Special Issue "Anniversary Feature Papers"

A special issue of Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing (ISSN 2504-4494).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Steven Y. Liang
Website
Guest Editor
George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405, USA
Interests: precision machining; analysis of manufacturing processes; materials and manufacturing; process mechanics and materials mechanics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing, I am pleased to announce this Special Issue, entitled "Anniversary Feature Papers". This Special Issue will be a collection of articles from Editorial Board Members and Leading Researchers discussing new knowledge or new cutting-edge developments in the science of manufacturing and materials processing.

Our goal is to provide fast dissemination of new research results and ideas, and to stimulate research groups to create new studies, innovations and knowledge without delay.

You are welcome to send a title and abstract to our Editorial Office ([email protected]) for evaluation. Alternatively, you are welcome to submit full papers of your recent research outcomes within the scope of JMMP. All contributions will be peer-reviewed.

Prof. Dr. Steven Y. Liang
Editor-in-Chief

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Discrete Element Simulation of Orthogonal Machining of Soda-Lime Glass with Seed Cracks
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4010005 - 16 Jan 2020
Abstract
Demands for producing high quality glass components have been increasing due to their superior mechanical and optical properties. However, due to their high hardness and brittleness, they present great challenges to researchers when developing new machining processes. In this work, the discrete element [...] Read more.
Demands for producing high quality glass components have been increasing due to their superior mechanical and optical properties. However, due to their high hardness and brittleness, they present great challenges to researchers when developing new machining processes. In this work, the discrete element method (DEM) is used to simulate orthogonal machining of synthetic soda-lime glass workpieces that are created using a bonded particle model and installed with four different types of seed cracks. The effects of these seed cracks on machining performance are studied and predicted through the DEM simulation. It is found that cutting force, random cracks, and surface roughness are reduced by up to 90%, 74%, and 47%, respectively, for the workpieces with seed cracks compared to the regular ones. The results show that high performance machining through DEM simulation can be achieved with optimal seed cracks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anniversary Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Post Treatment on the Microstructure, Surface Roughness and Residual Stress Regarding the Fatigue Strength of Selectively Laser Melted AlSi10Mg Structures
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(4), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3040089 - 16 Oct 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
This paper focusses on the effect of hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and a solution annealing post treatment on the fatigue strength of selectively laser melted (SLM) AlSi10Mg structures. The aim of this work is to assess the effect of the unprocessed (as-built) surface [...] Read more.
This paper focusses on the effect of hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and a solution annealing post treatment on the fatigue strength of selectively laser melted (SLM) AlSi10Mg structures. The aim of this work is to assess the effect of the unprocessed (as-built) surface and residual stresses, regarding the fatigue behaviour for each condition. The surface roughness of unprocessed specimens is evaluated based on digital light optical microscopy and subsequent three-dimensional image post processing. To holistically characterize contributing factors to the fatigue strength, the axial surface residual stress of all specimens with unprocessed surfaces is measured using X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, the in-depth residual stress distribution of selected samples is analyzed. The fatigue strength is evaluated by tension-compression high-cycle fatigue tests under a load stress ratio of R = −1. For the machined specimens, intrinsic defects like pores or intermetallic phases are identified as the failure origin. Regarding the unprocessed test series, surface features cause the failures that correspond to significantly reduced cyclic material properties of approximately −60% referring to machined ones. There are beneficial effects on the surface roughness and residual stresses evoked due to the post treatments. Considering the aforementioned influencing factors, this study provides a fatigue assessment of the mentioned conditions of the investigated Al-material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anniversary Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle
Temperature- and Time-Dependent Mechanical Behavior of Post-Treated IN625 Alloy Processed by Laser Powder Bed Fusion
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(3), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3030075 - 29 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The microstructure and mechanical properties of IN625 alloy processed by laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) and then subjected to stress relief annealing, high temperature solution treatment, and hot isostatic pressing were studied. Tensile testing to failure was carried out in the 25–871 °C [...] Read more.
The microstructure and mechanical properties of IN625 alloy processed by laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) and then subjected to stress relief annealing, high temperature solution treatment, and hot isostatic pressing were studied. Tensile testing to failure was carried out in the 25–871 °C temperature range. Creep testing was conducted at 760 °C under 0.5–0.9 yield stress conditions. The results of the present study provided valuable insights into the static and creep properties of LPBF IN625 alloy, as compared to a wrought annealed alloy of similar composition. It was shown that at temperatures below 538 °C, the mechanical resistance and elongation to failure of the LPBF alloy were similar to those of its wrought counterpart, whereas at higher temperatures, the elongation to failure of the LPBF alloy became significantly lower than that of the wrought alloy. The solution-treated LPBF alloy exhibited significantly improved creep properties at 760 °C as compared to the wrought annealed alloy, especially under intermediate and low levels of stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anniversary Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle
Finite Element Modeling of Orthogonal Machining of Brittle Materials Using an Embedded Cohesive Element Mesh
