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J. Manuf. Mater. Process., Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The knowledge of the loads occurring during a manufacturing process is used in the concept of [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Determining Absorptivity Variations of Multiple Laser Beam Treatments of Stainless Steel Sheets
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(4), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2040084
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 14 December 2018 / Published: 18 December 2018
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Abstract
The absorptivity of laser radiation of metals is investigated in several studies. Therefore, absorption coefficients depending on temperature or roughness are known. However, many processes use iterative processing strategies, such as additive manufacturing, laser beam bending, or laser-assisted incremental forming. Simulations of these [...] Read more.
The absorptivity of laser radiation of metals is investigated in several studies. Therefore, absorption coefficients depending on temperature or roughness are known. However, many processes use iterative processing strategies, such as additive manufacturing, laser beam bending, or laser-assisted incremental forming. Simulations of these processes often use literature data for absorption coefficients and do not consider the variation of absorptivity during the process. In this study, the influences of multiple laser beam processing on absorptivity are investigated for stainless steel sheets. Absorption and roughness measurements are compared before and after heating treatments with the laser beam or in an oven. It is shown that an increasing amount of laser heating cycles correlates with higher absorptivity and higher roughness values. However, this increase of roughness is not considered to be sufficient for enhanced absorptivity. On the one hand, similar changes of absorptivity were detected when heating steel sheets in an oven. These oven-heated specimens do not show extensive roughness changes. On the other hand, the same amount of laser heating cycles with additional cool down time after each cycle results in a negligible absorptivity change. Therefore, the variation of the absorptivity is attributed to oxidation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Modeling of Sheet Metal Forming Processes)
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Open AccessArticle A Finite Element Study of Thermo-Mechanical Fields and Their Relation to Friction Conditions in Al1050 Ring Compression Tests
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(4), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2040083
Received: 22 November 2018 / Revised: 13 December 2018 / Accepted: 14 December 2018 / Published: 17 December 2018
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Abstract
The most accepted method for determining friction conditions in metal forming is the ring compression test (RCT). At high temperatures, extraction of the friction coefficient, μ, commonly requires numerical analysis due to the coupling between the mechanical and thermal fields. In the [...] Read more.
The most accepted method for determining friction conditions in metal forming is the ring compression test (RCT). At high temperatures, extraction of the friction coefficient, μ, commonly requires numerical analysis due to the coupling between the mechanical and thermal fields. In the current study, compression tests of cylindrical specimens and RCT experiments were conducted on commercially pure aluminium (Al1050) at several temperatures, loading rates, and lubrication conditions. The experiments were used in conjunction with a coupled thermo-mechanical finite element analysis to study the dependence of the friction coefficient on those parameters. It is demonstrated that due to the coupling between friction conditions and material flow stress, both μ and flow stress data should be determined from the cylinder and ring specimens simultaneously and not subsequently. The computed friction conditions are validated using a novel method based on identification of the plastic flow neutral radius. It is shown that, due to heat loss mechanisms, the experimental system preparation stage must be incorporated in the computational analysis. The study also addresses the limitation of the RCT in the presence of high friction conditions. The computational models are finally used to examine the thermo-mechanical fields, which develop during the different processes, with an emphasis on the effect of friction conditions, which were then correlated to the resulting microstructure in the RCTs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Flexible Abrasive Tools for the Deburring and Finishing of Holes in Superalloys
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(4), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2040082
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 29 November 2018 / Accepted: 4 December 2018 / Published: 6 December 2018
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Abstract
Many manufacturing sectors require high surface finishing. After machining operations such as milling or drilling, undesirable burrs or insufficient edge finishing may be generated. For decades, many finishing processes have been on a handmade basis; this fact is accentuated when dealing with complex [...] Read more.
