Special Issue "Analysis and Modeling of Sheet Metal Forming Processes"

A special issue of Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing (ISSN 2504-4494).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2019)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Markus Bambach

Chair of Mechanical Design and Manufacturing, Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg, Konrad-Wachsmann-Allee 17, Cottbus D-03046, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: metal forming; flexible and hybrid manufacturing processes; lightweight materials; integrated computational materials engineering (ICME)

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We would like to draw your attention to this Special Issue of JMMP on “Analysis and Modelling of Sheet Metal Forming Processes”. Analysis and modeling play a vital role for accessing the feasibility of sheet metal forming processes. Nowadays, almost no tool design in industrial stamping is manufactured without successful virtual tryout. Process simulations thus help reduce cost and lead time and allow for exploring new process designs without building expensive equipment. In spite of these achievements, methods for the simulation of sheet metal forming processes are still subject to extensive research efforts due to the fast progress in the development of new sheet materials, new process designs and process control strategies.

This Special Issue on the “Analysis and Modelling of Sheet Metal Forming Processes” focuses on contributions that detail new developments and enhance the understanding of sheet metal forming analysis and modeling. The topics of interest include (but are not limited to):

  • Methods for the optimization, robust design and control of sheet metal forming processes
  • Through process Modeling from sheet production to crash simulation
  • Advanced Damage Modeling for sheet and tool material
  • Prediction of residual stresses and springback
  • Novel methods for characterization of sheet metal forming properties and parameter identification
  • Models for new sheet materials (monolithic and hybrid)
  • Models for flexible and sheet-bulk forming processes
  • Constitutive Modeling of sheet metal, especially multi-scale analysis
  • Models for warm forming of sheet metal
  • Friction models, especially for new tribological conditions such as dry forming or forming with structured tool surfaces
  • New element formulations and solution techniques

I am very much looking forward to your contributions.

Prof. Dr. Markus Bambach
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) is waived for well-prepared manuscripts submitted to this issue. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Sheet metal forming analysis
  • Numerical analysis, finite elements, shell elements
  • Materials modeling, Yield Criterion, hardening and anisotropy, Damage modeling
  • Forming limits, instability and fracture
  • Friction and contact modelling
  • Materials testing, Validation and Parameter Identification
  • Optimization, Robust design, Control

