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J. Manuf. Mater. Process., Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) This paper introduces a fracture-based finite element model, the embedded cohesive zone finite [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Dimensional Quality and Distortion Analysis of Thin-Walled Alloy Parts of AlSi10Mg Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3020051 - 21 Jun 2019
Viewed by 634
Abstract
The quality and reliability in additive manufacturing is an emerging area. To ensure process quality and reliability, the influence of all process parameters and conditions needs to be understood. The product quality and reliability characteristics, i.e., dimensional accuracy, precision, repeatability, and reproducibility are [...] Read more.
The quality and reliability in additive manufacturing is an emerging area. To ensure process quality and reliability, the influence of all process parameters and conditions needs to be understood. The product quality and reliability characteristics, i.e., dimensional accuracy, precision, repeatability, and reproducibility are mostly affected by inherent and systematic manufacturing process variations. This paper presents research on dimensional quality and distortion analysis of AlSi10Mg thin-walled parts developed by a selective laser melting technique. The input process parameters were fixed, and the impact of inherent process variation on dimensional accuracy and precision was studied. The process stability and variability were examined under repeatability and reproducibility conditions. The sample length (horizontal dimension) results revealed a 0.05 mm maximum dimensional error, 0.0197 mm repeatability, and 0.0169 mm reproducibility. Similarly, in sample height (vertical dimension) results, 0.258 mm maximum dimensional error, 0.0237 mm repeatability, and 0.0863 mm reproducibility were observed. The effect of varying design thickness on thickness accuracy was analyzed, and regression analysis performed. The maximum 0.038 mm error and 0.018 mm standard deviation was observed for the 1 mm thickness sample, which significantly decreased for sample thickness ≥2 mm. The % error decreased exponentially with increasing sample thickness. The distortion analysis was performed to explore the effect of sample thickness on part distortion. The 0.5 mm thickness sample shows a very high distortion comparatively, and it is reduced significantly for >0.5 mm thickness samples. The study is further extended to examine the effect of solution heat treatment and artificial aging on the accuracy, precision, and distortion; however, it did not improve the results. Conclusively, the sample dimensions, i.e., length and height, have shown fluctuations due to inherent process characteristics under repeatability and reproducibility conditions. The ANOVA results revealed that sample length means are not statistically significantly different, whereas sample height means are significantly different. The horizontal dimensions in the xy-plane have better accuracy and precision compared to the vertical dimension in the z-axis. The accuracy and precision increased, whereas part distortion decreased with increasing thickness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selective Laser Melting: Materials and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Transient Powder Melting in SLM Using an Analytical Model with Phase Change and Spherical Symmetry in a Semi-Infinite Medium
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3020050 - 20 Jun 2019
Viewed by 476
Abstract
In this work, we introduce an analytical expression for approximating the transient melting radius during powder melting in Selective Laser Melting (SLM) assumed with a stationary laser heat source. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the suggested analytical approach in determining [...] Read more.
In this work, we introduce an analytical expression for approximating the transient melting radius during powder melting in Selective Laser Melting (SLM) assumed with a stationary laser heat source. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the suggested analytical approach in determining the melt pool geometry during laser processing, by considering heat transfer and phase change effects. This will allow for the rendering of the first findings on the way to a quasi-real time calculation of the melt pool during laser melting, which will contribute significantly to the process design and control, especially when new powders are applied. Initially, we consider the heat transfer process associated with a point heat source, releasing a continuous and constant power (in a semi-infinite powder bed. On the point of the heat source the temperature is infinite, and the material starts to melt spherically outwards, creating an interface that separates the solid from the molten material; we assume different properties between the two phases. Unlike the cases of the cartesian and cylindrical coordinates, (in a cartesian coordinate the heat source is over a plane, i.e., W/m2, and in cylindrical along a line, i.e., W/m), where the melting process is proportional to the square root of time, in spherical coordinates the melting stops at a finite radius, i.e., a maximum radius, which depends only on the heat source, the conductivity of the solid and the difference between the far-field temperature and the melting temperature of the material. Here we should also point out that to achieve continuous melting in spherical coordinates the power of the source must increase with the square root of the time. The obtained analytical expression for the maximum melting radius and the approximate expression for its dependence on the time compare well with the numerical results obtained by a finite element analysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Scale, Material Concentration, Stress Relief and Part Removal Effects on the Dimensional Behaviour of Selected AlSi10Mg Components Manufactured by Laser Powder Bed Fusion
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3020049 - 18 Jun 2019
Viewed by 679
Abstract
Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) is a predominant Additive Manufacturing (AM) process. While metallic LPBF is gaining popularity, one of the barriers facing its wider industrial use is the current relatively limited knowledge with respect to its dimensional and geometrical performance, as well [...] Read more.
Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) is a predominant Additive Manufacturing (AM) process. While metallic LPBF is gaining popularity, one of the barriers facing its wider industrial use is the current relatively limited knowledge with respect to its dimensional and geometrical performance, as well as the inability to predict it. This paper presents an experimental investigation of the geometrical and dimensional deviations of selected LPBF-manufactured components according to the ASME Y14.5 (2009) standard. In this study, two types of axisymmetric parts (cylinder and cylindrical pyramid) were designed with three different levels of material concentration, and replicated at three different scales for a total of 18 test artifacts. These parts were manufactured from AlSi10Mg powder using an EOSINT M280 printer, subjected to stress relief annealing at 300 °C for two hours, removed from the platform and finished by micro shot peening. A complete statistical analysis was carried out on the artifacts before and after each post-processing step. The results of this investigation allowed for the quantification of the intra- (same part) and inter- (different parts) scale effects, as well as of the material concentration, stress relief, part removal and micro shot peening effects on the overall three-dimensional (3D) profile deviations and on the dimensional deviations of some selected features (e.g., diameter, thickness). For example, cylindrical pyramid parts showed the following average deviations of their outside diameters: a −63 µm shrinkage of the as-built part diameter as compared to its computer-assisted design (CAD) value, a +20 µm expansion after stress relief annealing as compared to the precedent step, a −18 µm shrinkage after part removal and, finally, a −50 µm shrinkage after micro shot peening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Development in Metal Additive Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle
Manufacturing of Metallic Bipolar Plate Channels by Rolling
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3020048 - 17 Jun 2019
Viewed by 576
Abstract
Producing metallic bipolar plates for Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells by forming is still a topic of research. So far, it has mainly been applied for small batches, but it offers substantial advantages regarding both costs and installation space compared to the [...] Read more.
Producing metallic bipolar plates for Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells by forming is still a topic of research. So far, it has mainly been applied for small batches, but it offers substantial advantages regarding both costs and installation space compared to the established graphite based solutions. One new possibility for an efficient manufacturing process of these metallic bipolar plates is the forming by rolling. For the first time, this technology was used for relevant industrial scale channel geometries. By the use of an experimental rolling mill, 0.1 mm thick 316L (1.4404) stainless steel foils were roll-formed to achieve previously designed channel geometries within one rolling pass. The conducted experiments show promising results regarding the forming accuracy and the shape of the channel cross-sections. With the aim for a proof of concept in the beginning and a subsequent optimization of the process, a numerical simulation was set up prior to the real experiments and later calibrated with the experimental forming results. This calibrated model was used for further improvements of the process with the objective at reducing wrinkles and distortion. The investigation of this new process method for the manufacturing of metallic bipolar plates shows enormous potential and can lead to a more efficient and cheaper production. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
In-Situ Fretting Wear Analysis of Electrical Connectors for Real System Applications
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3020047 - 14 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 531
Abstract
The tribological behavior of electrical contacts, especially separable type electrical connectors at low contact loads, are considered. The reliability of these connectors has been a major concern due to the fretting phenomenon that can lead to an unacceptable increase in contact resistance. This [...] Read more.
The tribological behavior of electrical contacts, especially separable type electrical connectors at low contact loads, are considered. The reliability of these connectors has been a major concern due to the fretting phenomenon that can lead to an unacceptable increase in contact resistance. This study analyzes various aspects of the fretting mechanism from a tribological perspective where friction and wear are the primary cause of degradation in electrical components. With the use of precise tribological equipment (high data acquisition rate of 5000 Hz), the electrical contact resistance and coefficient of friction at the contact interface are measured. The measurements were made in-situ for a simulated fretting environment under various constant loading conditions. It was observed that low contact loads (1 N) and low fretting frequency (1 Hz) leads to a high degree of fluctuation in the coefficient of friction. However, for the same conditions, the lowest wear rate and electrical contact resistance were observed. The reason behind this could be due to the lack of continuous electrical contact and a high degree of fretting frequency under low contact loads, ultimately leading to extended periods of an open circuit. Experimental analysis indicates the existence of an optimum loading condition at which the fretting wear effect is at its minimum. Detailed analysis of post fretting surface roughness, coating wear, and wear debris is conducted, as well as transfer film formations to explain the mechanism of fretting observed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Microstructure Development during Low-Current Resistance Spot Welding of Aluminum to Magnesium
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3020046 - 14 Jun 2019
Viewed by 570
Abstract
Resistance spot welding of aluminum (Al5754) to magnesium (AZ31B) alloys results in the formation of a variety of solidification microstructures and intermetallic compounds that may affect the in-service performance of the weld. This study evaluates the relationship between the welding parameters and the [...] Read more.