Many manufacturing sectors require high surface finishing. After machining operations such as milling or drilling, undesirable burrs or insufficient edge finishing may be generated. For decades, many finishing processes have been on a handmade basis; this fact is accentuated when dealing with complex geometries especially for high value-added parts. In recent years, there has been a tendency towards trying to automate these kinds of processes as far as possible, with repeatability and time/money savings being the main purposes. Based on this idea, the aim of this work was to check new tools and strategies for finishing aeronautical parts, especially critical engine parts made from Inconel 718, a very ductile nickel alloy. Automating the edge finishing of chamfered holes is a complicated but very important goal. In this paper, flexible abrasive tools were used for this purpose. A complete study of different abrasive possibilities was carried out, mainly focusing on roughness analysis and the final edge results obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anniversary Feature Papers)
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Open AccessReview Precision Permittivity Measurement for Low-Loss Thin Planar Materials Using Large Coaxial Probe from 1 to 400 MHz
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(4), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2040081
Received: 12 October 2018 / Revised: 23 November 2018 / Accepted: 27 November 2018 / Published: 3 December 2018
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Abstract
This paper focuses on the non-destructive dielectric measurement for low-loss planar materials with a thickness of less than 3 mm using a large coaxial probe with an outer diameter of 48 mm. The aperture probe calibration procedure required only to make a measurement [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the non-destructive dielectric measurement for low-loss planar materials with a thickness of less than 3 mm using a large coaxial probe with an outer diameter of 48 mm. The aperture probe calibration procedure required only to make a measurement of the half-space air and three offset shorts. The reflection coefficient for the thin material is measured using a Keysight E5071C network analyzer from 0.3 MHz to 650 MHz and then converted to a relative dielectric constant, εr and tangent loss, tan δ via closed form capacitance model and lift-off calibration process. Average measurement error of dielectric constant, Δεr is less than 6% from 1 MHz to 400 MHz and the resolution of loss tangent, tan δ measurement is capable of achieving 10−3. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Water-Based Nanolubricants in Ultrasonic Vibration Assisted Grinding
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(4), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2040080
Received: 10 October 2018 / Revised: 15 November 2018 / Accepted: 26 November 2018 / Published: 3 December 2018
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Abstract
Currently, because of stricter environmental standards and highly competitive markets, machining operations, as the main part of the manufacturing cycle, need to be rigorously optimized. In order to simultaneously maximize the production quality and minimize the environmental issues related to the grinding process, [...] Read more.
Currently, because of stricter environmental standards and highly competitive markets, machining operations, as the main part of the manufacturing cycle, need to be rigorously optimized. In order to simultaneously maximize the production quality and minimize the environmental issues related to the grinding process, this research study evaluates the performance of minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) grinding using water-based nanofluids in the presence of horizontal ultrasonic vibrations (UV). In spite of the positive impacts of MQL using nanofluids and UV which are extensively reported in the literature, there is only a handful of studies on concurrent utilization of these two techniques. To this end, for this paper, five kinds of water-based nanofluids including multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT), graphite, Al2O3, graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles, and hybrid Al2O3/graphite were employed as MQL coolants, and the workpiece was oscillated along the feed direction with 21.9 kHz frequency and 10 µm amplitude. Machining forces, specific energy, and surface quality were measured for determining the process efficiency. As specified by experimental results, the variation in the material removal nature made by ultrasonic vibrations resulted in a drastic reduction of the grinding normal force and surface roughness. In addition, the type of nanoparticles dispersed in water had a strong effect on the grinding tangential force. Hybrid Al2O3/graphite nanofluid through two different kinds of lubrication mechanisms—third body and slider layers—generated better lubrication than the other coolants, thereby having the lowest grinding forces and specific energy (40.13 J/mm3). It was also found that chemically exfoliating the graphene layers via oxidation and then purification prior to dispersion in water promoted their effectiveness. In conclusion, UV assisted MQL grinding increases operation efficiency by facilitating the material removal and reducing the use of coolants, frictional losses, and energy consumption in the grinding zone. Improvements up to 52%, 47%, and 61%, respectively, can be achieved in grinding normal force, specific energy, and surface roughness compared with conventional dry grinding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Towards Sustainable Manufacturing Processes)
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Open AccessArticle Investigation on Product and Process Fingerprints for Integrated Quality Assurance in Injection Molding of Microstructured Biochips
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(4), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2040079
Received: 8 October 2018 / Revised: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 15 November 2018
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Abstract
Injection molding has been increasing for decades its share in the production of polymer components, in comparison to other manufacturing processes, as it can assure a cost-efficient production while maintaining short cycle times. In any production line, the stability of the process and [...] Read more.
