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J. Manuf. Mater. Process., Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The application of a cryogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) snow cooling strategy is an economical and [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview
On Coating Techniques for Surface Protection: A Review
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3010028
Received: 21 February 2019 / Revised: 10 March 2019 / Accepted: 18 March 2019 / Published: 25 March 2019
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Abstract
A wide variety of coating methods and materials are available for different coating applications with a common purpose of protecting a part or structure exposed to mechanical or chemical damage. A benefit of this protective function is to decrease manufacturing cost since fabrication [...] Read more.
A wide variety of coating methods and materials are available for different coating applications with a common purpose of protecting a part or structure exposed to mechanical or chemical damage. A benefit of this protective function is to decrease manufacturing cost since fabrication of new parts is not needed. Available coating materials include hard and stiff metallic alloys, ceramics, bio-glasses, polymers, and engineered plastic materials, giving designers a variety freedom of choices for durable protection. To date, numerous processes such as physical/chemical vapor deposition, micro-arc oxidation, sol–gel, thermal spraying, and electrodeposition processes have been introduced and investigated. Although each of these processes provides advantages, there are always drawbacks limiting their application. However, there are many solutions to overcome deficiencies of coating techniques by using the benefits of each process in a multi-method coating. In this article, these coating methods are categorized, and compared. By developing more advanced coating techniques and materials it is possible to enhance the qualities of protection in the future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Predictive Models of Double-Vibropolishing in Bowl System Using Artificial Intelligence Methods
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3010027
Received: 12 February 2019 / Revised: 15 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
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Abstract
Vibratory finishing is a versatile and efficient surface finishing process widely used to finish components of various functionalities. Research efforts were focused in fundamental understanding of the process through analytical solutions and simulations. On the other hand, predictive modelling of surface roughness using [...] Read more.
Vibratory finishing is a versatile and efficient surface finishing process widely used to finish components of various functionalities. Research efforts were focused in fundamental understanding of the process through analytical solutions and simulations. On the other hand, predictive modelling of surface roughness using computational intelligence (CI) methods are emerging in recent years, though CI methods have not been extensively applied yet to a new vibratory finishing method called double-vibropolishing. In this study, multi-variable regression, artificial neural networks, and genetic programming models were designed and trained with experimental data obtained from subjecting rectangular Ti-6Al-4V test coupons to double vibropolishing in a bowl system configuration. Model selection was done by comparing the mean-absolute percentage error and r-squared values from both training and testing datasets. Exponential regression was determined as the best model for the bowl double-vibropolishing system studied with a Test MAPE score of 6.1% and a R-squared score of 0.99. A family of curves was generated using the exponential regression model as a potential tool in predicting surface roughness with time. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Rapid and Inexpensive Fabrication of Multi-Depth Microfluidic Device using High-Resolution LCD Stereolithographic 3D Printing
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3010026
Received: 23 January 2019 / Revised: 9 March 2019 / Accepted: 18 March 2019 / Published: 20 March 2019
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Abstract
With the dramatic increment of complexity, more microfluidic devices require 3D structures, such as multi-depth and -layer channels. The traditional multi-step photolithography is time-consuming and labor-intensive and also requires precise alignment during the fabrication of microfluidic devices. Here, we present an inexpensive, single-step, [...] Read more.
With the dramatic increment of complexity, more microfluidic devices require 3D structures, such as multi-depth and -layer channels. The traditional multi-step photolithography is time-consuming and labor-intensive and also requires precise alignment during the fabrication of microfluidic devices. Here, we present an inexpensive, single-step, and rapid fabrication method for multi-depth microfluidic devices using a high-resolution liquid crystal display (LCD) stereolithographic (SLA) three-dimensional (3D) printing system. With the pixel size down to 47.25 μm, the feature resolutions in the horizontal and vertical directions are 150 μm and 50 μm, respectively. The multi-depth molds were successfully printed at the same time and the multi-depth features were transferred properly to the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) having multi-depth channels via soft lithography. A flow-focusing droplet generator with a multi-depth channel was fabricated using the presented 3D printing method. Experimental results show that the multi-depth channel could manipulate the morphology and size of droplets, which is desired for many engineering applications. Taken together, LCD SLA 3D printing is an excellent alternative method to the multi-step photolithography for the fabrication of multi-depth microfluidic devices. Taking the advantages of its controllability, cost-effectiveness, and acceptable resolution, LCD SLA 3D printing can have a great potential to fabricate 3D microfluidic devices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reliability of Cutting Edge Radius Estimator Based on Chip Production Rate for Micro End Milling
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3010025
Received: 18 February 2019 / Revised: 16 March 2019 / Accepted: 18 March 2019 / Published: 20 March 2019
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Abstract
In this paper, the reliability of a new online cutting edge radius estimator for micro end milling is evaluated. This estimator predicts the cutting edge radius by detecting the drop in the chip production rate as the cutting edge of a micro end [...] Read more.