Resistance spot welding of aluminum (Al5754) to magnesium (AZ31B) alloys results in the formation of a variety of solidification microstructures and intermetallic compounds that may affect the in-service performance of the weld. This study evaluates the relationship between the welding parameters and the properties of the weld nugget that is formed, and clarifies the morphological and microstructural evolutions within the weld regions during the low-current “small-scale” resistance spot welding of Al5754 to AZ31B. The investigations included a combination of microstructural characterization and thermodynamic analysis of the weld region. The results show that the welding time and clamping force parameters have significant effects on the properties of the nugget formed. The optimal welding parameters were found to be 300 ms welding time and 800 N clamping force. Weld nuggets formed with lower welding time and clamping force were undersized and contained extensive porosity. Meanwhile, a clamping force above 800 N caused gross deformation of the test samples and the expulsion of the molten metal during the welding process. The most significant microstructural changes occurred at the weld/base metal interfaces due to the formation of Al17Mg12 and MgAl2O4 intermetallic compounds as well as significant compositional variation across the weld pool. The thermal gradient across the weld pool facilitated the formation of several microstructural transitions between equiaxed and columnar dendrites. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Machining Chatter Prediction Using a Data Learning Model
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3020045 - 08 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 736
Abstract
Machining processes, including turning, are a critical capability for discrete part production. One limitation to high material removal rates and reduced cost in these processes is chatter, or unstable spindle speed-chip width combinations that exhibit a self-excited vibration. In this paper, an artificial [...] Read more.
Machining processes, including turning, are a critical capability for discrete part production. One limitation to high material removal rates and reduced cost in these processes is chatter, or unstable spindle speed-chip width combinations that exhibit a self-excited vibration. In this paper, an artificial neural network (ANN)—a data learning model—is applied to model turning stability. The novel approach is to use a physics-based process model—the analytical stability limit—to generate a (synthetic) data set that trains the ANN. This enables the process physics to be combined with data learning in a hybrid approach. As anticipated, it is observed that the number and distribution of training points influences the ability of the ANN model to capture the smaller, more closely spaced lobes that occur at lower spindle speeds. Overall, the ANN is successful (>90% accuracy) at predicting the stability behavior after appropriate training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Machine Tool Dynamics)
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Open AccessArticle
Laser Surface Structuring of Cemented Carbide for improving the Strength of Induction Brazed Joints
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3020044 - 03 Jun 2019
Viewed by 590
Abstract
The effect of micro patterning of cemented carbide surface using nanosecond diode pumped solid-state pulsed laser on the strength of induction brazed carbide and steel joints has been investigated. Surface patterns increase the total surface area of the joint and, for an originally [...] Read more.
The effect of micro patterning of cemented carbide surface using nanosecond diode pumped solid-state pulsed laser on the strength of induction brazed carbide and steel joints has been investigated. Surface patterns increase the total surface area of the joint and, for an originally hydrophilic surface, increase the wettability of a liquid on a solid surface such that, instead of building droplets, the liquid spreads and flows on the surface. Microcomputed tomography (µ-CT) was used to observe the filler/carbide interface after brazing and to analyze the presence of porosity or remnant flux in the joint. Microstructures of the brazed joints with various surface patterns were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The strength of the joints was measured using shear tests. Results have shown that the groove pattern on the surface of carbide increases the joint strength by 70–80%, whereas, surface patterns of bi-directional grooves (grid) reduced the joint strength drastically. Dimples on the carbide surface did not show any improvement in the strength of the brazed joints compared to samples with no surface pattern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Towards Sustainable Manufacturing Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of SLM Build Parameters on the Compressive Properties of 304L Stainless Steel
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3020043 - 02 Jun 2019
Viewed by 662
Abstract
Selective laser melting (SLM) is well suited for the efficient manufacturing of complex structures because of its manufacturing methodology. The optimized process parameters for each alloy has been a cause for debate in recent years. In this study, the hatch angle and build [...] Read more.
