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Vet. Sci., Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2023) – 32 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The dogma that mammalian body sites are sterile has been challenged in the past decade. The horse is no exception and a microbiome within the reproductive tract has been proposed. Herein, we show that the equine uterus harbors a microbiome in estrus that can be detected using different sampling modalities: culture swab, biopsy, and low-volume lavage. Although sampling techniques all detected the same microbiome within the healthy equine uterus, the low-volume lavage technique may be superior. This finding may be significant for detecting pathology in mares that suffer from infertility due to endometritis. Advances in the detection of uterine dysbiosis in mares hold promise for improving reproductive performance in horses with valuable breeding potential and genetics. View this paper
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16 pages, 2679 KiB  
Communication
Indication of West Nile Virus (WNV) Lineage 2 Overwintering among Wild Birds in the Regions of Peloponnese and Western Greece
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(11), 661; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10110661 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1699
Abstract
West Nile virus (WNV), a zoonotic mosquito-borne virus, has recently caused human outbreaks in Europe, including Greece. Its transmission cycle in nature includes wild birds as amplifying hosts and ornithophilic mosquito vectors. The aim of this study was to assess WNV circulation among [...] Read more.
West Nile virus (WNV), a zoonotic mosquito-borne virus, has recently caused human outbreaks in Europe, including Greece. Its transmission cycle in nature includes wild birds as amplifying hosts and ornithophilic mosquito vectors. The aim of this study was to assess WNV circulation among wild birds from two regions of Greece, Peloponnese and Western Greece, during 2022. To this end, a total of 511 birds belonging to 37 different species were sampled and molecularly screened. WNV RNA was detected from February to November in a total of 71 wild birds of nine species originating from both investigated regions. The first eight positive samples were sequenced on a part of NS3 and, according to the phylogenetic analysis, they belonged to evolutionary lineage 2 and presented similarity to previous outbreak-causing Greek strains (Argolis 2017, Macedonia 2010 and 2012). It was more likely to identify a PCR positive bird as the population density and the distance from water sources decreased. The present report provides evidence of WNV occurrence in both Peloponnese and Western Greece during 2022 and underlines its possible overwintering, highlighting the need for avian species surveillance to be conducted annually and throughout the year. Magpies are proposed as sentinels for WNV monitoring. Full article
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18 pages, 5053 KiB  
Article
Adipose Stem Cell-Seeded Decellularized Porcine Pericardium: A Promising Functional Biomaterial to Synergistically Restore the Cardiac Functions Post-Myocardial Infarction
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(11), 660; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10110660 - 17 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1723
Abstract
Myocardial infarction (MI) is a serious cardiovascular disease as the leading cause of death globally. Hence, reconstruction of the cardiac tissue comes at the forefront of strategies adopted to restore heart functions following MI. In this investigation, we studied the capacity of rat [...] Read more.
Myocardial infarction (MI) is a serious cardiovascular disease as the leading cause of death globally. Hence, reconstruction of the cardiac tissue comes at the forefront of strategies adopted to restore heart functions following MI. In this investigation, we studied the capacity of rat adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (r-AdMSCs) and decellularized porcine pericardium (DPP) to restore heart functions in MI animals. MI was induced in four different groups, three of which were treated either using DPP (MI-DPP group), stem cells (MI-SC group), or both (MI-SC/DPP group). Cardiac functions of these groups and the Sham group were evaluated using echocardiography, the intraventricular pressure gradient (IVPG) on weeks 2 and 4, and intraventricular hemodynamics on week 4. On day 31, the animals were euthanized for histological analysis. Echocardiographic, IVPG and hemodynamic findings indicated that the three treatment strategies shared effectively in the regeneration process. However, the MI-SC/DPP group had a unique synergistic ability to restore heart functions superior to the other treatment protocols. Histology showed that the MI-SC/DPP group presented the lowest (p < 0.05) degeneration score and fibrosis % compared to the other groups. Conclusively, stem cell-seeded DPP is a promising platform for the delivery of stem cells and restoration of heart functions post-MI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Biomedical Sciences)
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13 pages, 350 KiB  
Review
Primary Prevention of Canine Atopic Dermatitis: Breaking the Cycle—A Narrative Review
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(11), 659; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10110659 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 2822
Abstract
Canine atopic dermatitis (cAD) is a common and distressing skin condition in dogs, affecting up to 30% of the canine population. It not only impacts their quality of life but also that of their owners. Like human atopic dermatitis (hAD), cAD has a [...] Read more.
Canine atopic dermatitis (cAD) is a common and distressing skin condition in dogs, affecting up to 30% of the canine population. It not only impacts their quality of life but also that of their owners. Like human atopic dermatitis (hAD), cAD has a complex pathogenesis, including genetic and environmental factors. Current treatments focus on managing clinical signs, but they can be costly and have limitations. This article emphasizes the importance of preventing cAD from developing in the first place. Understanding the role of the skin’s protective barrier is crucial, as its dysfunction plays a vital role in both hAD and cAD. hAD prevention studies have shown promising results in enhancing the skin barrier, but more research is needed to support more robust conclusions. While hAD primary prevention is currently a focal point of intensive investigation in human medicine, research on cAD primary prevention remains under-researched and almost non-existent. Pioneering effective prevention strategies for cAD holds immense potential to enhance the quality of life for both dogs and their owners. Additionally, it bears the promise of a translational impact on human research. Hence, further exploration of this crucial topic is not only relevant but also timely and imperative, warranting support and encouragement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Veterinary Dermatology: Challenges and Advances)
10 pages, 4513 KiB  
Article
Cutaneous and Respiratory Lesions in Bushfire-Affected Koalas
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(11), 658; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10110658 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 28149
Abstract
In the wake of increasingly frequent bushfires emerging as a threat to wildlife worldwide, koalas have notably been the most rescued species in Australia. However, our understanding of burns and their severity in koalas is limited; hence, this study investigated the histopathological features [...] Read more.