Injection molding has been increasing for decades its share in the production of polymer components, in comparison to other manufacturing processes, as it can assure a cost-efficient production while maintaining short cycle times. In any production line, the stability of the process and the quality of the produced components is ensured by frequently performed metrological controls, which require a significant amount of effort and resources. To avoid the expensive effect of an out of tolerance production, an alternative method to intensive metrology efforts to process stability and part quality monitoring is presented in this article. The proposed method is based on the extraction of process and product fingerprints from the process regulating signals and the replication quality of dedicated features positioned on the injection molded component, respectively. The features used for this purpose are placed on the runner of the moldings and are similar or equal to those actually in the part, in order to assess the quality of the produced plastic parts. For the purpose of studying the method’s viability, a study case based on the production of polymer microfluidic systems for bio-analytics medical applications was selected. A statistically designed experiment was utilized in order to assess the sensitivity of the polymer biochip’s micro features (μ-pillars) replication fidelity with respect to the experimental treatments. The main effects of the process parameters revealed that the effects of process variation were dependent on the position of the μ-pillars. Results showed that a number of process fingerprints follow the same trends as the replication fidelity of the on-part μ-pillars. Instead, only one of the two on-runner μ-pillar position measurands can effectively serve as product fingerprints. Thus, the method can be the foundation for the development of a fast part quality monitoring system with the potential to decrease the use of off-line, time-consuming detailed metrology for part and tool approval, provided that the fingerprints are specifically designed and selected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anniversary Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle High Seam Surface Quality in Keyhole Laser Welding: Buttonhole Welding
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(4), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2040078
Received: 18 October 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
Keyhole laser welding experiments with 1.5 mm thick aluminum sheets (EN AW-6082) were carried out with transversal beam oscillation and wire feeding. A circular cavity, which was named buttonhole, formed directly behind the laser spot at certain oscillation frequencies. The welding states “no [...] Read more.
Keyhole laser welding experiments with 1.5 mm thick aluminum sheets (EN AW-6082) were carried out with transversal beam oscillation and wire feeding. A circular cavity, which was named buttonhole, formed directly behind the laser spot at certain oscillation frequencies. The welding states “no buttonhole”, “unstable buttonhole”, and “stable buttonhole” were distinguished. The melt pool dynamics were experimentally analyzed and correlated with the resulting roughness and waviness of the seam surfaces. Criteria for stable buttonhole welding were derived. On the basis of the cavity radii relations, it is shown that capillary pressure conditions can explain the movement of the buttonhole with the process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Findings and Approaches in Machining Processes)
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Open AccessArticle A Systems Dynamics Enabled Real-Time Efficiency for Fuel Cell Data-Driven Remanufacturing
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(4), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2040077
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 2 November 2018 / Published: 6 November 2018
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Abstract
Remanufacturing is a viable option to extend the useful life of an end-of-use product or its parts, ensuring sustainable competitive advantages under the current global economic climate. Challenges typical to remanufacturing still persist, despite its many benefits. According to the European Remanufacturing Network, [...] Read more.
Remanufacturing is a viable option to extend the useful life of an end-of-use product or its parts, ensuring sustainable competitive advantages under the current global economic climate. Challenges typical to remanufacturing still persist, despite its many benefits. According to the European Remanufacturing Network, a key challenge is the lack of accurate, timely and consistent product knowledge as highlighted in a 2015 survey of 188 European remanufacturers. With more data being produced by electric and hybrid vehicles, this adds to the information complexity challenge already experienced in remanufacturing. Therefore, it is difficult to implement real-time and accurate remanufacturing for the shop floor; there are no papers that focus on this within an electric and hybrid vehicle environment. To address this problem, this paper attempts to: (1) identify the required parameters/variables needed for fuel cell remanufacturing by means of interviews; (2) rank the variables by Pareto analysis; (3) develop a casual loop diagram for the identified parameters/variables to visualise their impact on remanufacturing; and (4) model a simple stock and flow diagram to simulate and understand data and information-driven schemes in remanufacturing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Manufacturing Processes in the Context of Industry 4.0)
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Open AccessArticle Investigation into Hand Scraping: A Microanalysis
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(4), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2040076
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 27 October 2018 / Accepted: 31 October 2018 / Published: 5 November 2018
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Abstract
Hand scraping is a manual surface finishing process that, despite its low productivity and high cost, is still applied in many industries because of its advantages concerning accuracy and tribology. In the presented microanalysis forces, movement patterns and tool orientation of individual hand [...] Read more.