In this paper, the reliability of a new online cutting edge radius estimator for micro end milling is evaluated. This estimator predicts the cutting edge radius by detecting the drop in the chip production rate as the cutting edge of a micro end mill slips over the workpiece when the minimum chip thickness (MCT) becomes larger than the uncut chip thickness (UCT), thus transitioning from the shearing to the ploughing dominant regime. This study proposes a method of calibrating the cutting edge radius estimator by determining two parameters from training data: a ‘size filtering threshold’ that specifies the smallest-size chip that should be counted, and a ‘drop detection threshold’ that distinguishes the drop in the number of chips at the actual critical feedrate from the number drops at the other feedrates. This study then evaluates the accuracy of the calibrated estimator from testing data for determining the ‘critical feedrate’—the feedrate at which the MCT and UCT will be equal. It is found that the estimator is successful in determining the critical feedrate to within 1 mm/s in 84% of trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Findings and Approaches in Machining Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Kinematically Coupled Force Compensation—Experimental Results and Advanced Design for the 1D-Implementation
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3010024
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 22 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 18 March 2019
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Abstract
Typically, the feed dynamics of machine tools are limited to reduce excitations of machine structure oscillations. Consequently, the potential increase in productivity provided by electrical direct drives cannot be exploited. The novel approach of the Kinematically Coupled Force Compensation (KCFC) combines the principles [...] Read more.
Typically, the feed dynamics of machine tools are limited to reduce excitations of machine structure oscillations. Consequently, the potential increase in productivity provided by electrical direct drives cannot be exploited. The novel approach of the Kinematically Coupled Force Compensation (KCFC) combines the principles of redundant axes and force compensation to achieve an increase in the machine’s feed dynamics. Because the drive reaction forces are directly applied to the machine frame, they cancel out each other perfectly if the relative motion at the Tool Centre Point (TCP) is split according to the mass ratio of the slides. In this paper, the principle of KCFC is introduced briefly and possible improvements in the design of machine structures and control are presented. The results of experimental investigations obtained by means of a 1D-KCFC Test Bed illustrate the effectiveness of the principle. Moreover, a further increase of the compensation quality can be achieved by decoupling the force flow from the machine frame, by means of elastic elements. Finally, an outlook on future research with reference to the 1D-implementation as well as possible applications of the KCFC in highly productive processes is given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Findings and Approaches in Machining Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Chip Morphology and Delamination Characterization for Vibration-Assisted Drilling of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3010023
Received: 15 February 2019 / Revised: 28 February 2019 / Accepted: 7 March 2019 / Published: 12 March 2019
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Abstract
Carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP) are widely used in the aerospace industry. A new generation of aircraft is being built using CFRP for up to 50% of their total weight, to achieve higher performance. Exit delamination and surface integrity are significant challenges reported during [...] Read more.
Carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP) are widely used in the aerospace industry. A new generation of aircraft is being built using CFRP for up to 50% of their total weight, to achieve higher performance. Exit delamination and surface integrity are significant challenges reported during conventional drilling. Exit delamination influences the mechanical properties of machined parts and, consequently, reduces fatigue life. Vibration-assisted drilling (VAD) has much potential to overcome these challenges. This study is aimed at investigating exit delamination and geometrical accuracy during VAD at both low- and high-frequency ranges. The kinematics of VAD are used to investigate the relationship between the input parameters (cutting speed, feed, vibration frequency, and amplitude) and the uncut chip thickness. Exit delamination and geometrical accuracy are then evaluated in terms of mechanical and thermal load. The results show a 31% reduction in cutting temperature, as well as a significant enhancement in exit delamination, by using the VAD technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Integrity in Machining)
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Open AccessArticle
A Semianalytical Model for the Determination of Bistability and Curvature of Metallic Cylindrical Shells
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3010022
Received: 23 December 2018 / Revised: 8 February 2019 / Accepted: 22 February 2019 / Published: 27 February 2019
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Abstract
Bistable metal shells with a fully closed unfolded geometry are of great interest as lightweight construction parts which could be transported without housing and unfolded at the construction place. In order to achieve the effect of bistability in metallic shells, residual stresses with [...] Read more.