In the wake of increasingly frequent bushfires emerging as a threat to wildlife worldwide, koalas have notably been the most rescued species in Australia. However, our understanding of burns and their severity in koalas is limited; hence, this study investigated the histopathological features and depth of burns in koala skin, as well as the presence of smoke-induced respiratory tract damage. In four bushfire-affected koalas that had been euthanised on welfare grounds, skin burns in various body regions were scored based on clinical appearance as superficial, partial thickness, or full thickness. Histological sections of affected regions of skin were assessed as Grades I–IV and showed that furred regions on the ear margins and dorsum were histologically more severe, at Grade III, compared with the clinical score. There was a similar finding for footpad burns, which were the most common body region affected. In the respiratory tract, pulmonary oedema and congestion were evident in all koalas. Overall, the results highlight that cutaneous burn lesions on furred and palmar/plantar surfaces can have higher severity based on the burn depth than is clinically apparent. Therefore, there is a need to consider this when developing treatment plans and establishing prognosis for burnt koalas at triage, as well as that a high likelihood of pulmonary oedema exists. Full article
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17 pages, 3206 KiB  
Article
Intestine Health and Barrier Function in Fattening Rabbits Fed Bovine Colostrum
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(11), 657; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10110657 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1330
Abstract
The permeability of the immature intestine is higher in newborns than in adults; a damaged gut barrier in young animals increases the susceptibility to digestive and infectious diseases later in life. It is therefore of major importance to avoid impairment of the intestinal [...] Read more.
The permeability of the immature intestine is higher in newborns than in adults; a damaged gut barrier in young animals increases the susceptibility to digestive and infectious diseases later in life. It is therefore of major importance to avoid impairment of the intestinal barrier, specifically in a delicate phase of development, such as weaning. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of bovine colostrum supplementation on the intestinal barrier, such as the intestinal morphology and proliferation level and tight junctions expression (zonulin) and enteric nervous system (ENS) inflammation status (through the expression of PGP9.5 and GFAP) in fattening rabbits. Rabbits of 35 days of age were randomly divided into three groups (n = 13) based on the dietary administration: commercial feed (control group, CTR) and commercial feed supplemented with 2.5% and 5% bovine colostrum (BC1 and BC2 groups, respectively). Rabbits receiving the BC1 diet showed a tendency to have better duodenum morphology and higher proliferation rates (p < 0.001) than the control group. An evaluation of the zonulin expression showed that it was higher in the BC2 group, suggesting increased permeability, which was partially confirmed by the expression of GFAP. Our results suggest that adding 2.5% BC into the diet could be a good compromise between intestinal morphology and permeability, since rabbits fed the highest inclusion level of BC showed signs of higher intestinal permeability. Full article
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16 pages, 3580 KiB  
Article
Retrospective Assessment of Thirty-Two Cases of Pelvic Fractures Stabilized by External Fixation in Dogs and Classification Proposal
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(11), 656; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10110656 - 15 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1676
Abstract
The goals of this study were to evaluate the outcomes of bone healing, patient comfort during the treatment, functional results, and complications in pelvic fractures treated with external fixation, as well as to propose a classification system for the applied external frames. A [...] Read more.
The goals of this study were to evaluate the outcomes of bone healing, patient comfort during the treatment, functional results, and complications in pelvic fractures treated with external fixation, as well as to propose a classification system for the applied external frames. A total of thirty-two canine patients with pelvic fractures of different origins were treated. To provide a better reference for the frames used, an alphanumeric classification system was developed, detailing the frame structure and the number and location of the pins used. In this study, eighty-six fractures were treated in the 32 patients of this work, with an average fixation time of 9.88 ± 4.15 weeks. No major complications were detected in this case cohort, and the outcomes were rated at 9.46 based on a visual assessment scale for the patient’s comfort during treatment. Outcomes graded as excellent and good were 96%. The use of external fixation for stabilization of pelvic fractures should be considered as a technical option, especially for minimally invasive stabilization of complex fractures, either as a primary or secondary stabilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Surgery)
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13 pages, 1790 KiB  
Article
Effects of Low Protein Diet on Production Performance and Intestinal Microbial Composition in Pigs
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(11), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10110655 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1225
Abstract
In order to study the effects of a low protein diet on the production performance and intestinal microbiota composition of Hexi pigs, twenty-seven Hexi pigs with an initial body weight of 60.50 ± 2.50 kg were randomly divided into three groups (control group [...] Read more.
In order to study the effects of a low protein diet on the production performance and intestinal microbiota composition of Hexi pigs, twenty-seven Hexi pigs with an initial body weight of 60.50 ± 2.50 kg were randomly divided into three groups (control group (CG), group 1 (G1), and group 2 (G2)) and participated in a 60-day finishing trial. The CG was fed a normal protein level diet with a protein level of 16.0%, and G1 and G2 were fed a low protein level diet with protein levels of 14.0% and 12.0%, respectively. The results showed that the low protein level diet had no significant effect on the production performance of Hexi pigs, compared with the CG, the slaughter rate of G1 and G2 increased by 2.49% (p > 0.05) and 6.18% (p > 0.05), the shear force decreased by 2.43% (p > 0.05) and 15.57% (p > 0.05), the cooking loss decreased by 24.02% (p < 0.05) and 21.09% (p > 0.05), and the cooking percentage increased by 13.20% (p > 0.05) and 11.59% (p > 0.05). From 45 min to 24 h and 48 h after slaughter, each group of pH decreased by 1.02, 0.66, and 0.42. For muscle flesh color, the lightness (L) increased by 13.31% (p > 0.05) and 18.01% (p > 0.05) in G1 and G2 and the yellowness (b) increased by 7.72% (p > 0.05) and 13.06% (p > 0.05). A low protein level diet can improve the intestinal flora richness and diversity of growing and finishing pigs. In the jejunum, the ACE index (899.95), Simpson index (0.90), and Shannon (4.75) index were higher in G1 than in the other groups, but the Chao1 index (949.92) was higher in G2 than in the remaining two groups. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Euryarchaeota, and Verrucomicrobia were significantly higher in G1 than in the CG. The relative abundances of Lactobacillus, Terrisporobacter, and Megasphaera in G1 was significantly higher than in the CG (p < 0.05). In the cecum, the ACE index (900.93), Chao1 index (879.10), Simpson index (0.94), and Shannon (5.70) index were higher in G1 than in the remaining groups. The Spirochaetes in G2 were significantly higher than in the other groups, but the Verrucomicrobia was significantly lower than in the other groups. The relative abundances of Lactobacillus were higher in G1 and G2 than in the CG (p > 0.05). The relative abundances of unidentified_Clostridiales and Terrisporobacter in G2 were significantly lower than in the CG (p < 0.05). The relative abundance of Turicibacter in G1 was significantly lower than in the CG (p < 0.05). The relative abundances of other bacterial genera in G1 and G2 were increased by 30.81% (p > 0.05) and 17.98% (p > 0.05). Full article
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17 pages, 4520 KiB  
Article
Doxorubicin as a Potential Treatment Option in Canine Mammary Tumors
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(11), 654; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10110654 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1979
Abstract
Canine mammary tumors represent one of the leading malignant pathologies in female dogs, displaying the importance of efficient therapeutic findings, besides the golden-standard surgery, able to limit the development of the disease. Studies in human cancers demonstrated that Doxorubicin presents a good effect [...] Read more.