Hand scraping is a manual surface finishing process that, despite its low productivity and high cost, is still applied in many industries because of its advantages concerning accuracy and tribology. In the presented microanalysis forces, movement patterns and tool orientation of individual hand scraping strokes were measured using a test stand, specifically designed for this purpose. It utilizes a camera, a three dimensional dynamometer, and an inertial measurement unit (IMU). The results show the basic characteristics of hand scraping. Typical courses of relevant quantities like cutting force, passive force, clearance, and directional angle are shown. In addition, the movement pattern of the tool during individual scraping strokes is analyzed. This research aims to contribute to a later implementation of automated scraping. The conducted research creates a base for future research regarding different scraping methods and achieved results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Flame-Assisted Spray Pyrolysis Using an Annular Flame Nozzle with Decoupled Velocity Control
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(4), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2040075
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 27 October 2018 / Accepted: 29 October 2018 / Published: 30 October 2018
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Abstract
Flame spray pyrolysis, widely used in chemical industries, is a technology to synthesize nanoparticles. While the flame spray pyrolysis uses fuels as a solution liquid, the flame-assisted spray pyrolysis method uses aqueous solutions. Since process parameters such as concentration of precursor, size of [...] Read more.
Flame spray pyrolysis, widely used in chemical industries, is a technology to synthesize nanoparticles. While the flame spray pyrolysis uses fuels as a solution liquid, the flame-assisted spray pyrolysis method uses aqueous solutions. Since process parameters such as concentration of precursor, size of droplets, and ratio of the air–gas mixture affect the size of nanoparticles, developing a flexible system to control these parameters is required. This paper proposes a new type of nozzle system to produce nanoparticles using flame-assisted spray pyrolysis. The annular nozzle design allows flexible control of particle flow and temperature, and an ultrasonic nebulizer was used to produce droplets with different size. Experiments were conducted to analyze the relationship between nanoparticle size and process parameters, concentration of precursor, frequency of the atomizer, and flame temperature. A precursor solution consisting of silver nitrate (AgNO3) mixed in deionized water is used. The effects of the process parameters are discussed, and analysis of the nanoparticles shows that silver nanoparticles are deposited with an average size of 25~115 nm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro and Nano-Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of an Analytical Model in the Prediction of Machining Temperature of AISI 1045 Steel and AISI 4340 Steel
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(4), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2040074
Received: 25 September 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 20 October 2018 / Published: 24 October 2018
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Abstract
This paper evaluates a physics-based analytical model in the prediction of machining temperature of AISI 1045 steel and AISI 4340 steel. The prediction model was developed based on the Johnson-Cook constitutive model (J-C model) and mechanics of the orthogonal cutting process. The average [...] Read more.
This paper evaluates a physics-based analytical model in the prediction of machining temperature of AISI 1045 steel and AISI 4340 steel. The prediction model was developed based on the Johnson-Cook constitutive model (J-C model) and mechanics of the orthogonal cutting process. The average temperatures at two shear zones were predicted by minimizing the difference between calculated stresses using the J-C model and calculated stresses using the mechanics model. In this work, (1) the influence of input Johnson-Cook model constants, cutting force, and chip thickness on the accuracy of predictions are investigated with sensitivity analyses, in which multiple sets of available J-C constants and varying cutting force and chip thickness are used for the temperature prediction in machining AISI 1045 steel. The larger the input deviation, the larger prediction deviation. The temperature at the primary shear zone is more susceptible to the deviation of inputs than the temperature at the secondary shear zone. (2) The machining temperatures are also predicted in machining AISI 4340 steel using cutting tools with various specifications to demonstrate its predictive capability. Good agreements are observed upon validation to available experimental data in the literature. (3) Lastly, the advantage and limitation of the temperature model are discussed with comparison other analytical temperature models. Considering the reliable and easily measurable input requirements and sufficient predictive capability, this temperature model can be employed for effective and efficient machining temperature prediction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Findings and Approaches in Machining Processes)
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Open AccessArticle Research on Laser Additive and Milling Subtractive Composite Remanufacturing Process of Compressor Blade
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(4), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2040073
Received: 23 September 2018 / Revised: 10 October 2018 / Accepted: 13 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Abstract
As an important energy conversion mechanism, centrifugal compressors play an important role in the national economy. The blade is one of the most critical components of the compressor. Damaged blades contain extremely high added value for remanufacturing. Thus, remanufacturing research on damaged and [...] Read more.