Bistable metal shells with a fully closed unfolded geometry are of great interest as lightweight construction parts which could be transported without housing and unfolded at the construction place. In order to achieve the effect of bistability in metallic shells, residual stresses with a specific distribution along the shell thickness are necessary. These residual stresses can be introduced in bending processes. The tools with specific bending radii are used to influence the curvature of the shell in the different stable states and thus determine whether a completely closed profile can be achieved. In addition to the forming process, the shell thickness and the shell material have an effect on the achievable geometries and stability. In order to manufacture bistable metallic cylindrical shells from different materials and shell thicknesses, it is necessary to be able to determine a promising process sequence and corresponding bending radii in advance. For this reason, this article presents a semianalytical model for the calculation of bistability and final curvatures. This model is applied to an incremental die-bending process using two bending operations with bending radii of 6 to 12 mm and a 0.2 mm thick steel shell of grade 1.1274 (AISI 1095). The calculation results show that bistability cannot be reached for all combinations of the two bending radii. Moreover, the model indicates that a bistable and fully closed shell is only achieved for a bending radii combination of R1 = 6 mm and R2 = 6 mm. With the aim of model verification, experiments with a closed-die incremental bending tool were performed. Calculated and experimental results show good correlation regarding bistability and curvature. In addition, X-ray diffraction measurement of the residual stresses shows a good qualitative agreement regarding the calculated and experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Modeling of Sheet Metal Forming Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Laser Powder Bed Fusion Processing Using a Combination of Melt Pool Modeling and Design of Experiment Approaches: Density Control
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3010021
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 4 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 21 February 2019
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Abstract
A simplified analytical model of the laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) process was used to develop a novel density prediction approach that can be adapted for any given powder feedstock and LPBF system. First, calibration coupons were built using IN625, Ti64 and Fe [...] Read more.
A simplified analytical model of the laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) process was used to develop a novel density prediction approach that can be adapted for any given powder feedstock and LPBF system. First, calibration coupons were built using IN625, Ti64 and Fe powders and a specific LPBF system. These coupons were manufactured using the predetermined ranges of laser power, scanning speed, hatching space, and layer thickness, and their densities were measured using conventional material characterization techniques. Next, a simplified melt pool model was used to calculate the melt pool dimensions for the selected sets of printing parameters. Both sets of data were then combined to predict the density of printed parts. This approach was additionally validated using the literature data on AlSi10Mg and 316L alloys, thus demonstrating that it can reliably be used to optimize the laser powder bed metal fusion process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anniversary Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle
Five-Axis Machine Tool Coordinate Metrology Evaluation Using the Ball Dome Artefact Before and After Machine Calibration
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3010020
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 1 February 2019 / Published: 3 February 2019
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Abstract
Now equipped with touch trigger probes machine tools are increasingly used to measure workpieces for various tasks such as rapid setup, compensation of final tool paths to correct part deflections and even verify conformity to finished tolerances. On five-axis machine tools, the use [...] Read more.
Now equipped with touch trigger probes machine tools are increasingly used to measure workpieces for various tasks such as rapid setup, compensation of final tool paths to correct part deflections and even verify conformity to finished tolerances. On five-axis machine tools, the use of data acquired for different rotary axes positions angles brings additional errors into play, thus increasing the measurement errors. The estimation of the machine geometric error sources, using such methods as the scale and master ball artefact (SAMBA) method, and their use to calibrate machine tools may enhance five-axis on-machine metrology. The paper presents the use of the ball dome artefact to validate the accuracy improvement when using a calibrated model to process the machine tool axis readings. The inter-axis errors and the scale gain errors were targeted for correction as well the measuring tool length and lateral offsets. Worst case and mean deviations between the reference artefact geometry and the on-machine tool measurement is reduced from 176 and 70 µm down to 31 and 12 µm for the nominal and calibrated machine stylus tip offsets respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anniversary Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle
Sheet Metal Profiles with Variable Height: Numerical Analyses on Flexible Roller Beading
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3010019
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 21 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
In the spirit of flexible manufacturing, the novel forming process “flexible roller beading” was developed, which allows the incremental production of height-variable sheet metal profiles. After designing the process and realizing a test facility for flexible roller beading, the feasibility was experimentally shown. [...] Read more.
In the spirit of flexible manufacturing, the novel forming process “flexible roller beading” was developed, which allows the incremental production of height-variable sheet metal profiles. After designing the process and realizing a test facility for flexible roller beading, the feasibility was experimentally shown. The following step addresses the expansion of the process limits. With this aim, the mechanical behavior of the sheet metal during the process was investigated by means of FEA. Due to the variable cross-section development of the sheet metal profile, a multidimensional stress distribution was identified. Based on the present state of stress and strain, conclusions about the origin of appearing defect formations were drawn. Observed defects were sheet wrinkles as a result of compressive stresses in the profile flange and material thinning in the profile legs and bottom due to unintendedly exceeding tensile stresses. The influences of the forming strategy as well as tool- and workpiece-side variations on the quality of the manufacturing result were investigated. From the results of the analyses, measures to avoid component failure were derived. Given all the findings, guidelines were concluded that are to be considered in designing the forming sequence. With the insights into the occurring processes and the mastery of this novel forming process, important contributions are made to its industrial suitability. The approach of lightweight and load-oriented component design can be extended by realizing new families of sheet metal profiles. With respect to Industry 4.0, on-demand manufacturing is increasingly required, which is why flexible roller beading is of substantial relevance for the industrial sheet metal production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Modeling of Sheet Metal Forming Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
An Assessment of Thermoset Injection Molding for Thin-Walled Conformal Encapsulation of Board-Level Electronic Packages
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3010018
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 24 January 2019 / Accepted: 25 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
An ever-growing market demand for board (second) level packages (e.g., embedded systems, system-on-a-chip, etc.) poses newer challenges for its manufacturing industry in terms of competitive pricing, higher reliability, and overall dimensions. Such packages are encapsulated for various reasons including thermal management, protection from [...] Read more.