Canine mammary tumors represent one of the leading malignant pathologies in female dogs, displaying the importance of efficient therapeutic findings, besides the golden-standard surgery, able to limit the development of the disease. Studies in human cancers demonstrated that Doxorubicin presents a good effect in different biological processes like apoptosis, autophagy, the cell cycle, cell invasion, and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. This study followed the effects of Doxorubicin on two canine mammary cancer cell lines P114 and CMT-U27. Doxorubicin treatment in both cell lines shows an inhibitory effect in cell proliferation and an alteration in expression of the EMT-related genes. The obtained results provide valuable information for revealing the link between Doxorubicin, phenotypic changes, and proliferation dynamics in canine mammary tumor models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Comparative Oncology and Veterinary Cancer Surveillance)
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11 pages, 1969 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Mastitis and Antimicrobial Peptide S100A7 Expression in Dairy Goats
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(11), 653; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10110653 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1284
Abstract
S100A7 is an inflammation-related protein and plays an essential role in host defenses, yet there is little research about the relationship between mastitis and S100A7 expression in dairy goats. Here, according to the clinical diagnosis of udders, SCC, and bacteriological culture (BC) of [...] Read more.
S100A7 is an inflammation-related protein and plays an essential role in host defenses, yet there is little research about the relationship between mastitis and S100A7 expression in dairy goats. Here, according to the clinical diagnosis of udders, SCC, and bacteriological culture (BC) of milk, 84 dairy goats were grouped into healthy goats (n = 25), subclinical mastitis goats (n = 36), and clinical mastitis goats (n = 23). The S100A7 concentration in subclinical mastitis goats was significantly upregulated than in healthy dairy goats (p = 0.0056) and had a limited change with clinical mastitis dairy goats (p = 0.8222). The relationship between log10 SCC and S100A7 concentration in milk was positive and R = 0.05249; the regression equation was Y = 0.1446 × X + 12.54. According to the three groups, the log10 SCC and S100A7 were analyzed using the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve; in subclinical mastitis goats, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of log10 SCC was 0.9222 and p < 0.0001, and the AUC of S100A7 concentration was 0.7317 and p = 0.0022, respectively; in clinical mastitis goats, the AUC of log10 SCC was 0.9678 and p < 0.0001, and the AUC of S100A7 concentration was 0.5487 and p = 0.5634, respectively. In healthy goats, S100A7 was expressed weakly in the alveolus of the mammary gland of healthy goats while expressed densely in the collapsed alveolus of mastitis goats. Moreover, S100A7 expression increased significantly in mastitis goats than in healthy dairy goats. In this research, results showed the effects of mastitis on the S100A7 expression in the mammary gland and S100A7 concentration in milk and the limited relationship between SCC and mastitis, which provided a new insight into S100A7’s role in the host defenses of dairy goats. Full article
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16 pages, 778 KiB  
Article
The Link between the Perception of Animal Welfare and the Emotional Response to Pictures of Farm Animals Kept in Intensive and Extensive Husbandry Systems: An Italian Survey
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(11), 652; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10110652 - 13 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1272
Abstract
As livestock production grows to satisfy the global demand for animal products, understanding public attitudes towards different husbandry systems becomes essential for both animal welfare and socio-economic reasons. This study aimed to investigate people’s emotional responses toward pictures of farm animals kept in [...] Read more.
As livestock production grows to satisfy the global demand for animal products, understanding public attitudes towards different husbandry systems becomes essential for both animal welfare and socio-economic reasons. This study aimed to investigate people’s emotional responses toward pictures of farm animals kept in intensive and extensive husbandry systems, their perception of animal welfare, and their choices as animal product consumers. A questionnaire that included demographic questions and photos of cows, pigs, chickens, and rabbits in both intensive and extensive systems was distributed electronically and physically and completed by 835 respondents. Photos of animals in intensive systems elicited more negative emotions, especially for pigs and rabbits (p < 0.05), as opposed to extensive systems, which elicited more positive emotions, especially for chickens (p < 0.001). Higher welfare levels were perceived for extensively farmed animals (p < 0.001) and for cattle compared to all other species, regardless of the husbandry system (p < 0.001). The quality of the emotional response was positively associated with welfare perception (p < 0.001) and negatively associated with the importance given to welfare when purchasing animal products (p < 0.001). Finally, the emotional response was found to be affected by gender, education, household composition, living area, pet ownership, and eating habits. The implications and limitations of these findings are discussed. Full article
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15 pages, 307 KiB  
Review
Animal Welfare in Radiation Research: The Importance of Animal Monitoring System
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(11), 651; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10110651 - 10 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1243
Abstract
Long-term research into radiation exposure significantly expanded following World War II, driven by the increasing number of individuals falling ill after the detonation of two atomic bombs in Japan. Consequently, researchers intensified their efforts to investigate radiation’s effects using animal models and to [...] Read more.
