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Beverages, Volume 5, Issue 3 (September 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Sonication on Bubble Size and Sensory Perception of Carbonated Water to Improve Quality and Consumer Acceptability
Beverages 2019, 5(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages5030058 - 12 Sep 2019
Viewed by 141
Abstract
Bubbles are important for carbonated beverage quality since smaller bubbles contribute to higher acceptability. Therefore, the effects and acceptability of the application of audible sound in carbonated water were studied using three brands and applying five frequencies for one minute each in ascending [...] Read more.
Bubbles are important for carbonated beverage quality since smaller bubbles contribute to higher acceptability. Therefore, the effects and acceptability of the application of audible sound in carbonated water were studied using three brands and applying five frequencies for one minute each in ascending order. Six samples, two from each brand, were used for treatments: (i) control and (ii) sonication. Physicochemical measurements consisted of total dissolved solids (TDS), electric conductivity (EC), pH, bubble size, and bubble size distribution. A sensory session (N = 30) was conducted using the Bio-Sensory application to assess acceptability and emotions using self-reported and biometric responses. Statistical analysis included: ANOVA (α = 0.05) and principal component analysis (PCA) for quantitative data and Cochran Q test with pairwise comparisons (p < 0.05) for self-reported emotion responses. Results showed that the sonication effect for the sample with higher TDS, EC, and pH (SPS) reduced bubble size by 46%, while in those with lowest TDS, EC, and pH (IceS) caused an increase of 158% compared to the control. For samples with intermediate values (NuS), there were non-significant differences (p > 0.05) compared to the control. Acceptability was higher for samples with sonication for the three brands. Emotional self-reported responses were more positive for samples with sonication, showing significant differences (p < 0.05) for emotions such as “happy” and “pleased” during both sound and visual assessments. From PCA, a positive relationship between bubble size and liking of bubbles was found as well as for the number of medium bubbles and happy facial expression. The audible sound generated by ubiquitous sound systems may potentially be used by the industry, applying it to the bottled product to modify bubble size and improve quality and acceptability of carbonated beverages. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modelling Changes in Volatile Compounds in British Columbian Varietal Wines That Were Bottle Aged for Up to 120 Months
Beverages 2019, 5(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages5030057 - 06 Sep 2019
Viewed by 194
Abstract
This research quantified 46 volatile compounds in vintage wines (1998–2005) from British Columbia (BC), which had been bottle-aged for up to 120 months. Wines were analyzed up to five times, between December 2003 and October 2008. Compounds were identified using gas chromatography mass [...] Read more.
This research quantified 46 volatile compounds in vintage wines (1998–2005) from British Columbia (BC), which had been bottle-aged for up to 120 months. Wines were analyzed up to five times, between December 2003 and October 2008. Compounds were identified using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and their concentrations were related to “wine age” using single linear regression (SLR). SLR models were developed for each wine compound (eight alcohol, 12 ester/acetate, one acid, one aldehyde, one sulfur) in eight varietal wines: six red (Cabernet franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Meritage, Merlot, Pinot noir, Syrah) and two white (Chardonnay, Pinot gris). Parameter estimates (b0, intercept; b1, slope) and R2 values for models were reported for each compound and each variety. Most of the significant SLR models (109/123) had negative slopes (−b1 coefficients), indicating a decrease in the compounds’ concentration with “wine age”. The b1 coefficients were very small for isobutyl acetate, ethyl isovalerate and ethyl decanoate (−0.00013 to −0.0006 mg/L/mon) and largest (most negative) for 3-methyl-1-butanol, ethyl lactate and isobutyl alcohol (−2.26 to −6.26 mg/L/mon). A few SLR models (14/123) had positive slopes (+b1 coefficients), indicating an increase in the compounds’ concentration with “wine age”, particularly for acetaldehyde, diethyl succinate, ethyl formate and dimethyl sulfide. The +b1 coefficients were smallest for ethyl decanoate (0.0001 mg/L/mon) and dimethyl sulfide (0.00024 mg/L/mon) and largest for dimethyl succinate and acetaldehyde (0.06 mg/L/mon). These values varied by four orders of magnitude (104), reflecting the large concentration range observed for the different volatile compounds. The work provided, for the first time, an empirical (non-theoretical) approach to documenting the evolution of volatile compounds in BC wines. It equipped the industry with an easy-to-use new tool for predicting the concentration of desirable or undesirable compounds in their wines and assisted the industry with decision making regarding the release of their wines into the marketplace. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue How Important Volatile Compounds Are for the Success of Beverages?)