An ever-growing market demand for board (second) level packages (e.g., embedded systems, system-on-a-chip, etc.) poses newer challenges for its manufacturing industry in terms of competitive pricing, higher reliability, and overall dimensions. Such packages are encapsulated for various reasons including thermal management, protection from environmental conditions and dust particles, and enhancing the mechanical stability. In the due course of reducing overall sizes and material saving, an encapsulation as thin as possible imposes its own significance. Such a thin-walled conformal encapsulation serves as an added advantage by reducing the thermo-mechanical stresses occurring due to thermal-cyclic loading, compared to block-sized or thicker encapsulations. This paper assesses the encapsulation process of a board-level package by means of thermoset injection molding. Various aspects reviewed in this paper include the conception of a demonstrator, investigation of the flow simulation of the injection molding process, execution of molding trials with different encapsulation thicknesses, and characterization of the packages. The process shows a high dependence on the substrate properties, injection molding process parameters, device mounting tolerances, and device geometry tolerances. Nevertheless, the thermoset injection molding process is suitable for the encapsulation of board-level packages limiting itself only with respect to the thickness of the encapsulation material, which depends on other external aforementioned factors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Process Stability during Laser Beam Welding with Beam Oscillation and Wire Feed
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3010017
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 24 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
Beam oscillation in laser material processing makes it possible to influence process behavior in terms of energy distribution, stability, melt pool dynamics and solidification. Within the setup presented here, the beam is oscillated transverse to the welding direction, and the filler wire is [...] Read more.
Beam oscillation in laser material processing makes it possible to influence process behavior in terms of energy distribution, stability, melt pool dynamics and solidification. Within the setup presented here, the beam is oscillated transverse to the welding direction, and the filler wire is fed to the melt pool of a butt joint with an air gap. One advantage of this setup is the large gap bridging ability. Certain parameter sets lead to the so-called buttonhole welding method, which allows laser welding of smooth and nearly ripple-free seams. Observations showed a transition area between conventional keyhole and buttonhole welding in which the process is destabilized. Welds made with parameter sets from this area contain critical seam defects. Welding experiments with high-speed video recording and a simplified analytical model about the wire-beam interaction have helped to elucidate the mechanisms behind this. EN AW-6082 sheet material in 1.5 mm thickness and ML 4043 filler wire with 1.2 mm diameter were used. The investigations lead to the conclusion that partially melted wire segments result at certain parameter relations which hinder the formation of a buttonhole. If these segments are prevented, buttonhole welding occurs. In the transition area, these segments are very small and can lead to the detachment of a buttonhole, resulting in the named seam defects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Findings and Approaches in Machining Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of HIP Treatment on Microstructure and Fatigue Strength of Selectively Laser Melted AlSi10Mg
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3010016
Received: 15 December 2018 / Revised: 2 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
This study shows the effect of hot isostatic pressing (HIP) on the porosity and the microstructure, as well as the corresponding fatigue strength of selectively-laser-melted (SLM) AlSi10Mg structures. To eliminate the influence of the as-built surface, all specimens are machined and exhibit a [...] Read more.
This study shows the effect of hot isostatic pressing (HIP) on the porosity and the microstructure, as well as the corresponding fatigue strength of selectively-laser-melted (SLM) AlSi10Mg structures. To eliminate the influence of the as-built surface, all specimens are machined and exhibit a polished surface. To highlight the effect of the HIP treatment, the HIP specimens are compared to a test series without any post-treatment. The fatigue characteristic is evaluated by tension-compression high cycle fatigue tests under a load stress ratio of R = −1. The influence of HIP on the microstructural characteristics is investigated by utilizing scanning electron microscopy of micrographs of selected samples. In order to study the failure mechanism and the fatigue crack origin, a fracture surface analysis is carried out. It is found that, due to the HIP process and subsequent annealing, there is a beneficial effect on the microstructure regarding the fatigue crack propagation, such as Fe-rich precipitates and silicon agglomerations. This leads, combined with a significant reduction of global porosity and a decrease of micro pore sizes, to an improved fatigue resistance for the HIPed condition compared to the other test series within this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selective Laser Melting: Materials and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Carbon Dioxide Snow in Machining of CGI using an Additively Manufactured Turning Tool
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3010015
Received: 24 December 2018 / Revised: 18 January 2019 / Accepted: 21 January 2019 / Published: 23 January 2019
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Abstract
The application of conventional cooling lubricants for the tribological conditioning of machining processes involves high additional costs and health risks. The application of a cryogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) snow cooling strategy is an economical and environmentally sound alternative for oily cooling [...] Read more.