Selective laser melting (SLM) is well suited for the efficient manufacturing of complex structures because of its manufacturing methodology. The optimized process parameters for each alloy has been a cause for debate in recent years. In this study, the hatch angle and build orientation were investigated. 304L stainless steel samples were manufactured using three hatch angles (0°, 67°, and 105°) in three build orientations (x-, y-, and z-direction) and tested in compression. Analysis of variance and Tukey’s test were used to evaluate the obtained results. Results showed that the measured compressive yield strength and plastic flow stress varied when the hatch angle and build orientation changed. Samples built in the y-direction exhibited the highest yield strength irrespective of the hatch angle; although, samples manufactured using a hatch angle of 0° exhibited the lowest yield strength. Samples manufactured with a hatch angle of 0° flowed at the lowest stress at 35% plastic strain. Samples manufactured with hatch angles of 67° and 105° flowed at statistically the same flow stress at 35% plastic strain. However, samples manufactured with a 67° hatch angle deformed non-uniformly. Therefore, it can be concluded that 304L stainless steel parts manufactured using a hatch angle of 105° in the y-direction exhibited the best overall compressive behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selective Laser Melting: Materials and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Post-Weld Heat Treatment Effects on Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of AA6061-T6 Butt Joints Made by Friction Stir Welding at Right Angle (RAFSW)
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3020042 - 31 May 2019
Viewed by 533
Abstract
Friction stir welding (FSW) provides users with many advantages over fusion welding techniques. Nevertheless, it is not widely employed in current industry mainly due to high equipment costs and royalties. To overcome these issues, a low-cost FSW technique operated at a right angle, [...] Read more.
Friction stir welding (FSW) provides users with many advantages over fusion welding techniques. Nevertheless, it is not widely employed in current industry mainly due to high equipment costs and royalties. To overcome these issues, a low-cost FSW technique operated at a right angle, called RAFSW, has recently been developed by our research team. To make the RAFSW technique reliable for potential users, we are going to analyze the effect of various post-weld heat treatments (PWHT) on the mechanical and physical properties of the RAFSW joints. To this end, optimized process parameters are used to weld butt joints of an AA6061-T6 alloy. The joints were characterized using a tensile test, a micro-hardness test, and metallography techniques. The most efficient aging time was obtained for various aging temperatures. Moreover, it was found that artificial aging at 220 °C for 30 min could be used as a fast and cost-effective artificial aging PWHT for the industrial sector. In addition, the repeatability of the PWHTs were demonstrated by studying the effect of waiting time prior to the artificial aging. Finally, it was revealed that a single fast artificial aging process is more beneficial than solubilizing followed by an artificial aging process in terms of tensile properties, consumed time, and cost. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Short-Term Laser Beam Heating on the Absorptivity of Steel Sheets
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3020041 - 14 May 2019
Viewed by 569
Abstract
The efficiency of laser beam processes basically depends on the efficiency of the laser beam source and the efficiency of the irradiated material’s energy absorption. This absorptivity can be influenced by the surface condition. Besides coating or boundary layers, the surface topography is [...] Read more.
The efficiency of laser beam processes basically depends on the efficiency of the laser beam source and the efficiency of the irradiated material’s energy absorption. This absorptivity can be influenced by the surface condition. Besides coating or boundary layers, the surface topography is decisive. In this study, the effects of various time–temperature distributions on the absorptivity changes of steel sheets were investigated. For this purpose, three steels were chosen, namely, a stainless steel, a spring steel, and a hot work tool steel. Pre- and post-process characterizations of the absorptivity and surface topography were performed. Controlled heating with a laser beam was carried out using temperatures between 700 and 1200 °C and durations between 2 and 34 s. In order to compare the influences of these heating procedures on the absorptivity, a characteristic value, the temperature‑compensated time, was introduced. It is shown that the surface roughness was influenced by laser irradiation but inadequately describes the increase of absorptivity. The changes in absorptivity are attributed to oxidation, which had an influence on the topography in a sub‑micrometer range. Moreover, a saturation effect is observed for intense heatings. Furthermore, it is shown that the temperature‑compensated time is a suitable value to describe absorptivity changes caused by short‑term heating. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Prediction of Ground Surfaces by Using the Actual Tool Topography
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3020040 - 13 May 2019
Viewed by 537
Abstract
This paper presents a prediction model for ground surfaces that uses the actual grinding wheel topography to perform a grinding simulation. Precise knowledge of expected machined surfaces plays an important role in process planning. Here, the main criterion is the achievement of the [...] Read more.