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Open AccessReview
Potential Applications of High Pressure Homogenization in Winemaking: A Review
Beverages 2019, 5(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages5030056 - 03 Sep 2019
Viewed by 211
Abstract
High pressure homogenization (HPH) is an emerging technology with several possible applications in the food sector, such as nanoemulsion preparation, microbial and enzymatic inactivation, cell disruption for the extraction of intracellular components, as well as modification of food biopolymer structures to steer their [...] Read more.
High pressure homogenization (HPH) is an emerging technology with several possible applications in the food sector, such as nanoemulsion preparation, microbial and enzymatic inactivation, cell disruption for the extraction of intracellular components, as well as modification of food biopolymer structures to steer their functionalities. All these effects are attributable to the intense mechanical stresses, such as cavitation and shear forces, suffered by the product during the passage through the homogenization valve. The exploitation of the disruptive forces delivered during HPH was also recently proposed for winemaking applications. In this review, after a general description of HPH and its main applications in food processing, the survey is extended to the use of this technology for the production of wine and fermented beverages, particularly focusing on the effects of HPH on the inactivation of wine microorganisms and the induction of yeast autolysis. Further enological applications of HPH technology, such as its use for the production of inactive dry yeast preparations, are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Trends in Beverage Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
Consumers Preferences for Dairy-Alternative Beverage Using Home-Scan Data in Catalonia
Beverages 2019, 5(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages5030055 - 02 Sep 2019
Viewed by 242
Abstract
The changing lifestyles and the growing health concerns towards the negative impact of the saturated fatty acids originating from animals has increased consumers’ preferences for dairy-alternative products. These products belong to the food and beverage classification that is similar to certain types of [...] Read more.
The changing lifestyles and the growing health concerns towards the negative impact of the saturated fatty acids originating from animals has increased consumers’ preferences for dairy-alternative products. These products belong to the food and beverage classification that is similar to certain types of dairy-based products in terms of texture and flavor, and has similar nutritional benefits. In this context, we seek to identify the willingness to pay (WTP) for the most important attributes that consumers take into account when purchasing the dairy-alternative drinks. A revealed preference discrete choice experiment was carried out using home-scan data belonging to ©Kantar Worldpanel (Barcelona, Spain) regarding the consumption of dairy-alternative drinks in Catalonia (Spain) in 343 households. Furthermore, factors that affect the purchasing frequency of this type of product were analyzed through the Poisson and negative binomial models. Results showed that price was the major driving factor, followed by the original non-dairy beverage flavor attribute. The original non-dairy beverage flavor compared to other added ingredients and tastes showed higher WTP when purchasing the non-dairy alternative. Marketing strategies should promote products by focusing on the “original” and “pure” version of the product without additional ingredients, or through reduction of the undesirable compounds if they exist in these kinds of beverages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in the Beverage Sector)
Open AccessArticle
Using Synchronous Fluorescence to Investigate Chemical Interactions Influencing Foam Characteristics in Sparkling Wines
Beverages 2019, 5(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages5030054 - 02 Sep 2019
Viewed by 221
Abstract
The appearance of bubbles and foam can influence the likeability of a wine even before its consumption. Since foams are essential to visual and taste attributes of sparkling wines, it is of great importance to understand which compounds affect bubbles and foam characteristics. [...] Read more.
The appearance of bubbles and foam can influence the likeability of a wine even before its consumption. Since foams are essential to visual and taste attributes of sparkling wines, it is of great importance to understand which compounds affect bubbles and foam characteristics. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of interactions among proteins, amino acids, and phenols on the characteristics of foam in sparkling wines by using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. Results have shown that several compounds present in sparkling wines influence foam quality differently, and importantly, highlighted how the interaction of those compounds might result in different effects on foam parameters. Amongst the results, mannoproteins were found to be most likely to promote foam and collar stability, while phenols were likely to increase the small bubbles and collar height in the foam matrix. In summary, this work contributes to a better understanding of the effect of wine compounds on foam quality as well as the effect of the interactions between those compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sparkling Wine)
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Open AccessArticle
Phenolic Content of Apple Juice for Cider Making as Influenced by Common Pre-Fermentation Processes Using Two Analytical Methods
Beverages 2019, 5(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages5030053 - 22 Aug 2019
Viewed by 272
Abstract
Pre-fermentation methods can influence the cider produced from apple juice. This study analyses the influence of pre-fermentation methods; maceration and press fractioning, on the total phenolic content of juice from four apple varieties; ‘Red Delicious’, ‘Pink Lady’, ‘Sturmer’, and ‘Bulmer’s Norman’. The must [...] Read more.