As an important energy conversion mechanism, centrifugal compressors play an important role in the national economy. The blade is one of the most critical components of the compressor. Damaged blades contain extremely high added value for remanufacturing. Thus, remanufacturing research on damaged and retired impeller/blade is getting more and more attention. Laser additive and milling subtractive composite remanufacturing technology is an effective means to achieve metal parts remanufacturing. In this paper, an advanced methodology for the remanufacturing of complex geometry and expensive components via reverse engineering, free-form surface modeling, laser additive repaired and machining is presented. The approach involves the integration of 3D non-contact digitization to obtain the point cloud data of damaged parts, adaptive free-form surface reconstruction to get the digital model of damage location, and laser additive manufacturing process containing slicing and path planning and subsequent multi-axis milling operation. The methodology has been successfully implemented on thin-curved centrifugal compressor blades. The results have shown that the composite remanufacturing method is an effective solution to realize the remanufacturing of damaged blades, and can be applied to the remanufacturing of other complicated parts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Online Tool Wear Classification during Dry Machining Using Real Time Cutting Force Measurements and a CNN Approach
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(4), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2040072
Received: 30 August 2018 / Revised: 5 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
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Abstract
The new generation of ICT solutions applied to the monitoring, adaptation, simulation and optimisation of factories are key enabling technologies for a new level of manufacturing capability and adaptability in the context of Industry 4.0. Given the advances in sensor technologies, factories, as [...] Read more.
The new generation of ICT solutions applied to the monitoring, adaptation, simulation and optimisation of factories are key enabling technologies for a new level of manufacturing capability and adaptability in the context of Industry 4.0. Given the advances in sensor technologies, factories, as well as machine tools can now be sensorised, and the vast amount of data generated can be exploited by intelligent information processing techniques such as machine learning. This paper presents an online tool wear classification system built in terms of a monitoring infrastructure, dedicated to perform dry milling on steel while capturing force signals, and a computing architecture, assembled for the assessment of the flank wear based on deep learning. In particular, this approach demonstrates that a big data analytics method for classification applied to large volumes of continuously-acquired force signals generated at high speed during milling responds sufficiently well when used as an indicator of the different stages of tool wear. This research presents the design, development and deployment of the system components and an overall evaluation that involves machining experiments, data collection, training and validation, which, as a whole, has shown an accuracy of 78%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Manufacturing Processes in the Context of Industry 4.0)
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Open AccessArticle Investigations on Material Loads during Grinding by Speckle Photography
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(4), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2040071
Received: 6 September 2018 / Revised: 11 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
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Abstract
The knowledge of the loads occurring during a manufacturing process (e.g., grinding) and of the modifications remaining in the material is used in the concept of process signatures to optimize the manufacturing process and compare it with others (e.g., laser processing). The prerequisite [...] Read more.
The knowledge of the loads occurring during a manufacturing process (e.g., grinding) and of the modifications remaining in the material is used in the concept of process signatures to optimize the manufacturing process and compare it with others (e.g., laser processing). The prerequisite for creating a process signature is that the loads can be characterized during the running process. Due to the rough process conditions, until now there is no in-process technique to measure the loads in the form of displacements and strains in the machined boundary zone. For this reason, the suitability of speckle photography is demonstrated for in-process measurements of material loads in a grinding process without cooling lubricant and the measurement results are compared with finite element method (FEM) simulations. As working hypothesis for the simulation it is assumed, that dry grinding is a purely thermally driven process. Despite the approximation by a purely thermal model with a constant heat source, the measured displacements differ only by a maximum of approximately 20% from the simulations. In particular, the strain measurements in feed speed direction are in good agreement with the simulation and support the thesis, that the dry grinding conditions used here lead to a primarily thermally affecting process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Integrity in Machining)
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Open AccessArticle Optimization of Parameters on Robotized Gas Metal Arc Welding of LNE 700 High-Strength Steel
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(4), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2040070
Received: 22 September 2018 / Revised: 11 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
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Abstract
The main aim of this study is to determine the best process parameters for the robotized Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) of LNE 700 advanced high-strength steel. This article evaluates some quality criteria such as the microhardness, the heat-affected zone (HAZ) and the [...] Read more.