This paper presents a prediction model for ground surfaces that uses the actual grinding wheel topography to perform a grinding simulation. Precise knowledge of expected machined surfaces plays an important role in process planning. Here, the main criterion is the achievement of the components’ function after manufacturing. Therefore, it is essential to consider the surface roughness to enable a function-orientated workpiece surface. The presented approach uses a real grinding tool topography, which is measured by a 3D laser triangulation sensor in the machine tool. After a data processing step, the measured topography is imported into a material removal simulation. A kinematic simulation of the realistic ground surface enables the data-based confirmation of the envelope profile theory for the first time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Integrity in Machining)
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Open AccessArticle
Prediction of Bead Geometry Using a Two-Stage SVM–ANN Algorithm for Automated Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) Welds
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3020039 - 08 May 2019
Viewed by 569
Abstract
Prediction of weld bead geometry is critical for any welding process, since several mechanical properties of the weldment depend on this. Researchers have used artificial neural networks (ANNs) to predict the bead geometry based on the input parameters for a welding process; however, [...] Read more.
Prediction of weld bead geometry is critical for any welding process, since several mechanical properties of the weldment depend on this. Researchers have used artificial neural networks (ANNs) to predict the bead geometry based on the input parameters for a welding process; however, the number of hidden layers used in these ANNs are limited to one due to the small amount of data usually available through experiments. This results in a reduction in the accuracy of prediction. Such ANNs are also incapable of capturing sudden changes in the input–output trends; for example, where a wide range of heat inputs results in flat crown (zero crown height), but any further reduction in the current sharply increases the crown height. In this study, it was found that above mentioned issues can be resolved on using a two-stage algorithm consisting of support vector machine (SVM) and an ANN. The two-stage SVM–ANN algorithm significantly improved the accuracy of prediction and could be used as a replacement for the multiple hidden layer ANN, without requiring additional data for training. The improvement in prediction was evident near regions of sudden changes in the input–output correlation and can lead to a better prediction of mechanical properties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Friction Stir Welding of T-Joints: Experimental and Statistical Analysis
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3020038 - 06 May 2019
Viewed by 631
Abstract
T-welded joints are commonly seen in various industrial assemblies. An effort is made to check the applicability of friction stir welding for producing T-joints made of AA6063-T6 using a developed fixture. Quality T-joints were produced free from any surface defects. The effects of [...] Read more.
T-welded joints are commonly seen in various industrial assemblies. An effort is made to check the applicability of friction stir welding for producing T-joints made of AA6063-T6 using a developed fixture. Quality T-joints were produced free from any surface defects. The effects of three parameters, such as the speed of rotation of the tool, axial force, and travel speed were analyzed. Correspondingly, mechanical characteristics such as tensile strength, hardness in three zones (thermal heat affected zone, heat affected zone, and nugget zone) and temperature distribution were measured. The full factorial analysis was performed with various combinations of parameters generated using factorial design and responses. Evident changes in the strength, hardness, and temperature profile were noticed for each combination of parameters. The three main parameters were significant in every response with p-values less than 0.05, indicating their importance in the friction stir welding process. Mathematical models developed for investigated responses were satisfactory with high R-sq and least percentage error. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Preparation of Maleic Anhydride Grafted Poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT-g-MA) by Reactive Extrusion Processing
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3020037 - 04 May 2019
Viewed by 548
Abstract
Maleic anhydride (MA) grafted with poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT)—abbreviated as PTT-g-MA—can be used as a compatibilizing agent to improve the compatibility and dispersion of nanofillers and a dispersed polymer phase into PTT matrix. This work suggests the preparation of PTT-g-MA [...] Read more.