Long-term research into radiation exposure significantly expanded following World War II, driven by the increasing number of individuals falling ill after the detonation of two atomic bombs in Japan. Consequently, researchers intensified their efforts to investigate radiation’s effects using animal models and to study disease models that emerged post-catastrophe. As a result, several parameters have been established as essential in these models, encompassing radiation doses, regimens involving single or multiple irradiations, the injection site for transplantation, and the quantity of cells to be injected. Nonetheless, researchers have observed numerous side effects in irradiated animals, prompting the development of scoring systems to monitor these animals’ well-being. The aim of this review is to delve into the historical context of using animals in radiation research and explore the ethical considerations related to animal welfare, which has become an increasingly relevant topic in recent years. These concerns have prompted research groups to adopt measures aimed at reducing animal suffering. Consequently, for animal welfare, the implementation of a scoring system for clinical and behavioral monitoring is essential. This represents one of the primary challenges and hurdles in radiation studies. It is concluded that implementing standardized criteria across all institutions is aimed at ensuring result reproducibility and fostering collaboration within the scientific community. Full article
12 pages, 629 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Dietary Manganese and Selenium on Growth and the Fecal Microbiota of Nursery Piglets
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(11), 650; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10110650 - 10 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1446
Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the impact of varying dietary manganese and selenium concentrations, antioxidant cofactors, on the growth performance and fecal microbial populations of nursery pigs. The piglets (N = 120) were blocked by weight (5.22 ± 0.7 [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to determine the impact of varying dietary manganese and selenium concentrations, antioxidant cofactors, on the growth performance and fecal microbial populations of nursery pigs. The piglets (N = 120) were blocked by weight (5.22 ± 0.7 kg) and sex. The pens (n = 5/treatment) within a block were randomly assigned to diets in a 2 × 3 factorial design to examine the effects of Se (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg added Se) and Mn (0, 12, and 24 mg/kg added Mn) and were fed in three phases (P1 = d 1–7, P2 = d 8–21, P3 = d 22–35). The pigs and orts were weighed weekly. Fecal samples were collected d 0 and 35 for 16S rRNA bacterial gene sequencing and VFA analysis. The data were analyzed as factorial via GLM in SAS. There was a linear response (p < 0.05) in overall ADG across dietary Mn. Supplementing 24 mg/kg Mn tended to decrease (p < 0.10) the relative abundance of many bacteria possessing pathogenic traits relative to Mn controls. Meanwhile, increasing Mn concentration tended to foster the growth of bacteria correlated with gut health and improved growth (p < 0.10). The data from this study provide preliminary evidence on the positive effects of manganese on growth and gut health of nursery pigs. Full article
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16 pages, 9076 KiB  
Article
Environmental Cadmium Exposure Perturbs Gut Microbial Dysbiosis in Ducks
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(11), 649; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10110649 - 09 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1327
Abstract
Ore extraction, chemical production, and agricultural fertilizers may release significant amounts of heavy metals, which may eventually accumulate widely in the environment and organisms over time, causing global ecological and health problems. As a recognized environmental contaminant, cadmium has been demonstrated to cause [...] Read more.
Ore extraction, chemical production, and agricultural fertilizers may release significant amounts of heavy metals, which may eventually accumulate widely in the environment and organisms over time, causing global ecological and health problems. As a recognized environmental contaminant, cadmium has been demonstrated to cause osteoporosis and renal injury, but research regarding the effects of cadmium on gut microbiota in ducks remains scarce. Herein, we aimed to characterize the adverse effects of cadmium on gut microbiota in ducks. Results indicated that cadmium exposure dramatically decreased gut microbial alpha diversity and caused significant changes in the main component of gut microbiota. Moreover, we also observed significant changes in the gut microbial composition in ducks exposed to cadmium. A microbial taxonomic investigation showed that Firmicutes, Bacteroidota, and Proteobacteria were the most preponderant phyla in ducks regardless of treatment, but the compositions and abundances of dominant genera were different. Meanwhile, a Metastats analysis indicated that cadmium exposure also caused a distinct increase in the levels of 1 phylum and 22 genera, as well as a significant reduction in the levels of 1 phylum and 36 genera. In summary, this investigation demonstrated that cadmium exposure could disturb gut microbial homeostasis by decreasing microbial diversity and altering microbial composition. Additionally, under the background of the rising environmental pollution caused by heavy metals, this investigation provides a crucial message for the assessment of environmental risks associated with cadmium exposure. Full article
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14 pages, 3706 KiB  
Article
In Vitro and In Silico Evaluations of the Antileishmanial Activities of New Benzimidazole-Triazole Derivatives
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(11), 648; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10110648 - 09 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1290
Abstract
Benzimidazole and triazole rings are important pharmacophores, known to exhibit various pharmacological activities in drug discovery. In this study, it was purposed to synthesize new benzimidazole-triazole derivatives and evaluate their antileishmanial activities. The targeted compounds (5a5h) were obtained after [...] Read more.
Benzimidazole and triazole rings are important pharmacophores, known to exhibit various pharmacological activities in drug discovery. In this study, it was purposed to synthesize new benzimidazole-triazole derivatives and evaluate their antileishmanial activities. The targeted compounds (5a5h) were obtained after five chemical reaction steps. The structures of the compounds were confirmed by spectral data. The possible in vitro antileishmanial activities of the synthesized compounds were evaluated against the Leishmania tropica strain. Further, molecular docking and dynamics were performed to identify the probable mechanism of activity of the test compounds. The findings revealed that compounds 5a, 5d, 5e, 5f, and 5h inhibited the growth of Leishmania tropica to various extents and had significant anti-leishmanial activities, even if some orders were higher than the reference drug Amphotericin B. On the other hand, compounds 5b, 5c, and 5g were found to be ineffective. Additionally, the results of in silico studies have presented the existence of some interactions between the compounds and the active site of sterol 14-alpha-demethylase, a biosynthetic enzyme that plays a critical role in the growth of the parasite. Therefore, it can be suggested that if the results obtained from this study are confirmed with in vivo findings, it may be possible to obtain some new anti-leishmanial drug candidates. Full article
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10 pages, 2322 KiB  
Article
A Rotation Alar Fold Flap for Cosmetic Nasal Plane Reconstruction: Description of the Technique and Outcome in Three Dogs
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(11), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10110647 - 09 Nov 2023
Viewed by 2054
Abstract
Nasal planum reconstruction is a surgical challenge, and several surgical techniques have been described. The objective of this study was to describe the rotation alar fold flap technique and to report clinical outcomes in a short case series. The feasibility of the technique [...] Read more.