The main aim of this study is to determine the best process parameters for the robotized Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) of LNE 700 advanced high-strength steel. This article evaluates some quality criteria such as the microhardness, the heat-affected zone (HAZ) and the convexity in the welded joints. The assays are performed using an experimental design, based on the Taguchi method. The analysis of the results identified some factors of greatest influence and how best to combine them to determine an optimum condition for welding LNE 700 high strength steel. Moreover, the influence of welding parameters on quality criteria is determined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Findings and Approaches in Machining Processes)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Build Orientation on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Selective Laser-Melted Ti-6Al-4V Alloy
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2040069
Received: 9 September 2018 / Revised: 10 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 12 October 2018
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Abstract
One of the challenges of additive manufacturing (AM) technology is the inability to generate repeatable microstructure and mechanical properties in different orientations. In this work, the effect of build orientation on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti–6Al–4V specimens manufactured by selective laser [...] Read more.
One of the challenges of additive manufacturing (AM) technology is the inability to generate repeatable microstructure and mechanical properties in different orientations. In this work, the effect of build orientation on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti–6Al–4V specimens manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM) was studied. The samples built in the Z orientation showed weaker tensile strength compared to the samples built in X, and Y orientations. Samples built in X and Y orientations exhibited brittle fracture features in areas close to the substrate and ductile fracture features in the area farther from the substrate. Defects including pores, cracks, and unmelted/partially-melted powder particles contributed to lower tensile and fracture toughness properties in different orientations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selective Laser Melting: Materials and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Machining Forces Due to Turning of Bimetallic Objects Made of Aluminum, Titanium, Cast Iron, and Mild/Stainless Steel
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(4), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2040068
Received: 28 August 2018 / Revised: 5 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
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Abstract
This article elucidates the characteristics of machining forces (an important phenomenon by which machining is studied) using three sets of bimetallic specimens made of aluminum–titanium, aluminum–cast iron, and stainless steel–mild steel. The cutting, feed, and thrust forces were recorded for different cutting conditions [...] Read more.
This article elucidates the characteristics of machining forces (an important phenomenon by which machining is studied) using three sets of bimetallic specimens made of aluminum–titanium, aluminum–cast iron, and stainless steel–mild steel. The cutting, feed, and thrust forces were recorded for different cutting conditions (i.e., different cutting speeds, feeds, and cutting directions). Possibility distributions were used to quantify the uncertainty associated with machining forces, which were helpful in identifying the optimal machining direction. In synopsis, it was found that while machining the steel-based bimetallic specimens, keeping a low feed and high cutting speed is the better option, and the machining operation can be performed in both the hard-to-soft and soft-to-hard material directions, but machining in the soft-to-hard material direction is the better option. On the other hand, very soft materials should not be used in fabricating a bimetallic part because it creates machining problems. Cutting power was estimated using the cutting and feed force signals. Manufacturers who support sustainable product development (including design, manufacturing, and assembly) can benefit from the outcomes of this study because parts/products made of dissimilar materials (or multi-material objects) are better than their mono-material counterparts in terms of sustainability (cost, weight, and CO2 footprint). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anniversary Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Optimizing Surface Micro Grooving to Reduce the Checking and Cupping of Douglas Fir, Western Hemlock and White Spruce Decking Exposed to Natural Weathering
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(4), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2040067
Received: 20 September 2018 / Revised: 2 October 2018 / Accepted: 9 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
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Abstract
Machining grooves into the surface of pine and fir (Abies spp.) deckboards reduces undesirable checking that develops when “profiled” boards are exposed to the weather. We aim to develop improved profiles for Douglas fir, western hemlock and white spruce decking to reduce [...] Read more.
Machining grooves into the surface of pine and fir (Abies spp.) deckboards reduces undesirable checking that develops when “profiled” boards are exposed to the weather. We aim to develop improved profiles for Douglas fir, western hemlock and white spruce decking to reduce their susceptibility to checking, and understand how profile geometry influences the stresses that cause checking. We varied the width and depth of grooves in profiled deckboards, exposed deckboards to the weather, and measured checking and cupping of boards. A numerical model examined the effect of groove depth on the moisture-induced stresses in profiled spruce boards. Profiling significantly reduced checking, but increased cupping of deckboards made from all three species. Western hemlock checked more than the other two species. Profiles with narrow grooves (rib profiles) were better at restricting checking than profiles with wider grooves. A rib profile with deeper grooves developed smaller stresses than a rib profile with shallower grooves, and boards with the former profile checked less than boards with shallower grooves. We conclude that checking of profiled Douglas fir, western hemlock and white spruce decking is significantly reduced by changing profile geometry, and our results suggest the best profiles to reduce checking of all three species. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Selection of Machining Parameters Using a Correlative Study of Cutting Tool Wear in High-Speed Turning of AISI 1045 Steel
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(4), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2040066
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 4 October 2018 / Accepted: 7 October 2018 / Published: 10 October 2018
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Abstract
The manufacturing industry aims to produce many high quality products efficiently at low cost, thereby motivating companies to use advanced manufacturing technologies. The use of high-speed machining is increasingly widespread; however, it lacks a deep-rooted knowledge base needed to facilitate implementation. In this [...] Read more.