Maleic anhydride (MA) grafted with poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT)—abbreviated as PTT-g-MA—can be used as a compatibilizing agent to improve the compatibility and dispersion of nanofillers and a dispersed polymer phase into PTT matrix. This work suggests the preparation of PTT-g-MA using a mixture of PTT, MA, and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) by a reactive extrusion process. PTT-g-MA was characterized to confirm the grafting reaction of maleic anhydride on PTT chains by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Thermal properties (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)) and rheological analysis (parallel plates rheology) were used to prove the changes that occurred after the graphitization reaction. The reactive processing route allowed the production of the compatibilizing agent (PTT-g-MA) with good thermal properties and with lower viscosity compared to neat PTT, and this could be an alternative for the compatibilization of polymer blends, as example for PTT/ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) blends and nanocomposites based on PTT matrix. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Finite Element Modeling of Orthogonal Machining of Brittle Materials Using an Embedded Cohesive Element Mesh
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3020036 - 02 May 2019
Viewed by 733
Abstract
Machining of brittle materials is common in the manufacturing industry, but few modeling techniques are available to predict materials’ behavior in response to the cutting tool. The paper presents a fracture-based finite element model, named embedded cohesive zone–finite element method (ECZ–FEM). In ECZ–FEM, [...] Read more.
Machining of brittle materials is common in the manufacturing industry, but few modeling techniques are available to predict materials’ behavior in response to the cutting tool. The paper presents a fracture-based finite element model, named embedded cohesive zone–finite element method (ECZ–FEM). In ECZ–FEM, a network of cohesive zone (CZ) elements are embedded in the material body with regular elements to capture multiple randomized cracks during a cutting process. The CZ element is defined by the fracture energy and a scaling factor to control material ductility and chip behavior. The model is validated by an experimental study in terms of chip formation and cutting force with two different brittle materials and depths of cut. The results show that ECZ–FEM can capture various chip forms, such as dusty debris, irregular chips, and unstable crack propagation seen in the experimental cases. For the cutting force, the model can predict the relative difference among the experimental cases, but the force value is higher by 30–50%. The ECZ–FEM has demonstrated the feasibility of brittle cutting simulation with some limitations applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anniversary Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of an Additive Manufacturing System for the Deposition of Thermoplastics Impregnated with Carbon Fibers
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3020035 - 27 Apr 2019
Viewed by 620
Abstract
This work presents an innovative system that allows the oriented deposition of continuous fibers or long fibers, pre-impregnated or not, in a thermoplastic matrix. This system is used in an integrated way with the filamentary fusion additive manufacturing technology and allows a localized [...] Read more.
This work presents an innovative system that allows the oriented deposition of continuous fibers or long fibers, pre-impregnated or not, in a thermoplastic matrix. This system is used in an integrated way with the filamentary fusion additive manufacturing technology and allows a localized and oriented reinforcement of polymer components for advanced engineering applications at a low cost. To demonstrate the capabilities of the developed system, composite components of thermoplastic matrix (polyamide) reinforced with pre-impregnated long carbon fiber (carbon + polyamide), 1 K and 3 K, were processed and their tensile and flexural strength evaluated. It was demonstrated that the tensile strength value depends on the density of carbon fibers present in the composite, and that with the passage of 2 to 4 layers of fibers, an increase in breaking strength was obtained of about 366% and 325% for the 3 K and 1 K yarns, respectively. The increase of the fiber yarn diameter leads to higher values of tensile strength of the composite. The obtained standard deviation reveals that the deposition process gives rise to components with anisotropic mechanical properties and the need to optimize the processing parameters, especially those that lead to an increase in adhesion between deposited layers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Thin-Rib and High Aspect Ratio Non-Stochastic Scaffolds by Vacuum Assisted Investment Casting
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3020034 - 20 Apr 2019
Viewed by 645
Abstract
Cellular structures are a classic route to obtain high values of specific mechanical properties. This characteristic is advantageous in many fields, from diverse areas such as packaging, transportation industry, and/or medical implants. Recent studies have employed additive manufacturing and casting techniques to obtain [...] Read more.