The application of conventional cooling lubricants for the tribological conditioning of machining processes involves high additional costs and health risks. The application of a cryogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) snow cooling strategy is an economical and environmentally sound alternative for oily cooling emulsions since it has a high cooling effect as well as a residue-free sublimation. This article introduces a laser additive manufactured tool holder with an integrated dual nozzle which enables CO2-snow jet application. Initially this work focuses on the characterization and the selection of a suitable nozzle geometry. The modular tool body features an adapted channel structure for process-reliable and targeted CO2-snow cooling for turning processes. This enables the simultaneous cooling of the rake and flank face with CO2-snow, as well as the application of cryogenic multi-component cooling of the rake face. In the context of this study, the focus lies on the technological evaluation of three different supply strategies during the continuous turning of compacted graphite iron CGI-450 at increased cutting speed. It was established that an efficient rake face cooling is indispensable to achieve a low thermal tool load, and thus lower crater wear behavior. Therefore, this study contributes to an improvement in cryogenic machining processes regarding the design of additively manufactured tool bodies for process-reliable CO2-snow cooling, as well as for the selection of supply strategies to minimize the thermomechanical tool load. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Findings and Approaches in Machining Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Interlaced Laser Beam Scanning: A Method Enabling an Increase in the Throughput of Ultrafast Laser Machining of Borosilicate Glass
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3010014
Received: 23 December 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 21 January 2019 / Published: 23 January 2019
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Abstract
We provide experimental evidence that the laser beam scanning strategy has a significant influence on material removal rate in the ultrafast laser machining of glass. A comparative study of two laser beam scanning methods, (i) bidirectional sequential scanning method (SM) and (ii) bidirectional [...] Read more.
We provide experimental evidence that the laser beam scanning strategy has a significant influence on material removal rate in the ultrafast laser machining of glass. A comparative study of two laser beam scanning methods, (i) bidirectional sequential scanning method (SM) and (ii) bidirectional interlaced scanning method (IM), is presented for micromachining 1.1-mm-thick borosilicate glass plates (Borofloat® 33). Material removal rate and surface roughness are measured for a range of pulse energies, overlaps, and repetition frequencies. With a pulse overlap of ≤90%, IM can provide double the ablation depth and double the removal rate in comparison to SM, whilst maintaining very similar surface roughness. In both cases, the root-mean-square (RMS) surface roughness (Sq) was in the range of 1 μm to 2.5 μm. For a 95% pulse overlap, the difference was more pronounced, with IM providing up to four times the ablation depth of SM; however, this is at the cost of a significant increase in surface roughness (Sq values >5 μm). The increased ablation depths and removal rates with IM are attributed to a layer-by-layer material removal process, providing more efficient ejection of glass particles and, hence, reduced shielding of the machined area. IM also has smaller local angles of incidence of the laser beam that potentially can lead to a better coupling efficiency of the laser beam with the material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Speed Machining)
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Open AccessArticle
Towards Optimization of μ-Injection Molding Process for a New V-Shaped Geometrical Component Using X-ray CT-Based Quality Characterization
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3010013
Received: 27 December 2018 / Revised: 18 January 2019 / Accepted: 21 January 2019 / Published: 23 January 2019
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Abstract
The influence of micro-injection molding process parameters on a molded component’s quality is very prominent. Depending on the functional performance of the part, the desired quality is defined by several criteria which may include dimensional tolerances, shrinkage/warpage, fiber characteristics, and internal defects. A [...] Read more.
The influence of micro-injection molding process parameters on a molded component’s quality is very prominent. Depending on the functional performance of the part, the desired quality is defined by several criteria which may include dimensional tolerances, shrinkage/warpage, fiber characteristics, and internal defects. A correlation of process parameters with the defined quality attributes needs to be investigated for a new geometrical component. In this work, a micro-component with a new V-shaped geometry is chosen, as this type of geometry finds potential applications in the medical industry. The parts are manufactured with polyoxymethylene resin with a full-factorial design of experimental plan with investigating parameters of mold temperature, melt temperature, injection speed, and packing pressure. The number of internal pores and amount of volumetric shrinkage are identified as the critical quality criteria and the effect of the process parameters is studied with respect to those criteria. The measurement results indicated that the presence of pores is inevitable within the chosen process window; however, the amount can be minimized with careful selection of process settings. Moreover, the statistical analyses demonstrated the significance levels of the process parameters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Deformation Path on the Microstructure and Mechanical Behavior of TWIP980 Steel
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3010012
Received: 27 December 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 17 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
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Abstract
Recent technological advances have made it possible to manufacture steels with both high strength and high ductility. This is the case for Twinning-Induced Plasticity (TWIP) steels which are characterized by a twinning deformation mechanism, which is responsible for its excellent properties. In this [...] Read more.