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3020036 - 02 May 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Machining of brittle materials is common in the manufacturing industry, but few modeling techniques are available to predict materials’ behavior in response to the cutting tool. The paper presents a fracture-based finite element model, named embedded cohesive zone–finite element method (ECZ–FEM). In ECZ–FEM, [...] Read more.
Machining of brittle materials is common in the manufacturing industry, but few modeling techniques are available to predict materials’ behavior in response to the cutting tool. The paper presents a fracture-based finite element model, named embedded cohesive zone–finite element method (ECZ–FEM). In ECZ–FEM, a network of cohesive zone (CZ) elements are embedded in the material body with regular elements to capture multiple randomized cracks during a cutting process. The CZ element is defined by the fracture energy and a scaling factor to control material ductility and chip behavior. The model is validated by an experimental study in terms of chip formation and cutting force with two different brittle materials and depths of cut. The results show that ECZ–FEM can capture various chip forms, such as dusty debris, irregular chips, and unstable crack propagation seen in the experimental cases. For the cutting force, the model can predict the relative difference among the experimental cases, but the force value is higher by 30–50%. The ECZ–FEM has demonstrated the feasibility of brittle cutting simulation with some limitations applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anniversary Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Laser Powder Bed Fusion Processing Using a Combination of Melt Pool Modeling and Design of Experiment Approaches: Density Control
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3010021 - 21 Feb 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
A simplified analytical model of the laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) process was used to develop a novel density prediction approach that can be adapted for any given powder feedstock and LPBF system. First, calibration coupons were built using IN625, Ti64 and Fe [...] Read more.
A simplified analytical model of the laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) process was used to develop a novel density prediction approach that can be adapted for any given powder feedstock and LPBF system. First, calibration coupons were built using IN625, Ti64 and Fe powders and a specific LPBF system. These coupons were manufactured using the predetermined ranges of laser power, scanning speed, hatching space, and layer thickness, and their densities were measured using conventional material characterization techniques. Next, a simplified melt pool model was used to calculate the melt pool dimensions for the selected sets of printing parameters. Both sets of data were then combined to predict the density of printed parts. This approach was additionally validated using the literature data on AlSi10Mg and 316L alloys, thus demonstrating that it can reliably be used to optimize the laser powder bed metal fusion process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anniversary Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle
Five-Axis Machine Tool Coordinate Metrology Evaluation Using the Ball Dome Artefact Before and After Machine Calibration
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3010020 - 03 Feb 2019
Abstract
Now equipped with touch trigger probes machine tools are increasingly used to measure workpieces for various tasks such as rapid setup, compensation of final tool paths to correct part deflections and even verify conformity to finished tolerances. On five-axis machine tools, the use [...] Read more.
Now equipped with touch trigger probes machine tools are increasingly used to measure workpieces for various tasks such as rapid setup, compensation of final tool paths to correct part deflections and even verify conformity to finished tolerances. On five-axis machine tools, the use of data acquired for different rotary axes positions angles brings additional errors into play, thus increasing the measurement errors. The estimation of the machine geometric error sources, using such methods as the scale and master ball artefact (SAMBA) method, and their use to calibrate machine tools may enhance five-axis on-machine metrology. The paper presents the use of the ball dome artefact to validate the accuracy improvement when using a calibrated model to process the machine tool axis readings. The inter-axis errors and the scale gain errors were targeted for correction as well the measuring tool length and lateral offsets. Worst case and mean deviations between the reference artefact geometry and the on-machine tool measurement is reduced from 176 and 70 µm down to 31 and 12 µm for the nominal and calibrated machine stylus tip offsets respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anniversary Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle
Flexible Abrasive Tools for the Deburring and Finishing of Holes in Superalloys
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(4), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2040082 - 06 Dec 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Many manufacturing sectors require high surface finishing. After machining operations such as milling or drilling, undesirable burrs or insufficient edge finishing may be generated. For decades, many finishing processes have been on a handmade basis; this fact is accentuated when dealing with complex [...] Read more.
Many manufacturing sectors require high surface finishing. After machining operations such as milling or drilling, undesirable burrs or insufficient edge finishing may be generated. For decades, many finishing processes have been on a handmade basis; this fact is accentuated when dealing with complex geometries especially for high value-added parts. In recent years, there has been a tendency towards trying to automate these kinds of processes as far as possible, with repeatability and time/money savings being the main purposes. Based on this idea, the aim of this work was to check new tools and strategies for finishing aeronautical parts, especially critical engine parts made from Inconel 718, a very ductile nickel alloy. Automating the edge finishing of chamfered holes is a complicated but very important goal. In this paper, flexible abrasive tools were used for this purpose. A complete study of different abrasive possibilities was carried out, mainly focusing on roughness analysis and the final edge results obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anniversary Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation on Product and Process Fingerprints for Integrated Quality Assurance in Injection Molding of Microstructured Biochips
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(4), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2040079 - 15 Nov 2018
Abstract
Injection molding has been increasing for decades its share in the production of polymer components, in comparison to other manufacturing processes, as it can assure a cost-efficient production while maintaining short cycle times. In any production line, the stability of the process and [...] Read more.