Cellular structures are a classic route to obtain high values of specific mechanical properties. This characteristic is advantageous in many fields, from diverse areas such as packaging, transportation industry, and/or medical implants. Recent studies have employed additive manufacturing and casting techniques to obtain non-stochastic cellular materials, thus, generating an in situ control on the overall mechanical properties. Both techniques display issues, such as lack of control at a microstructural level in the additive manufacturing of metallic alloys and the difficulty in casting thin-rib cellular materials (e.g., metallic scaffolds). To mitigate these problems, this study shows a combination of additive manufacturing and investment casting, in which vacuum is used to assist the filling of thin-rib and high aspect-ratio scaffolds. The process uses 3D printing to produce the investment model. Even though, vacuum is fundamental to allow a complete filling of the models, the temperatures of both mold and casting are important to the success of this route. Minimum temperatures of 250 °C for the mold and 700 °C for the casting must be used to guarantee a successful casting. Cast samples shown small deviations relatively to the initial CAD model, mainly small expansions in rib length and contraction in rib thickness may be observed. However, these changes may be advantageous to obtain higher values of aspect ratio in the final samples. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
High Speed Roll-to-Roll Printable Transistor Enabled by a Pulsed Light Curable CNT Ink
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3020033 - 16 Apr 2019
Viewed by 633
Abstract
This paper reports the first high speed roll-to-roll printable transistor using a carbon nanotube (CNT) semiconducting layer. The transistor is made possible through the development of a pulsed light curable CNT ink compatible with typical drop on demand inkjet cartridges. This CNT ink [...] Read more.
This paper reports the first high speed roll-to-roll printable transistor using a carbon nanotube (CNT) semiconducting layer. The transistor is made possible through the development of a pulsed light curable CNT ink compatible with typical drop on demand inkjet cartridges. This CNT ink uses a xylene based solvent with methanol, glycerin, and Triton X-100 modifiers to create an evaporable solution with appropriate absorption spectra for a mercury or xenon flash lamp with strong energy transmission in the UVB to mid visible light range, allowing the solution to absorb the energy from the flash lamp and evaporate. Transistor dimensions were defined by the capabilities of a typical roll-to-roll drop on demand cartridge. The final device demonstrated an on/off ratio of 104, representing performance similar to gravure printed devices. This represents the first CNT ink which can be used in high speed production methods without long thermal curing steps in the workflow. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Balancing WAAM Production Costs and Wall Surface Quality through Parameter Selection: A Case Study of an Al-Mg5 Alloy Multilayer-Non-Oscillated Single Pass Wall
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3020032 - 16 Apr 2019
Viewed by 657
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to propose a strategy to assess the potential reduction of the production cost during wire+arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) based on the combination of wire feed speed (related to deposition rate) and travel speed (related to deposition time). [...] Read more.
The purpose of the study was to propose a strategy to assess the potential reduction of the production cost during wire+arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) based on the combination of wire feed speed (related to deposition rate) and travel speed (related to deposition time). A series of experiments, using a multilayer-non-oscillated single pass wall made of an Al-Mg alloy, was conducted. The quality of the wall was assessed through the lateral surface waviness and top layer undulation. The concepts of Surface Waviness and Buy-to-Apply indices were introduced. Initially, the range of travel speed (TS) that provided layers with acceptable quality was determined for a given wire feed speed (WFS), corresponding to a constant current. Then, the effect of the increase of production capacity of the process (though current raising, yet maintaining the ratio WFS/TS constant) on the wall quality for a given condition within the TS range was assessed. The results showed that the useful range of TS prevents too rough a waving surface below the lower limit and top surface undulation over the higher limit. However, inside the range, there is little quality variation for the case under study. Finally, simulations of deposition time were developed to demonstrate the weight of the TS on the final deposition time and wall quality as a function of a target wall width. This respective weight showed the existence of a complex and unpredictable, yet determined, power of a combination of TS, target wall geometry, and dead time between subsequent layers. It was verified to be possible to find optimized TS as a function of different target geometries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Influence of Process Parameters in Incremental Sheet Metal Forming on Residual Stresses
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3020031 - 10 Apr 2019
Viewed by 680
Abstract