Recent technological advances have made it possible to manufacture steels with both high strength and high ductility. This is the case for Twinning-Induced Plasticity (TWIP) steels which are characterized by a twinning deformation mechanism, which is responsible for its excellent properties. In this work, TWIP980 steel was tested under tensile loading along the rolling direction until pre-deformations of 10%, 20%, and 30% were reached. In order to assess the effect of the deformation path, the pre-deformed samples were reloaded in directions of 0°, 45° and 90° against the rolling direction. Microstructural analysis was performed by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The yield stress increased with the imposed deformation for all the tested directions. As the strain path changed from 0° to 90°, the yield stress for reload decreased, and the Bauschinger effect and permanent softening was observed. The yield plateau was observed as being directly influenced by deformation path without influence by strain rate and temperature. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Intelligent Fault Diagnosis of Bearings Based on Energy Levels in Frequency Bands Using Wavelet and Support Vector Machines (SVM)
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3010011
Received: 24 December 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 19 January 2019
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Abstract
In this paper, a new method was introduced for feature extraction and fault diagnosis in bearings based on wavelet packet decomposition and analysis of the energy in different frequency bands. This method decomposes a signal into different frequency bands using different types of [...] Read more.
In this paper, a new method was introduced for feature extraction and fault diagnosis in bearings based on wavelet packet decomposition and analysis of the energy in different frequency bands. This method decomposes a signal into different frequency bands using different types of wavelets and performs multi-resolution analysis to extract different features of the signals by choosing energy levels in different frequency bands. The support vector machines (SVM) technique was used for faults classifications. Daubechies, biorthogonal, coiflet, symlet, Meyer, and reverse Meyer wavelets were used for feature extraction. The most appropriate decomposition level and frequency band were selected by analyzing the variation in the signal’s energy level. The proposed approach was applied to the fault diagnosis of rolling bearings, and testing results showed that the proposed approach can reliably identify different fault categories and their severities. Moreover, the effectiveness of the proposed feature selection and fault diagnosis method was significant based on the similarity between the wavelet packet and the signal, and effectively reduced the influence of the signal noise on the classification results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Metallurgical Analysis of Chip Forming Process when Machining High Strength Bainitic Steels
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3010010
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 17 January 2019 / Published: 19 January 2019
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Abstract
In the following work, we propose a metallurgical approach to the chip formation process. We focus on a turning application of high strength steel in which chips are produced by adiabatic shear bands that generate cutting force signals with high frequency components. A [...] Read more.
In the following work, we propose a metallurgical approach to the chip formation process. We focus on a turning application of high strength steel in which chips are produced by adiabatic shear bands that generate cutting force signals with high frequency components. A spectral analysis of these signals is applied and highlights peaks above 4 kHz depending on the cutting conditions. A microscopic analysis on the chip sections provided data on chip breaking and serration mechanisms. Shear band spacing and excitation frequency of the whole cutting system were calculated and gave a good correlation with cutting forces spectra. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Findings and Approaches in Machining Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Feedstock Preparation for Injection Molding of Oxide–Oxide Ceramic Composites
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3010009
Received: 28 October 2018 / Revised: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 20 December 2018 / Published: 16 January 2019
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Abstract
In this fundamental work, a series of experiments were performed to define the optimal amount of dispersant and solid content for feedstock with and without ceramic fibers (Nextel 610). Based on these fixed conditions, investigations were carried out to discover the effects of [...] Read more.
In this fundamental work, a series of experiments were performed to define the optimal amount of dispersant and solid content for feedstock with and without ceramic fibers (Nextel 610). Based on these fixed conditions, investigations were carried out to discover the effects of binder system, fiber sizing, and increasing fiber content on mixing and viscosity. In addition, the effects of kneading temperature and time, fiber sizing, and different binder systems on fiber length were investigated using a measuring mixer, high-pressure capillary rheometer, and microscopy. Stearic acid, as a dispersant, modified the particle surface and improved the rheological properties. Moreover, increasing the solid content in the feedstocks led to an exponential growth of final torque and relative viscosity, because of the increasing friction between particles. Paraffin wax (PW)- and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based feedstocks showed different mixing behaviors and rheological results with increasing fiber, whereas PEG-based feedstocks had higher final torques and kneading energies without fibers, whilst PEG feedstocks displayed lower viscosities. Consequently, during kneading, the amount of fiber has been predominating over fiber length, and the effect of the binder, the kneading temperature, and time did not cause significant changes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Joint Properties of 5754 Aluminium Alloy by Friction Stir Spot Welding
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3010008
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 12 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
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Abstract
In this study, AA5754 sheet samples joined by using a friction stir spot welding method using different rotational speed parameters has been analyzed experimentally. During the experiments, rotational speed of the tool was changed while other process parameters and the tool geometry were [...] Read more.