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Influence of Process Parameters in Incremental Sheet Metal Forming on Residual Stresses
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3020031
Received: 15 March 2019 / Revised: 5 April 2019 / Accepted: 8 April 2019 / Published: 10 April 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this study is to analyze the co-relation between the geometrical accuracy of parts formed by single-point incremental forming (SPIF) and the resulting distribution of the residual stresses induced in the material as a function of the different process parameters of [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to analyze the co-relation between the geometrical accuracy of parts formed by single-point incremental forming (SPIF) and the resulting distribution of the residual stresses induced in the material as a function of the different process parameters of the SPIF process. The study was performed for a pyramidal frustum manufactured by varying the process parameters of SPIF, i.e., tool diameter, tool step-down, and wall-angle. The hole-drilling strain gage method was used to determine the residual stresses in the manufactured pyramids. Further, small strips were laser cut from the pyramids, and the curvature of the strips was measured. The curvature of the strips is a result of the intensity and distribution of the residual stresses, which in turn depends on the selected values of the process parameters. A validated numerical model of SPIF was used to determine the residual stresses parallel and perpendicular to the direction of tool motion at the center of a strip cut from the numerical model in clamped, unclamped, and trimmed states. Further, the change in the bending moment of a strip that occurred upon unclamping and trimming was calculated. Experimental and numerical investigations reveal that the most significant parameter in residual stress build-up and the reduction of geometrical accuracy is the wall angle. Upon unclamping, the highest change in the residual stresses and bending moment occurred with the largest tool step-down and tool diameter. Upon trimming, the magnitude of the residual stresses and bending moment changed the most with the largest tool step-down in both directions, whereas the change was highest with the smallest tool diameter in the transverse direction of the tool motion. Furthermore, upon trimming, the geometric deviations were highest with the large wall angles in the transverse direction of the tool motion. Overall, the effect of changing process parameters on the residual stress state and geometrical accuracy was more pronounced in the transverse direction of the tool motion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Modeling of Sheet Metal Forming Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
A Semianalytical Model for the Determination of Bistability and Curvature of Metallic Cylindrical Shells
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3010022
Received: 23 December 2018 / Revised: 8 February 2019 / Accepted: 22 February 2019 / Published: 27 February 2019
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Abstract
Bistable metal shells with a fully closed unfolded geometry are of great interest as lightweight construction parts which could be transported without housing and unfolded at the construction place. In order to achieve the effect of bistability in metallic shells, residual stresses with [...] Read more.
Bistable metal shells with a fully closed unfolded geometry are of great interest as lightweight construction parts which could be transported without housing and unfolded at the construction place. In order to achieve the effect of bistability in metallic shells, residual stresses with a specific distribution along the shell thickness are necessary. These residual stresses can be introduced in bending processes. The tools with specific bending radii are used to influence the curvature of the shell in the different stable states and thus determine whether a completely closed profile can be achieved. In addition to the forming process, the shell thickness and the shell material have an effect on the achievable geometries and stability. In order to manufacture bistable metallic cylindrical shells from different materials and shell thicknesses, it is necessary to be able to determine a promising process sequence and corresponding bending radii in advance. For this reason, this article presents a semianalytical model for the calculation of bistability and final curvatures. This model is applied to an incremental die-bending process using two bending operations with bending radii of 6 to 12 mm and a 0.2 mm thick steel shell of grade 1.1274 (AISI 1095). The calculation results show that bistability cannot be reached for all combinations of the two bending radii. Moreover, the model indicates that a bistable and fully closed shell is only achieved for a bending radii combination of R1 = 6 mm and R2 = 6 mm. With the aim of model verification, experiments with a closed-die incremental bending tool were performed. Calculated and experimental results show good correlation regarding bistability and curvature. In addition, X-ray diffraction measurement of the residual stresses shows a good qualitative agreement regarding the calculated and experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Modeling of Sheet Metal Forming Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Sheet Metal Profiles with Variable Height: Numerical Analyses on Flexible Roller Beading
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3010019
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 21 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
In the spirit of flexible manufacturing, the novel forming process “flexible roller beading” was developed, which allows the incremental production of height-variable sheet metal profiles. After designing the process and realizing a test facility for flexible roller beading, the feasibility was experimentally shown. [...] Read more.