Nasal planum reconstruction is a surgical challenge, and several surgical techniques have been described. The objective of this study was to describe the rotation alar fold flap technique and to report clinical outcomes in a short case series. The feasibility of the technique was first assessed in a canine cadaveric model. The rotation alar fold flap was obtained by a single sharp horizontal incision of the dorsolateral nasal cartilage, preserving the caudal mucosal attachment to the ventral nasal concha. The flap was then rotated ventro-medially for the reconstruction of the ventral aspect of the nasal planum unilaterally or bilaterally. The rotation alar fold flap technique was used following a subtotal or partial planectomy for excision of a squamous cell carcinoma or mast cell tumors in three dogs. No intraoperative complications were recorded. Superficial surgical site infection was reported in two cases and minor dehiscence was reported in one case. However, survival of the flap was not affected. The cosmetic and functional outcomes were considered very satisfactory in all cases. The rotation alar fold flap technique offers a safe, valuable, feasible, functional and aesthetically satisfactory alternative surgical option for selected cases of localized tumor involving the central and ventral planum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Small Animal Wound Management and Reconstructive Surgery)
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9 pages, 481 KiB  
Article
Osteopontin Concentration in Prostates Fractions: A Novel Marker of Sperm Quality in Dogs
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(11), 646; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10110646 - 08 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1290
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the sperm quality and the osteopontin (OPN) concentration in the prostates of Malakli shepherd dogs. Ejaculates were collected once by digital manipulation from 39 male dogs aged between 2 and 4 years and older. The [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the sperm quality and the osteopontin (OPN) concentration in the prostates of Malakli shepherd dogs. Ejaculates were collected once by digital manipulation from 39 male dogs aged between 2 and 4 years and older. The first and third fractions of the ejaculate were centrifuged at 5000× g for 30 min, and supernatants were stored at −80 °C for further analysis of OPN using a double-antibody sandwich method (SEA899CA, Cloude-Clone Corp, Houston, TX, USA). Meanwhile, the second fractions were evaluated for sperm motility, concentration, viability, and rate of abnormal spermatozoa (head, acrosome, midpiece and tail abnormalities). The average concentration of OPN was 8.7 ± 5.2 ng/mL, and it differed significantly between the 1st 10.4 ± 5.3 ng/mL and 3rd 7.4 ± 5 ng/mL fractions. According to ROC (receiver operating characteristic curve) analysis, the OPN concentration had a better diagnostic ability for sperm motility (p < 0.001) than for the rate of abnormal spermatozoa (p < 0.05). Additionally, the OPN concentration was negatively correlated with poor sperm morphology and motility. In conclusion, the OPN concentration in prostate-derived secretions may be a possible marker of sperm quality in dogs. Further research could explore the involvement of OPN in sperm motility during cryopreservation and in vivo fertility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Animal Sperm Conservation Techniques for Better Fertility)
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12 pages, 1354 KiB  
Article
Economic Aspects of Bovine Ephemeral Fever (BEF) Outbreaks in Dairy Cattle Herds
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(11), 645; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10110645 - 08 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1316
Abstract
Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) transmitted by blood-feeding insects (mosquitoes and Culicoides biting midges). While the dispersal of arboviral diseases such as bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) into naive areas is often the result of globalization and animal movement, [...] Read more.
Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) transmitted by blood-feeding insects (mosquitoes and Culicoides biting midges). While the dispersal of arboviral diseases such as bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) into naive areas is often the result of globalization and animal movement, the endemization and local outbreaks of these diseases are mainly influenced by environmental changes. Climate change affects the activity, distribution, dynamics, and life cycles of these vectors (arthropods), the replication of viruses within their vectors, and weakens animal’s immune systems. Although BEF does not currently occur in the Americas and Europe (other than in the western regions of Turkey), the risk of BEFV emergence, spread, and endemization in Europe is real. Over the past two decades, arboviruses such as the bluetongue virus (BTV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV) have emerged in Europe without warning and caused significant losses to the dairy and meat industries. Since the European cattle population has never been exposed to BEFV, the economic losses to dairy and beef production in this continent due to the reduction in milk production, loss of valuable cows, and abortion, should BEF emerge, would probably be considerable. Moreover, arboviruses can also cause substantial financial damage due to restrictions on animal trade and transportation, like the current EHDV-8 outbreak in the Mediterranean basin. In this study, we used national data stored in the Israeli herd book to examine the economic aspects of BEF outbreaks in affected dairy cattle farms countrywide. Our results demonstrate that BEF outbreaks can have immediate and delayed effects, causing severe economic losses due to culling (loss of valuable cows) and a reduction in milk production that affects dairy farm income for months after clinical diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first extensive study on the impact of a BEF outbreak at a population level, enabling to conduct accurate risk assessments in future cases of BEFV emergence and re-emergence. Full article
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13 pages, 4095 KiB  
Article
Effect of Sampling Method on Detection of the Equine Uterine Microbiome during Estrus
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(11), 644; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10110644 - 08 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1594
Abstract
Bacterial endometritis is among the most common causes of subfertility in mares. It has a major economic impact on the equine breeding industry. The sensitivity of detecting uterine microbes using culture-based methods, irrespective of the sample collection method, double-guarded endometrial swab, endometrial biopsy, [...] Read more.
Bacterial endometritis is among the most common causes of subfertility in mares. It has a major economic impact on the equine breeding industry. The sensitivity of detecting uterine microbes using culture-based methods, irrespective of the sample collection method, double-guarded endometrial swab, endometrial biopsy, or uterine low-volume lavage (LVL), is low. Therefore, equine bacterial endometritis often goes undiagnosed. Sixteen individual mares were enrolled, and an endometrial sample was obtained using each method from all mares. After trimming, quality control and decontamination, 3824 amplicon sequence variants were detected in the dataset. We found using 16S rRNA sequencing that the equine uterus harbors a distinct resident microbiome during estrus. All three sampling methods used yielded similar results in composition as well as relative abundance at phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidota) and genus (Klebsiella, Mycoplasma, and Aeromonas) levels. A significant difference was found in alpha diversity (Chao1) between LVL and endometrial biopsy, suggesting that LVL is superior at detecting the low-abundant (rare) taxa. These new data could pave the way for innovative treatment methods for endometrial disease and subfertility in mares. This, in turn, could lead to more judicious antimicrobial use in the equine breeding industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Findings in Equine Reproduction and Neonatology)
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14 pages, 1945 KiB  
Article
Unveiling Oxidative Stress-Induced Genotoxicity and Its Alleviation through Selenium and Vitamin E Therapy in Naturally Infected Cattle with Lumpy Skin Disease
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(11), 643; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10110643 - 07 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1419
Abstract
Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a contagious infection of cattle caused by a virus of the Poxviridae family, genus Capripoxvirus. In Pakistan, recent outbreaks have resulted in significant nationwide mortality and economic losses. A 20-day prospective cohort study was performed on sixty infected [...] Read more.
Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a contagious infection of cattle caused by a virus of the Poxviridae family, genus Capripoxvirus. In Pakistan, recent outbreaks have resulted in significant nationwide mortality and economic losses. A 20-day prospective cohort study was performed on sixty infected cattle with the aim to evaluate LSD-induced oxidative stress’s genotoxic role and to determine the ameliorative effect of antioxidant therapy using principal component analysis (PCA) and a multivariable ordinal logistic regression model. LSDV was identified from scab samples and nodular lesions using RPO30-specific gene primers. The infected cattle were divided into control and treated groups. The animals were observed initially and finally on day 20 to evaluate the homeostatic, oxidative, and genotoxic changes. The animals in the treated group were administered a combination of selenium (Se) and vitamin E at the standard dose rate for five consecutive days. A substantial (p < 0.05) improvement in the hematological indices was observed in the treated group. The treated group also showed a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in levels of serum nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) post-therapy. The PCA at the final sampling data of the treated group showed that Principal Component (PC1 eigenvalue 1.429) was influenced by superoxide dismutase (SOD; 0.3632), catalase (CAT; 0.2906), and glutathione (GSH; 0.0816) and PC2 (eigenvalue 1.200) was influenced by CAT (0.4362), MDA (0.2056), and NO (0.0693). A significant correlation between serum NO (76%) and MDA levels (80%) was observed with genetic damage index (GDI) scores. The ordinal logistic regression model regarding the use of antioxidant therapy revealed 73.95-times (95%CI; 17.36–314.96) improvement in the GDI in treated animals. The multivariable ordinal logistic regression showed that each unit increase in NO and MDA resulted in a 13% increase in genotoxicity in infected individuals. In conclusion, our study revealed that LSD-induced oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation product causes genotoxicity in affected animals. Furthermore, the combined Se and vitamin E therapy significantly alleviated oxidative stress and genotoxicity in LSD-affected cattle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Veterinary Dermatology: Challenges and Advances)
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10 pages, 3807 KiB  
Case Report
The Bacteriophages Therapy of Interdigital Pyoderma Complicated by Cellulitis with Antibiotic-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a Dog—Case Report
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(11), 642; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10110642 - 05 Nov 2023
Viewed by 3086
Abstract
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a highly pathogenic bacterium with high pathogenicity, that can cause serious infections in all species and especially in dogs. Treatment of the infection induced by this bacterium can be a challenge considering that some strains have developed resistance to most classes [...] Read more.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a highly pathogenic bacterium with high pathogenicity, that can cause serious infections in all species and especially in dogs. Treatment of the infection induced by this bacterium can be a challenge considering that some strains have developed resistance to most classes of antimicrobials. The use of bacteriophages to alleviate infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa has demonstrated their potential for both internal and external applications. This study aimed to illustrate the treatment with bacteriophages in bacterially complicated skin lesions that do not respond to antimicrobial therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Animal Dermatology)
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18 pages, 2405 KiB  
Article
Influence of Sex and a High-Fiber Diet on the Gut Microbiome of Alentejano Pigs Raised to Heavy Weights
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(11), 641; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10110641 - 02 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1925
Abstract
This study investigates the influence of sex and a dietary transition on the gut microbiota of a local Portuguese pig breed. Three groups of male Alentejano pigs (n = 10 each) were raised between ~40 and 160 kg LW. Group C included [...] Read more.
This study investigates the influence of sex and a dietary transition on the gut microbiota of a local Portuguese pig breed. Three groups of male Alentejano pigs (n = 10 each) were raised between ~40 and 160 kg LW. Group C included pigs that were surgically castrated, while the I group included intact ones; both were fed with commercial diets. The third group, IExp, included intact pigs that were fed commercial diets until ~130 kg, then replaced by an experimental diet based on legumes and agro-industrial by-products between ~130 and 160 kg. Fecal samples were collected two weeks before slaughter. The total DNA was extracted and used for 16S metabarcoding on a MiSeq® System. The dietary transition from a commercial diet to the experimental diet substantially increased and shifted the diversity observed. Complex carbohydrate fermenting bacteria, such as Ruminococcus spp. and Sphaerochaeta spp., were significantly more abundant in IExp (q < 0.05). On the other hand, castrated pigs presented a significantly lower abundance of the potential probiotic, Roseburia spp. and Lachnospiraceae NK4A136 group (q < 0.01), bacteria commonly associated with better gut health and lower body fat composition. Understanding the role of gut microbiota is paramount to ensure a low skatole deposition and consumers’ acceptance of pork products from non-castrated male pigs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Analysis in Domestic Animal Breeds and Performance)
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11 pages, 1377 KiB  
Article
Molecular Survey of Hepatozoon canis Infection in Domestic Dogs from Sardinia, Italy
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(11), 640; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10110640 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1346
Abstract
Tick-borne protozoans of the genus Hepatozoon have been associated with infections of domestic and wild animals over the world. The occurrence of these apicomplexan agents in Sardinia has been poorly explored so far. In this study, the occurrence of Hepatozoon spp. has been [...] Read more.
Tick-borne protozoans of the genus Hepatozoon have been associated with infections of domestic and wild animals over the world. The occurrence of these apicomplexan agents in Sardinia has been poorly explored so far. In this study, the occurrence of Hepatozoon spp. has been investigated in domestic dogs from nine cities of Sardinia, Italy. Blood samples from each dog were collected and tested molecularly for the presence of Hepatozoon and Babesia/Theileria DNAs. Out of fifty-one dogs, nine were positive for Hepatozoon species based on the molecular detection of the parasite in blood samples. The phylogenetic relationships of strains detected here were also established. The PCR for amplification of the 18S rRNA fragment gene of Babesia/Theileria spp. did not give amplicons in any of the analyzed samples. Our results report the first molecular confirmation of Hepatozoon canis in Sardinian pet dogs and contribute to better understand the presence of these protozoans on the island. This study highlights the importance of recognizing and predicting the risk levels for the canine population, thus increasing the development of specific control measures. Also, since the distribution of hepatozoonosis is closely related to that of the definitive tick host, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, more accurate studies on Rhipicephalus ticks will be needed due to increasing the epidemiological knowledge of Hepatozoon species on the island. Full article
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11 pages, 1405 KiB  
Article
Preliminary Evaluation of Cortical and Medullary Echogenicity in Normal Canine Fetal Kidneys during the Last 10 Days of Pregnancy
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(11), 639; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10110639 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1226
Abstract
The objective of this study was to assess changes in the echogenicity of the cortex and medulla of canine fetal kidneys in relation to days before parturition (dbp), maternal size and litter size. Monitoring of 10 healthy pregnant bitches (2–8 years old, 8.8–40.3 [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to assess changes in the echogenicity of the cortex and medulla of canine fetal kidneys in relation to days before parturition (dbp), maternal size and litter size. Monitoring of 10 healthy pregnant bitches (2–8 years old, 8.8–40.3 kg bw) was conducted from −10 to 0 dbp using ultrasound. A single renal sonogram was obtained by scanning in a longitudinal section the three most caudal fetuses. The mean gray level (MGL) and SD of a manually drawn region of interest (ROI) in the renal cortex and medulla were measured using the Fiji Image J software (Image J 1.51h, Java 1.6 0_24 64 bit). A linear mixed model taking into account the maternal size as a fixed effect, dbp and litter size as covariates and the bitch as a random and repeated effect was used. The regression coefficients (b) were estimated. Cortical SD (C-SD) and cortico-medullary SD (C/M-SD) were influenced by dbp, with a significant decrease at the approaching day of parturition (b = 0.23 ± 0.06, p < 0.001 and b = 0.5 ± 0.02, p = 0.038, respectively). Maternal size had a significant impact on C/M-MGL with differences observed in large-sized (1.95 ± 0.13) compared to small- (1.41 ± 0.10, p = 0.027) and medium-sized bitches (1.51 ± 0.09, p = 0.016). The C/M-MGL was influenced by litter size, showing a decrease as the number of pups increased (b = −0.08 ± 0.03, p = 0.018). C-SD and C/M-SD were exclusively affected by dbp, and not by maternal and litter size. This suggests their potential as valuable parameters, warranting further investigations in future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Veterinary Theriogenology)
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7 pages, 436 KiB  
Brief Report
Theileria orientalis Ikeda in Cattle, Alabama, USA
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(11), 638; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10110638 - 30 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1783
Abstract
Theileria orientalis Ikeda genotype, a parasite causing a disease in cattle that leads to significant economic challenges in Asia, New Zealand, and Australia, has been identified in seven U.S. States since 2017. Two previously validated PCR tests for Theileria followed by DNA sequencing [...] Read more.