In this study, AA5754 sheet samples joined by using a friction stir spot welding method using different rotational speed parameters has been analyzed experimentally. During the experiments, rotational speed of the tool was changed while other process parameters and the tool geometry were kept constant. The effect of tool rotational speed on the hardness values, macrostructure, and tensile properties of joints has been investigated and the results of the experiments show the best tensile shear strength and hardness values are obtained for the tool rotation speed of 1850 rpm. According to the macroscopic investigation, all of the fractured samples failed by nugget pullout and the fractured samples have only a single type fracture pattern. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of JMMP in 2018
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3010007
Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
Rigorous peer-review is the corner-stone of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Open AccessData Descriptor
Full-Density Fused Deposition Modeling Dimensional Error as a Function of Raster Angle and Build Orientation: Large Dataset for Eleven Materials
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3010006
Received: 9 December 2018 / Revised: 7 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 749 | PDF Full-text (25817 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This paper describes the collection of a large dataset (6930 measurements) on dimensional error in the fused deposition modeling (FDM) additive manufacturing process for full-density parts. Three different print orientations were studied, as well as seven raster angles (0, 15 [...] Read more.
This paper describes the collection of a large dataset (6930 measurements) on dimensional error in the fused deposition modeling (FDM) additive manufacturing process for full-density parts. Three different print orientations were studied, as well as seven raster angles ( 0 , 15 , 30 , 45 , 60 , 75 , and 90 ) for the rectilinear infill pattern. All measurements were replicated ten times on ten different samples to ensure a comprehensive dataset. Eleven polymer materials were considered: acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polylactic acid (PLA), high-temperature PLA, wood-composite PLA, carbon-fiber-composite PLA, copper-composite PLA, aluminum-composite PLA, high-impact polystyrene (HIPS), polyethylene terephthalate glycol-enhanced (PETG), polycarbonate, and synthetic polyamide (nylon). The samples were ASTM-standard impact-testing samples, since this geometry allows the measurement of error on three different scales; the nominal dimensions were 3.25 mm thick, 63.5 mm long, and 12.7 mm wide. This dataset is intended to give engineers and product designers a basis for judging the accuracy and repeatability of the FDM process for use in manufacturing of end-user products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Towards Sustainable Manufacturing Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
A Study of Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) by Nanofluids in Orbital Drilling and Tribological Testing
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3010005
Received: 4 December 2018 / Revised: 2 January 2019 / Accepted: 5 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
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Abstract
In minimum quantity lubrication (MQL), an aerosol containing a minimum amount of the cutting fluid is delivered to the tool/workpiece interface during the metal cutting operation. The fluid lubrication by the fluid and the cooling by the compressed air in the aerosol improves [...] Read more.
In minimum quantity lubrication (MQL), an aerosol containing a minimum amount of the cutting fluid is delivered to the tool/workpiece interface during the metal cutting operation. The fluid lubrication by the fluid and the cooling by the compressed air in the aerosol improves the cutting process, while the low consumption rate in MQL provides less cleanup and reduces the associated cost. In this paper, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) nanoparticles were added to the aerosol for providing a third functionality to the MQL, which is solid lubrication at the interface. Both orbital drilling and tribological testing using a four-ball tester were studied to examine the effectiveness of solid lubrication in MQL. In orbital drilling of titanium with tungsten carbide tools, MQL with nanofluids containing MoS2 nanoparticles resulted in less transfer film buildup on the tool. In four-ball testing, MQL with nanofluids with MoS2 and hBN nanoparticles yielded lower surface temperatures and less variation of frictional torques in titanium. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Microstructural Characterization of Shrouded Plasma-Sprayed Titanium Coatings
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3010004
Received: 5 December 2018 / Revised: 28 December 2018 / Accepted: 3 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract
Titanium and its alloys are often used for corrosion protection because they are able to offer high chemical resistance against various corrosive media. In this paper, shrouded plasma spray technology was applied to produce titanium coatings. A solid shroud with an external shrouding [...] Read more.