The aim of this study is to analyze the co-relation between the geometrical accuracy of parts formed by single-point incremental forming (SPIF) and the resulting distribution of the residual stresses induced in the material as a function of the different process parameters of [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to analyze the co-relation between the geometrical accuracy of parts formed by single-point incremental forming (SPIF) and the resulting distribution of the residual stresses induced in the material as a function of the different process parameters of the SPIF process. The study was performed for a pyramidal frustum manufactured by varying the process parameters of SPIF, i.e., tool diameter, tool step-down, and wall-angle. The hole-drilling strain gage method was used to determine the residual stresses in the manufactured pyramids. Further, small strips were laser cut from the pyramids, and the curvature of the strips was measured. The curvature of the strips is a result of the intensity and distribution of the residual stresses, which in turn depends on the selected values of the process parameters. A validated numerical model of SPIF was used to determine the residual stresses parallel and perpendicular to the direction of tool motion at the center of a strip cut from the numerical model in clamped, unclamped, and trimmed states. Further, the change in the bending moment of a strip that occurred upon unclamping and trimming was calculated. Experimental and numerical investigations reveal that the most significant parameter in residual stress build-up and the reduction of geometrical accuracy is the wall angle. Upon unclamping, the highest change in the residual stresses and bending moment occurred with the largest tool step-down and tool diameter. Upon trimming, the magnitude of the residual stresses and bending moment changed the most with the largest tool step-down in both directions, whereas the change was highest with the smallest tool diameter in the transverse direction of the tool motion. Furthermore, upon trimming, the geometric deviations were highest with the large wall angles in the transverse direction of the tool motion. Overall, the effect of changing process parameters on the residual stress state and geometrical accuracy was more pronounced in the transverse direction of the tool motion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Modeling of Sheet Metal Forming Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Fabrication of Demineralized Bone Matrix/Polycaprolactone Composites Using Large Area Projection Sintering (LAPS)
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3020030 - 10 Apr 2019
Viewed by 487
Abstract
Cadaveric decellularized bone tissue is utilized as an allograft in many musculoskeletal surgical procedures. Typically, the allograft acts as a scaffold to guide tissue regeneration with superior biocompatibility relative to synthetic scaffolds. Traditionally these scaffolds are machined into the required dimensions and shapes. [...] Read more.
Cadaveric decellularized bone tissue is utilized as an allograft in many musculoskeletal surgical procedures. Typically, the allograft acts as a scaffold to guide tissue regeneration with superior biocompatibility relative to synthetic scaffolds. Traditionally these scaffolds are machined into the required dimensions and shapes. However, the geometrical simplicity and, in some cases, limited dimensions of the donated tissue restrict the use of allograft scaffolds. This could be overcome by additive manufacturing using granulated bone that is both decellularized and demineralized. In this study, the large area projection sintering (LAPS) method is evaluated as a fabrication method to build porous structures composed of granulated cortical bone bound by polycaprolactone (PCL). This additive manufacturing method utilizes visible light to selectively cure the deposited material layer-by-layer to create 3D geometry. First, the spreading behavior of the composite mixtures is evaluated and the conditions to attain improved powder bed density to fabricate the test specimens are determined. The tensile strength of the LAPS fabricated samples in both dry and hydrated states are determined and compared to the demineralized cancellous bone allograft and the heat treated demineralized-bone/PCL mixture in mold. The results indicated that the projection sintered composites of 45–55 wt %. Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) particulates produced strength comparable to processed and demineralized cancellous bone. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Interplay of Process Variables in Magnetic Abrasive Finishing of AISI 1018 Steel Using SiC and Al2O3 Abrasives
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3020029 - 28 Mar 2019
Viewed by 603
Abstract
This paper investigates the underlying interplay between the key process parameters of magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF) in improving surface quality. The five process parameters considered were the working gap, rotational speed, feed rate, abrasive amount, and abrasive mesh when MAFed independently with two [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the underlying interplay between the key process parameters of magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF) in improving surface quality. The five process parameters considered were the working gap, rotational speed, feed rate, abrasive amount, and abrasive mesh when MAFed independently with two abrasive particles—SiC and Al2O3. A series of experiments were conducted with an in-house built MAF tool. Based on the main effect results, a model predicting roughness reduction was developed. Results show that surface quality improvement and the underlying dominant process parameters seem unique to the abrasive type used. When MAFed with SiC, the abrasive quantity and rotational speed influence the most. On the other hand, when MAFed with Al2O3, the trend is different to SiC, i.e., the abrasive mesh size and the working gap are dominant. The prediction model was well validated by independent experiments, indicating its accuracy in estimating and optimizing the process outcome. MAF is a simple process with a complex interplay between parameters. This is very crucial when abrasive type, size, and amount to be used are concerned, which warrants a deeper investigation in terms of underlying dynamics, interactions, and the deformation of abrasive, magnetic, and workpiece materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Integrity in Machining)
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