Injection molding has been increasing for decades its share in the production of polymer components, in comparison to other manufacturing processes, as it can assure a cost-efficient production while maintaining short cycle times. In any production line, the stability of the process and the quality of the produced components is ensured by frequently performed metrological controls, which require a significant amount of effort and resources. To avoid the expensive effect of an out of tolerance production, an alternative method to intensive metrology efforts to process stability and part quality monitoring is presented in this article. The proposed method is based on the extraction of process and product fingerprints from the process regulating signals and the replication quality of dedicated features positioned on the injection molded component, respectively. The features used for this purpose are placed on the runner of the moldings and are similar or equal to those actually in the part, in order to assess the quality of the produced plastic parts. For the purpose of studying the method’s viability, a study case based on the production of polymer microfluidic systems for bio-analytics medical applications was selected. A statistically designed experiment was utilized in order to assess the sensitivity of the polymer biochip’s micro features (μ-pillars) replication fidelity with respect to the experimental treatments. The main effects of the process parameters revealed that the effects of process variation were dependent on the position of the μ-pillars. Results showed that a number of process fingerprints follow the same trends as the replication fidelity of the on-part μ-pillars. Instead, only one of the two on-runner μ-pillar position measurands can effectively serve as product fingerprints. Thus, the method can be the foundation for the development of a fast part quality monitoring system with the potential to decrease the use of off-line, time-consuming detailed metrology for part and tool approval, provided that the fingerprints are specifically designed and selected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anniversary Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle
Machining Forces Due to Turning of Bimetallic Objects Made of Aluminum, Titanium, Cast Iron, and Mild/Stainless Steel
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(4), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2040068 - 11 Oct 2018
Abstract
This article elucidates the characteristics of machining forces (an important phenomenon by which machining is studied) using three sets of bimetallic specimens made of aluminum–titanium, aluminum–cast iron, and stainless steel–mild steel. The cutting, feed, and thrust forces were recorded for different cutting conditions [...] Read more.
This article elucidates the characteristics of machining forces (an important phenomenon by which machining is studied) using three sets of bimetallic specimens made of aluminum–titanium, aluminum–cast iron, and stainless steel–mild steel. The cutting, feed, and thrust forces were recorded for different cutting conditions (i.e., different cutting speeds, feeds, and cutting directions). Possibility distributions were used to quantify the uncertainty associated with machining forces, which were helpful in identifying the optimal machining direction. In synopsis, it was found that while machining the steel-based bimetallic specimens, keeping a low feed and high cutting speed is the better option, and the machining operation can be performed in both the hard-to-soft and soft-to-hard material directions, but machining in the soft-to-hard material direction is the better option. On the other hand, very soft materials should not be used in fabricating a bimetallic part because it creates machining problems. Cutting power was estimated using the cutting and feed force signals. Manufacturers who support sustainable product development (including design, manufacturing, and assembly) can benefit from the outcomes of this study because parts/products made of dissimilar materials (or multi-material objects) are better than their mono-material counterparts in terms of sustainability (cost, weight, and CO2 footprint). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anniversary Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle
Thermal Modeling of Temperature Distribution in Metal Additive Manufacturing Considering Effects of Build Layers, Latent Heat, and Temperature-Sensitivity of Material Properties
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2030063 - 12 Sep 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
A physics-based analytical model is proposed in order to predict the temperature profile during metal additive manufacturing (AM) processes, by considering the effects of temperature history in each layer, temperature-sensitivity of material properties and latent heat. The moving heat source analysis is used [...] Read more.
A physics-based analytical model is proposed in order to predict the temperature profile during metal additive manufacturing (AM) processes, by considering the effects of temperature history in each layer, temperature-sensitivity of material properties and latent heat. The moving heat source analysis is used in order to predict the temperature distribution inside a semi-infinite solid material. The laser thermal energy deposited into a control volume is absorbed by the material thermodynamic latent heat and conducted through the contacting solid boundaries. The analytical model takes in to account the typical multi-layer aspect of additive manufacturing processes for the first time. The modeling of the problem involving multiple layers is of great importance because the thermal interactions of successive layers affect the temperature gradients, which govern the heat transfer and thermal stress development mechanisms. The temperature profile is calculated for isotropic and homogeneous material. The proposed model can be used to predict the temperature in laser-based metal additive manufacturing configurations of either direct metal deposition or selective laser melting. A numerical analysis is also conducted to simulate the temperature profile in metal AM. These two models are compared with experimental results. The proposed model also well captured the melt pool geometry as it is compared to experimental values. In order to emphasize the importance of solving the problem considering multiple layers, the peak temperature considering the layer addition and peak temperature not considering the layer addition are compared. The results show that considering the layer addition aspect of metal additive manufacturing can help to better predict the surface temperature and melt pool geometry. An analysis is conducted to show the importance of considering the temperature sensitivity of material properties in predicting temperature. A comparison of the computational time is also provided for analytical and numerical modeling. Based on the obtained results, it appears that the proposed analytical method provides an effective and accurate method to predict the temperature in metal AM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anniversary Feature Papers)
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