In the spirit of flexible manufacturing, the novel forming process “flexible roller beading” was developed, which allows the incremental production of height-variable sheet metal profiles. After designing the process and realizing a test facility for flexible roller beading, the feasibility was experimentally shown. The following step addresses the expansion of the process limits. With this aim, the mechanical behavior of the sheet metal during the process was investigated by means of FEA. Due to the variable cross-section development of the sheet metal profile, a multidimensional stress distribution was identified. Based on the present state of stress and strain, conclusions about the origin of appearing defect formations were drawn. Observed defects were sheet wrinkles as a result of compressive stresses in the profile flange and material thinning in the profile legs and bottom due to unintendedly exceeding tensile stresses. The influences of the forming strategy as well as tool- and workpiece-side variations on the quality of the manufacturing result were investigated. From the results of the analyses, measures to avoid component failure were derived. Given all the findings, guidelines were concluded that are to be considered in designing the forming sequence. With the insights into the occurring processes and the mastery of this novel forming process, important contributions are made to its industrial suitability. The approach of lightweight and load-oriented component design can be extended by realizing new families of sheet metal profiles. With respect to Industry 4.0, on-demand manufacturing is increasingly required, which is why flexible roller beading is of substantial relevance for the industrial sheet metal production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Modeling of Sheet Metal Forming Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Steps in an Automated Process Chain for Piezoceramic-Metal Compound Production
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3010003
Received: 10 December 2018 / Accepted: 25 December 2018 / Published: 7 January 2019
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Abstract
The potential of adaptronic applications has been proven in many conceptual studies. A broad use in high-efficiency branches is often hindered by the absence of an appropriate assembly method. Especially for piezoceramic foil transducers, the application on structural parts can be simplified using [...] Read more.
The potential of adaptronic applications has been proven in many conceptual studies. A broad use in high-efficiency branches is often hindered by the absence of an appropriate assembly method. Especially for piezoceramic foil transducers, the application on structural parts can be simplified using a semi-finished part that includes the transducer. The part is then shaped in a final forming operation. The purpose of the present study is the investigation of process limits in automated process chains for producing semi-finished parts. An adhesive is used in the process, which is only locally cured. This bi-conditioned state is achieved using cooling and heating elements. The process limits are mainly affected by the choice of temperature and curing time between adhesive application and forming operation. Several tests with a rotational rheometer were carried out to investigate the curing behavior. An appropriate process window was identified varying processing time and temperature. The results were then used to build a model of the curing behavior. A mathematical approach had to be used to find the best configuration because no sharp border exists between the two adhesive conditions of liquid and solid state. The process parameters were proven with runs inside and outside of the process limits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Modeling of Sheet Metal Forming Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Influence of Fibers on the Formability of Metal Blanks in Manufacturing Processes for Fiber Metal Laminates
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3010002
Received: 24 November 2018 / Revised: 28 December 2018 / Accepted: 29 December 2018 / Published: 5 January 2019
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Abstract
In the one-step manufacturing process for fiber metal laminate parts, the so-called in situ hybridization process, the fabrics are interacting with metal blanks. During deep drawing, the liquid matrix is injected between the metal sheets through the woven fiber layers. The metal blanks [...] Read more.
In the one-step manufacturing process for fiber metal laminate parts, the so-called in situ hybridization process, the fabrics are interacting with metal blanks. During deep drawing, the liquid matrix is injected between the metal sheets through the woven fiber layers. The metal blanks can be in contact with dry or with infiltrated fibers. The formability of the blanks is influenced by the variation of the starting time of injection. The reason for that is that, due to high contact forces, the fibers are able to deform the metal surface locally, so that movement and the strain of the blanks is inhibited. To investigate the influence of different fibers on the formability of metals, Nakazima tests are performed. In these tests, two metal blanks are formed with an interlayer of fibers. The results are compared with the formability of two blanks without any interlayer. It is shown that in with fibers between sheets, the formability decreases compared to the formability of two metal blanks without interlayers. Based on a simplified numerical model for different types of fibers, the interactions of the fibers with the metal blank are analyzed. It could be shown that the friction due to contact has more influence than the friction due to the form fit caused by the imprints. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Modeling of Sheet Metal Forming Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Determining Absorptivity Variations of Multiple Laser Beam Treatments of Stainless Steel Sheets
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(4), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2040084
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 14 December 2018 / Published: 18 December 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4687 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The absorptivity of laser radiation of metals is investigated in several studies. Therefore, absorption coefficients depending on temperature or roughness are known. However, many processes use iterative processing strategies, such as additive manufacturing, laser beam bending, or laser-assisted incremental forming. Simulations of these [...] Read more.
The absorptivity of laser radiation of metals is investigated in several studies. Therefore, absorption coefficients depending on temperature or roughness are known. However, many processes use iterative processing strategies, such as additive manufacturing, laser beam bending, or laser-assisted incremental forming. Simulations of these processes often use literature data for absorption coefficients and do not consider the variation of absorptivity during the process. In this study, the influences of multiple laser beam processing on absorptivity are investigated for stainless steel sheets. Absorption and roughness measurements are compared before and after heating treatments with the laser beam or in an oven. It is shown that an increasing amount of laser heating cycles correlates with higher absorptivity and higher roughness values. However, this increase of roughness is not considered to be sufficient for enhanced absorptivity. On the one hand, similar changes of absorptivity were detected when heating steel sheets in an oven. These oven-heated specimens do not show extensive roughness changes. On the other hand, the same amount of laser heating cycles with additional cool down time after each cycle results in a negligible absorptivity change. Therefore, the variation of the absorptivity is attributed to oxidation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Modeling of Sheet Metal Forming Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Investigation on the Geometrical Accuracy of the CNC Multi-Pass Sheet Metal Spinning Process