Theileria orientalis Ikeda genotype, a parasite causing a disease in cattle that leads to significant economic challenges in Asia, New Zealand, and Australia, has been identified in seven U.S. States since 2017. Two previously validated PCR tests for Theileria followed by DNA sequencing were performed to test blood samples collected from 219 cattle in Alabama, USA, during the period of 2022–2023. Bidirectional Sanger sequencing revealed that the MPSP gene sequences (639–660 bp) from two cattle in Lee and Mobile Counties of Alabama exhibited a 100% match with those of recognized T. orientalis Ikeda strains, and showed similarities ranging from 76% to 88% with ten other T. orientalis genotypes. A high copy number of T. orientalis Ikeda was detected in the blood of infected cattle (ALP-1: 1.7 × 105 and 1.3 × 106/mL whole blood, six months apart; ALP-2: 7.1 × 106/mL whole blood). Although the confirmed competent vector for T. orientalis Ikeda, Haemaphysalis longicornis tick, has not yet been identified in Alabama, the persistent nature of T. orientalis Ikeda infection and the detection of a high pathogen burden in seemingly healthy cattle in this study suggest that other tick species, as well as shared needles and dehorning procedures, could facilitate pathogen transmission within the herd. Continued investigations are necessary for the surveillance of T. orientalis Ikeda and Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks in Alabama and other U.S. states, along with assessing the pathogenicity of T. orientalis Ikeda infections in cattle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control Strategies of Ticks and Tick-Borne Pathogens)
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8 pages, 516 KiB  
Communication
Long Non-Coding RNA as a Potential Biomarker for Canine Tumors
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(11), 637; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10110637 - 30 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1501
Abstract
Cancer is the leading cause of death in both humans and companion animals. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) plays a crucial role in the progression of various types of cancers in humans, involving tumor proliferation, metastasis, angiogenesis, and signaling pathways, and acts as a [...] Read more.
Cancer is the leading cause of death in both humans and companion animals. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) plays a crucial role in the progression of various types of cancers in humans, involving tumor proliferation, metastasis, angiogenesis, and signaling pathways, and acts as a potential biomarker for diagnosis and targeted treatment. However, research on lncRNAs related to canine tumors is in an early stage. Dogs have long been considered a promising natural model for human disease. This article summarizes the molecular function of lncRNAs as novel biomarkers in various types of canine tumors, providing new insights into canine tumor diagnosis and treatment. Further research on the function and mechanism of lncRNAs is needed, which will benefit both human and veterinary medicine. Full article
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23 pages, 1692 KiB  
Article
Molecular Survey of Rickettsia raoultii in Ticks Infesting Livestock from Pakistan with Notes on Pathogen Distribution in Palearctic and Oriental Regions
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(11), 636; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10110636 - 29 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1598
Abstract
Ticks are hematophagous ectoparasites that transmit different pathogens such as Rickettsia spp. to domestic and wild animals as well as humans. Genetic characterizations of Rickettsia spp. from different regions of Pakistan are mostly based on one or two genetic markers and are confined [...] Read more.
Ticks are hematophagous ectoparasites that transmit different pathogens such as Rickettsia spp. to domestic and wild animals as well as humans. Genetic characterizations of Rickettsia spp. from different regions of Pakistan are mostly based on one or two genetic markers and are confined to small sampling areas and limited host ranges. Therefore, this study aimed to molecularly screen and genetically characterize Rickettsia spp. in various tick species infesting camels, sheep, and goats. All the collected tick specimens were morphologically identified, and randomly selected tick species (148) were screened molecularly for the detection of Rickettsia spp. by amplifying three rickettsial DNA fragments, namely, the citrate-synthase gene (gltA), outer-membrane protein A (ompA), and outer-membrane protein B (ompB). After examining 261 hosts, 161 (61.7%) hosts were found infested by 564 ticks, including 287 (50.9%) nymphs, 171 (30.3%) females, and 106 (18.8%) males in five districts (Kohat, Dera Ismail Khan, Lower Dir, Bajaur, and Mansehra). The highest occurrence was noted for Hyalomma dromedarii (number = 72, 12.8%), followed by Haemaphysalis sulcata (n = 70, 12.4%), Rhipicephalus turanicus (n = 64, 11.3%), Rhipicephalus microplus (n = 55, 9.7%), Haemaphysalis cornupunctata (n = 49, 8.7%), Hyalomma turanicum (n = 48, 8.5%), Hyalomma isaaci (n = 45, 8.0%), Haemaphysalis montgomeryi (n = 44, 7.8%), Hyalomma anatolicum (n = 42, 7.5%), Haemaphysalis bispinosa (n = 38, 6.7%), and Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides (n = 37, 6.6%). A subset of 148 ticks were tested, in which eight (5.4%) ticks, including four Hy. turanicum, two Ha. cornupunctata, one Ha. montgomeryi, and one Ha. bispinosa, were found positive for Rickettsia sp. The gltA, ompA, and ompB sequences revealed 100% identity and were phylogenetically clustered with Rickettsia raoultii reported in China, Russia, USA, Turkey, Denmark, Austria, Italy, and France. Additionally, various reports on R. raoultii from Palearctic and Oriental regions were summarized in this study. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report regarding genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of R. raoultii from Pakistan. Further studies to investigate the association between Rickettsia spp. and ticks should be encouraged to apprise effective management of zoonotic consequences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tick-Borne Diseases and Their Control)
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12 pages, 292 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of Acinetobacter baumannii Strains, Isolated from Clinical Cases of Companion Animals in Greece
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(11), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10110635 - 29 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1432
Abstract
Acinetobacter baumannii–calcoaceticus (Abc) Complex bacteria are troublesome nosocomial pathogens in human medicine, especially during the last 30 years. Recent research in veterinary medicine also supports its emergence as an animal pathogen. However, relevant data are limited. In this study, we obtained [...] Read more.
