptibility of these systems to cyber attacks and their potential impact on grid stability emerges as a critical concern based on the inverter control models. This study explores the cyber-threat consequences of selectively targeting the components of PV systems, with a special focus on the inverter and Overcurrent Protection Relay (OCR). This research also evaluates the interconnectedness between these two components under different cyber-attack scenarios. A three-phase radial Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) is employed for grid modeling and transient analysis under different cyber attacks. The findings of our analysis highlight the complex relationship between vulnerabilities in inverters and relays, emphasizing the consequential consequences of affecting one of the components on the other. In addition, this work aims to evaluate the impact of cyber attacks on the overall performance and stability of grid-connected PV systems. For example, in the attack on the PV inverters, the OCR failed to identify and eliminate the fault during a pulse signal attack with a short duration of 0.1 s. This resulted in considerable harmonic distortion and substantial power losses as a result of the protection system’s failure to recognize and respond to the irregular attack signal. Our study provides significant contributions to the understanding of cybersecurity in grid-connected solar PV systems. It highlights the importance of implementing improved protective measures and resilience techniques in response to the changing energy environment towards smart grids. Full article
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18 pages, 16740 KiB  
Article
Vision-Based Object Localization and Classification for Electric Vehicle Driving Assistance
by Alfredo Medina-Garcia, Jonathan Duarte-Jasso, Juan-Jose Cardenas-Cornejo, Yair A. Andrade-Ambriz, Marco-Antonio Garcia-Montoya, Mario-Alberto Ibarra-Manzano and Dora-Luz Almanza-Ojeda
Smart Cities 2024, 7(1), 33-50; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities7010002 - 22 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1279
Abstract
The continuous advances in intelligent systems and cutting-edge technology have greatly influenced the development of intelligent vehicles. Recently, integrating multiple sensors in cars has improved and spread the advanced drive-assistance systems (ADAS) solutions for achieving the goal of total autonomy. Despite current self-driving [...] Read more.
The continuous advances in intelligent systems and cutting-edge technology have greatly influenced the development of intelligent vehicles. Recently, integrating multiple sensors in cars has improved and spread the advanced drive-assistance systems (ADAS) solutions for achieving the goal of total autonomy. Despite current self-driving approaches and systems, autonomous driving is still an open research issue that must guarantee the safety and reliability of drivers. This work employs images from two cameras and Global Positioning System (GPS) data to propose a 3D vision-based object localization and classification method for assisting a car during driving. The experimental platform is a prototype of a two-sitter electric vehicle designed and assembled for navigating the campus under controlled mobility conditions. Simultaneously, color and depth images from the primary camera are combined to extract 2D features, which are reprojected into 3D space. Road detection and depth features isolate point clouds representing the objects to construct the occupancy map of the environment. A convolutional neural network was trained to classify typical urban objects in the color images. Experimental tests validate car and object pose in the occupancy map for different scenarios, reinforcing the car position visually estimated with GPS measurements. Full article
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32 pages, 34316 KiB  
Article
The Intersection of the Green and the Smart City: A Data Platform for Health and Well-Being through Nature-Based Solutions
by Dionysia Kolokotsa, Aikaterini Lilli, Elisavet Tsekeri, Kostas Gobakis, Minas Katsiokalis, Aikaterini Mania, Neil Baldacchino, Sevasti Polychronaki, Niall Buckley, Daniel Micallef, Kurt Calleja, Emma Clarke, Edward Duca, Luka Mali and Adriano Bisello
Smart Cities 2024, 7(1), 1-32; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities7010001 - 20 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1980
Abstract
An increasingly important aspect of analyzing the challenges facing cities today is the integration of nature. Nature-based solutions have the potential to successfully cope with the adverse effects of extensive urbanization and climatic change. On the other hand, the incorporation of smartness in [...] Read more.
An increasingly important aspect of analyzing the challenges facing cities today is the integration of nature. Nature-based solutions have the potential to successfully cope with the adverse effects of extensive urbanization and climatic change. On the other hand, the incorporation of smartness in cities is a critical issue. This paper aims to analyze the steps towards integrating nature-based solutions and smart city aspects to develop a web-based data platform that focuses on tackling and investigating the role of nature-based solutions in city health and well-being and returns a digital twin of the natural and built environment, including health-related key performance indicators. Seven pilot cities are used as a basis for the analysis. The architecture of a smart green city data platform is described. The interaction with the citizens is ensured through apps and games. The paper lays the foundation for a future “phygital” NBS world. Full article
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