The manufacturing industry aims to produce many high quality products efficiently at low cost, thereby motivating companies to use advanced manufacturing technologies. The use of high-speed machining is increasingly widespread; however, it lacks a deep-rooted knowledge base needed to facilitate implementation. In this paper, response surface methodology (RSM) has been applied to determine the optimum cutting conditions leading to minimum flank wear in high-speed dry turning on AISI 1045 steel. The mathematical models in terms of machining parameters were developed for flank wear prediction using RSM on the basis of experimental results. The high speed turning experiments were carried out with two coated carbide and a cermet inserts using AISI 1045 steel as work material at different cutting speeds and machining times. The models selected for optimization were validated through the Pareto principle. Results showed the GC4215 insert to be the most optimal option, because it did not reach the cutting tool life limit and could be used for the whole range of cutting parameters selected. To quantitatively evaluate the usefulness of the cutting tools, it was proposed the coefficient of use of the tools from the results of the contour graphs. The GC4215 insert showed 100% effectiveness, followed by the GC4225 with 98.4%, and finally, the CT5015 insert with 83%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Manufacturing Processes in the Context of Industry 4.0)
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Open AccessArticle A Computer-Aided Sustainable Modelling and Optimization Analysis of CNC Milling and Turning Processes
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(4), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2040065
Received: 20 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 27 September 2018
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Abstract
The sustainability of a manufacturing process can be measured by three main factors which impact both ecological and financial constraints. These factors are the energy required to achieve a specific job, the material utilized for the job, and the time taken to complete [...] Read more.
The sustainability of a manufacturing process can be measured by three main factors which impact both ecological and financial constraints. These factors are the energy required to achieve a specific job, the material utilized for the job, and the time taken to complete that job. These factors have to be quantified and analysed so that a proper manufacturing system can be designed to optimize process sustainability. For this purpose, a computer package, which utilizes life cycle inventory models has been presented for CNC (Computer Numerical Control) milling and turning processes. Based on utilization of resources and production stages, the job completion time for the turning and milling processes can be divided into process (i.e., machining), idle and basic times. As parameters are different for evaluating the process times, i.e., depth and width of cut in case of milling, initial and final diameters for turning, two different case studies are presented, one for each process. The effect of material selection on the sustainability factors has been studied for different processes. Our simulations show that highly dense and hard materials take more time in finishing the job due to low cutting speed and feed rates as compared to soft materials. In addition, face milling takes longer and consumes more power as compared to peripheral milling due to more retraction time caused by over travel distance and lower vertical transverse speeds than the horizontal transverse speed used in a peripheral retraction process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Towards Sustainable Manufacturing Processes)
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Open AccessReview Support Structures for Additive Manufacturing: A Review
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(4), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2040064
Received: 13 August 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 19 September 2018 / Published: 20 September 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1042 | PDF Full-text (6052 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Additive manufacturing (AM) has developed rapidly since its inception in the 1980s. AM is perceived as an environmentally friendly and sustainable technology and has already gained a lot of attention globally. The potential freedom of design offered by AM is, however, often limited [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing (AM) has developed rapidly since its inception in the 1980s. AM is perceived as an environmentally friendly and sustainable technology and has already gained a lot of attention globally. The potential freedom of design offered by AM is, however, often limited when printing complex geometries due to an inability to support the stresses inherent within the manufacturing process. Additional support structures are often needed, which leads to material, time and energy waste. Research in support structures is, therefore, of great importance for the future and further improvement of additive manufacturing. This paper aims to review the varied research that has been performed in the area of support structures. Fifty-seven publications regarding support structure optimization are selected and categorized into six groups for discussion. A framework is established in which future research into support structures can be pursued and standardized. By providing a comprehensive review and discussion on support structures, AM can be further improved and developed in terms of support waste in the future, thus, making AM a more sustainable technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Towards Sustainable Manufacturing Processes)
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J. Manuf. Mater. Process. EISSN 2504-4494 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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