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2030059
Received: 29 July 2018 / Revised: 23 August 2018 / Accepted: 30 August 2018 / Published: 3 September 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5697 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The geometrical accuracy of multi-pass sheet metal spinning products is crucial in many applications. Aerospace, petroleum, and chemical industries motivated the development of modern spun components of complicated shapes with special functionality, but a substantial research lag exists behind this progress. Due to [...] Read more.
The geometrical accuracy of multi-pass sheet metal spinning products is crucial in many applications. Aerospace, petroleum, and chemical industries motivated the development of modern spun components of complicated shapes with special functionality, but a substantial research lag exists behind this progress. Due to the localized plastic deformation involved, careful control of dimensions and form is required in spinning procedures. In this study, two sets of experiments were implemented for cup manufacturing using a retrofitted computer numerically controlled (CNC) spinning machine to identify the critical factors affecting product geometry and reveal their influence on the shape accuracy of the spun cups. The first set is a screening experiment to determine the most significant parameters and the second provides the optimum processing conditions affecting cup quality. The feed ratio, number of spin-forming passes, spinning ratio, and lubrication were found to have the most important effect on the geometry of the spun cups. Optimum quality with a higher processing speed (productivity) was achieved under a lubricated condition using a larger number of spin-forming passes at a high feed ratio, diminishing the commonly adopted rule of slow spinning for accurate products and reflecting a significance for state-of-the-art spinning practice. The findings of this paper introduce a basis for a spinning quality database. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Modeling of Sheet Metal Forming Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Deformation Conditions on the Rolling Force during Variable Gauge Rolling
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2030048
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 12 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
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Abstract
In this study, effects of different deformation conditions on the rolling force were studied during variable gauge rolling processes. To this end, variations of rolling forces with rolling times were analyzed at different roll diameters, absolute thickness reductions and friction coefficients. Considering the [...] Read more.
In this study, effects of different deformation conditions on the rolling force were studied during variable gauge rolling processes. To this end, variations of rolling forces with rolling times were analyzed at different roll diameters, absolute thickness reductions and friction coefficients. Considering the rolling force variations, an abrupt change in the outlet section of downward and outward rolling was observed at all deformation conditions. The experimental data, along with the results obtained from finite element method (FEM) simulations, revealed that this drop in the rolling force (DRF) is strongly dependent on the deformation conditions. It was found that the DRF value increases with increasing absolute thickness reduction, roll diameter and friction coefficient. Furthermore, dependency of contact length on the roll radius and wedge angle (slope of the thickness transition zone) was investigated. Accordingly, it was concluded that the variations of the DRF value can be mainly attributed to the changes in the contact length during variable gauge rolling. Moreover, slab method analysis was used to model the effects of deformation conditions on DRF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Modeling of Sheet Metal Forming Processes)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Improvement of Numerical Modelling Considering Plane Strain Material Characterization with an Elliptic Hydraulic Bulge Test
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2010006
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 16 January 2018
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Abstract
A precise characterization of material behavior is necessary to identify yield criteria or hardening laws for an accurate numerical design of sheet metal forming processes. Current models like Yld2000-2d or Hill’48 do not consider the plane strain state, though this condition is primary [...] Read more.
A precise characterization of material behavior is necessary to identify yield criteria or hardening laws for an accurate numerical design of sheet metal forming processes. Current models like Yld2000-2d or Hill’48 do not consider the plane strain state, though this condition is primary cause of failure in deep drawing. It is anticipated that an improved yield locus contour which considers the stress under plane strain conditions leads to better results in numerical simulations of a deep drawing process. Within this contribution, a new experimental setup to characterize both principal stress components under plane strain as additional input data for material modelling is presented. Therefore, hydraulic bulge tests are carried out with a novel elliptical die, which implements a plane strain condition. Moreover, the improvement of the material model is investigated exemplarily for the three sheet metal alloys DC06, DP600 and AA5182. The resulting material parameters are used to identify the yield locus for plane strain by varying the yield locus exponent of Yld2000-2d. The results prove that considering plane strain yield locus results in a better sheet thickness distribution in comparison to conventional modelling of the deep drawing process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Modeling of Sheet Metal Forming Processes)
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