Titanium and its alloys are often used for corrosion protection because they are able to offer high chemical resistance against various corrosive media. In this paper, shrouded plasma spray technology was applied to produce titanium coatings. A solid shroud with an external shrouding gas was used to plasma spray titanium powder feedstock with aim of reducing the oxide content in the as-sprayed coatings. The titanium coatings were assessed by optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, LECO combustion method and Vickers microhardness testing. The results showed that the presence of the shroud and the external shrouding gas led to a dense microstructure with a low porosity in the plasma-sprayed titanium coatings. The oxygen and nitrogen contents in the titanium coating were kept at a low level due to the shielding effect of the shroud attachment and the external shrouding gas. The dominant phase in the shrouded titanium coatings was mainly composed of α-Ti phase, which was very similar to the titanium feedstock powders. The shrouded plasma-sprayed titanium coatings had a Vickers microhardness of 404.2 ± 103.2 HV. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Steps in an Automated Process Chain for Piezoceramic-Metal Compound Production
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3010003
Received: 10 December 2018 / Accepted: 25 December 2018 / Published: 7 January 2019
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Abstract
The potential of adaptronic applications has been proven in many conceptual studies. A broad use in high-efficiency branches is often hindered by the absence of an appropriate assembly method. Especially for piezoceramic foil transducers, the application on structural parts can be simplified using [...] Read more.
The potential of adaptronic applications has been proven in many conceptual studies. A broad use in high-efficiency branches is often hindered by the absence of an appropriate assembly method. Especially for piezoceramic foil transducers, the application on structural parts can be simplified using a semi-finished part that includes the transducer. The part is then shaped in a final forming operation. The purpose of the present study is the investigation of process limits in automated process chains for producing semi-finished parts. An adhesive is used in the process, which is only locally cured. This bi-conditioned state is achieved using cooling and heating elements. The process limits are mainly affected by the choice of temperature and curing time between adhesive application and forming operation. Several tests with a rotational rheometer were carried out to investigate the curing behavior. An appropriate process window was identified varying processing time and temperature. The results were then used to build a model of the curing behavior. A mathematical approach had to be used to find the best configuration because no sharp border exists between the two adhesive conditions of liquid and solid state. The process parameters were proven with runs inside and outside of the process limits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Modeling of Sheet Metal Forming Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Influence of Fibers on the Formability of Metal Blanks in Manufacturing Processes for Fiber Metal Laminates
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3010002
Received: 24 November 2018 / Revised: 28 December 2018 / Accepted: 29 December 2018 / Published: 5 January 2019
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Abstract
In the one-step manufacturing process for fiber metal laminate parts, the so-called in situ hybridization process, the fabrics are interacting with metal blanks. During deep drawing, the liquid matrix is injected between the metal sheets through the woven fiber layers. The metal blanks [...] Read more.
In the one-step manufacturing process for fiber metal laminate parts, the so-called in situ hybridization process, the fabrics are interacting with metal blanks. During deep drawing, the liquid matrix is injected between the metal sheets through the woven fiber layers. The metal blanks can be in contact with dry or with infiltrated fibers. The formability of the blanks is influenced by the variation of the starting time of injection. The reason for that is that, due to high contact forces, the fibers are able to deform the metal surface locally, so that movement and the strain of the blanks is inhibited. To investigate the influence of different fibers on the formability of metals, Nakazima tests are performed. In these tests, two metal blanks are formed with an interlayer of fibers. The results are compared with the formability of two blanks without any interlayer. It is shown that in with fibers between sheets, the formability decreases compared to the formability of two metal blanks without interlayers. Based on a simplified numerical model for different types of fibers, the interactions of the fibers with the metal blank are analyzed. It could be shown that the friction due to contact has more influence than the friction due to the form fit caused by the imprints. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Modeling of Sheet Metal Forming Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
A Control Method for the Ultrasonic Spot Welding of Fiber-Reinforced Thermoplastic Laminates through the Weld-Power Time Derivative
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3010001
Received: 24 October 2018 / Revised: 18 December 2018 / Accepted: 24 December 2018 / Published: 30 December 2018
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Abstract
It was found that the ultrasonic spot welding may serve as an efficient method to join relative large thin-walled parts made of fiber-reinforced thermoplastics. In this study, a new control method for the ultrasonic spot-welding process was investigated. It was found that, when [...] Read more.
It was found that the ultrasonic spot welding may serve as an efficient method to join relative large thin-walled parts made of fiber-reinforced thermoplastics. In this study, a new control method for the ultrasonic spot-welding process was investigated. It was found that, when welding fiber-reinforced thermoplastic laminates without energy directors, overheating and decomposition of the polymer at the weld spot occurred. The occurrence of the overheating took place at unpredictable times during welding. It was observed that the time trace of the consumed power curve by the welder follows a similar pattern as the time trace of the temperature in the weld spot center. Based on this observation, a control system was developed. The time derivative of the welder power was monitored in real time and, as soon as it exceeded a critical value, the ultrasonic vibration amplitude was actively adjusted through a microcontroller. The controlling of the ultrasonic welding process forced the temperature in the weld spot to remain in an adequate range throughout the welding duration for the polymer diffusion to occur. The results of the controlled welding process were evaluated by means of weld temperature measurements, computed tomography scans, and microscopic analysis of the weld spot fracture surfaces. Full article
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