Acinetobacter baumannii–calcoaceticus (Abc) Complex bacteria are troublesome nosocomial pathogens in human medicine, especially during the last 30 years. Recent research in veterinary medicine also supports its emergence as an animal pathogen. However, relevant data are limited. In this study, we obtained 41 A. baumannii isolates from clinical samples of canine and feline origin collected in veterinary clinics in Greece between 2020 and 2023. Biochemical identification, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, molecular identification and statistical analysis were performed. Most of the samples were of soft tissue and urine origin, while polymicrobial infections were recorded in 29 cases. Minocycline was the most effective in vitro antibiotic, whereas high resistance rates were detected for almost all the agents tested. Notably, 20 isolates were carbapenem resistant and 19 extensively drug resistant (XDR). This is the first report of canine and feline infections caused by Abc in Greece. The results create concerns regarding the capability of the respective bacteria to cause difficult-to-treat infections in pets and persist in veterinary facilities through hospitalized animals, contaminated equipment, and surfaces. Moreover, the prevalence of highly resistant strains in companion animals constitutes a public health issue since they could act as a reservoir, contributing to the spread of epidemic clones in a community. Full article
9 pages, 452 KiB  
Article
Cardiovascular and Respiratory Effects of Increased Intra-Abdominal Pressure with and without Dexmedetomidine in Anesthetized Dogs
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(11), 634; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10110634 - 27 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1391
Abstract
Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) elevation during capnoperitoneum can cause adverse cardiovascular and respiratory effects. This study aimed to determine if a sequentially increased IAP affects cardiovascular and respiratory variables in anesthetized dogs and evaluate the effects of the constant-rate infusion of dexmedetomidine (Dex) on [...] Read more.
Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) elevation during capnoperitoneum can cause adverse cardiovascular and respiratory effects. This study aimed to determine if a sequentially increased IAP affects cardiovascular and respiratory variables in anesthetized dogs and evaluate the effects of the constant-rate infusion of dexmedetomidine (Dex) on cardiovascular and respiratory variables with increased IAP. Five dogs were anesthetized and instrumented, and a Veress needle was equipped to adjust the IAP using a carbon dioxide insufflator. Stabilization was conducted for 1 h, and physiological variables were measured at IAPs of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 mmHg and after desufflation. After the washout period, the dogs underwent similar procedures along with a constant-rate infusion of dexmedetomidine. The cardiovascular effects of increased IAP up to 20 mmHg were not significant in healthy beagle dogs and those administered with dexmedetomidine. When comparing the control and dexmedetomidine groups, the overall significant effects of dexmedetomidine were noted on heart rate, cardiac output, and systemic vascular resistance during the experiment. Respiratory effects were not observed during abdominal insufflation when compared between different IAPs and between the two groups. Overall, an increased IAP of up to 20 mmHg did not significantly affect cardiovascular and respiratory variables in both the control and dexmedetomidine groups. This study suggests that the administration of a dexmedetomidine infusion is applicable in laparoscopic procedures in healthy dogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Surgery)
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9 pages, 1145 KiB  
Brief Report
The First Identification of Cryptosporidium parvum Virus-1 (CSpV1) in Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) Calves in Korea
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(11), 633; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10110633 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1282
Abstract
Cryptosporidium is an obligate coccidian parasite that causes enteric diseases in bovine species. A double-stranded RNA virus associated with C. parvum oocysts, Cryptosporidium parvum virus-1 (CSpV1), has been characterized. However, the relationship between the abovementioned coccidian parasite and the virus has not been [...] Read more.
Cryptosporidium is an obligate coccidian parasite that causes enteric diseases in bovine species. A double-stranded RNA virus associated with C. parvum oocysts, Cryptosporidium parvum virus-1 (CSpV1), has been characterized. However, the relationship between the abovementioned coccidian parasite and the virus has not been studied in the context of the known clinical outcomes. This study aimed to characterize the prevalence and molecular traits of CSpV1 in diarrheal feces of Hanwoo (Korean indigenous cattle) calves. Of the 140 fecal samples previously tested for C. parvum, which were obtained from Hanwoo calves aged 60 days, 70 tested positive and 70 tested negative. These samples were included in this study. By using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis targeting the RdRp gene of CSpV1, we detected CSpV1 in 28 samples (20.0%), with infection rates of 31.4% (22/70) in C. parvum-positive and 8.6% (6/70) in C. parvum-negative samples. CSpV1 samples detected in the same farm were clustered together. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report the prevalence and molecular characteristics of CSpV1 in Hanwoo calves in the Republic of Korea, providing important insights into the relationship between C. parvum and CSpV1 in bovine hosts. Full article
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14 pages, 2593 KiB  
Article
Bevacizumab Efficiently Inhibits VEGF-Associated Cellular Processes in Equine Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells: An In Vitro Characterization
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(11), 632; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10110632 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1363
Abstract
Anti-VEGF agents were found to have clinical implications for the successful treatment of vascular-driven diseases in humans. In this study, a detailed biological characterization of bevacizumab in a variety of in vitro assays was carried out to determine the effect of bevacizumab on [...] Read more.
Anti-VEGF agents were found to have clinical implications for the successful treatment of vascular-driven diseases in humans. In this study, a detailed biological characterization of bevacizumab in a variety of in vitro assays was carried out to determine the effect of bevacizumab on equine umbilical vein endothelial cells (EqUVEC). EqUVECs were harvested from umbilical cords of clinically healthy horses and exposed to different concentrations (1, 2, 4, 6, 8 mg/mL) of bevacizumab (Avastin®). Assays concerning the drug’s safety (cell viability and proliferation assay) and efficacy (cell tube formation assay, cell migration assay, and Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression) were carried out reflecting multiple cellular processes. Bevacizumab significantly decreased VEGF expression at all concentrations over a 72 h period. No cytotoxic effect of bevacizumab on EqUVECs was observed at concentrations of 4 mg/mL bevacizumab or lower. Incubated endothelial cells showed delayed tube formation and bevacizumab efficiently inhibited cell migration in a dose-dependent manner. Bevacizumab potently inhibits VEGF-induced cellular processes and could be a promising therapeutic approach in vascular-driven diseases in horses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Physiology, Pharmacology, and Toxicology)
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