Pre-fermentation methods can influence the cider produced from apple juice. This study analyses the influence of pre-fermentation methods; maceration and press fractioning, on the total phenolic content of juice from four apple varieties; ‘Red Delicious’, ‘Pink Lady’, ‘Sturmer’, and ‘Bulmer’s Norman’. The must was macerated for 0 or 2 h and juice was collected at free run or under 200 kpa. Base juice characteristics and total phenolic content was analysed using the Folin–Ciocalteu method and spectrophotometric absorbance at 280 nm (A280), a method used for the analysis of white wine. Both methods of analysing the total phenolic content were used, measuring the same samples to determine if the methods are comparable. No interaction was found between pre-fermentation technique and the results varied by variety and analytical method. High pressure improved the phenolic extraction for ‘Bulmer’s Norman’ juice compared to free run juice when analysed by A280. Non-macerated juice had higher total phenolic content than macerated juice for ‘Red Delicious’ and ‘Pink Lady’ juice when analysed using the Folin–Ciocalteu method. There was a moderate positive correlation between the analytical methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Juices: Technology, Chemistry, and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Perception of Bitter Taste through Time-Intensity Measurements as Influenced by Taste Modulation Compounds in Steviol Glycoside Sweetened Beverages
Beverages 2019, 5(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages5030052 - 20 Aug 2019
Viewed by 353
Abstract
To limit sugar consumption and maintain sweetness levels in the diet, food and beverage developers often use high potency sweeteners (HPSs) as alternatives. Steviol glycosides are considered a consumer-friendly alternative but they are perceived to have a bitter taste accompanied by sweet and [...] Read more.
To limit sugar consumption and maintain sweetness levels in the diet, food and beverage developers often use high potency sweeteners (HPSs) as alternatives. Steviol glycosides are considered a consumer-friendly alternative but they are perceived to have a bitter taste accompanied by sweet and bitter lingering. Recently, taste modulators have been discovered that help to alleviate negative attributes like bitterness of HPSs. To show that taste modulation compounds (TMCs) decrease perceived bitterness associated with steviol glycosides, a trained descriptive panel (n = 9) performed a single-attribute time-intensity (TI) assessment over 2 min. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze TI curves and curve parameters (AUC, Imax and Tmax). Principal components analysis (PCA) was also used to assess TI curves. Results showed that statistically significant results depended on the analysis method. Bitterness perception was shown to persist less over 2 min for steviol glycosides with TMCs when assessing raw scores and parameters. The same was not found using differences from control curves or weighted curves from PCA. These findings demonstrate that particular TMCs may subtly decrease perceived bitterness of steviol glycosides. However, business objectives of TMC use may dictate what kind of analysis method to use when analyzing perceived bitter perception of TMCs over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Beverages and Novel Technologies for their production )
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Open AccessEditorial
Brewing and Craft Beer
Beverages 2019, 5(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages5030051 - 16 Aug 2019
Viewed by 354
Abstract
Beer is a beverage with more than 8000 years of history, and the process of brewing has not changed much over the centuries [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brewing and Craft Beer)
Open AccessArticle
Effect of the Atmospheric Pressure Cold Plasma Treatment on Tempranillo Red Wine Quality in Batch and Flow Systems
Beverages 2019, 5(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages5030050 - 05 Aug 2019
Viewed by 408
Abstract
The demand for chemical-free beverages is posing a challenge to the wine industry to provide safe and healthy products with low concentrations of chemical preservatives. The development of new technologies, such as Atmospheric Pressure Cold Plasma (APCP), offers the wine industry the opportunity [...] Read more.
The demand for chemical-free beverages is posing a challenge to the wine industry to provide safe and healthy products with low concentrations of chemical preservatives. The development of new technologies, such as Atmospheric Pressure Cold Plasma (APCP), offers the wine industry the opportunity to contribute to this continuous improvement. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the effect of Argon APCP treatment, applied in both batch and flow systems, on Tempranillo red wine quality. Batch treatments of 100 mL were applied with two powers (60 and 90 W) at four periods (1, 3, 5, and 10 min). For flowing devices, 750 mL of wine with a flow of 1.2 and 2.4 L/min were treated at 60 and 90 W for 25 min and was sampled every 5 min. Treatments in batch resulted in wines with greater color intensity, lower tonality, and higher content in total phenolic compounds and anthocyanins, so that they were favorable for wine quality. Among the batch treatments, the one with the lowest power was the most favorable. Flow continuous treatments, despite being more appropriate to implement in wineries, neither led to significant improvements in the chromatic and phenolic wine properties nor caused wine spoilage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Trends in Beverage Processing)
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Open AccessReview
Hyperbaric Storage at Room Temperature for Fruit Juice Preservation
Beverages 2019, 5(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages5030049 - 02 Aug 2019
Viewed by 449
Abstract
Hyperbaric storage is an innovative preservation method that consists of storing food under pressure, either at room or at low temperature, for time periods of days, weeks, or months. Recent scientific literature shows that hyperbaric storage at room temperature (HS-RT) could be an [...] Read more.
Hyperbaric storage is an innovative preservation method that consists of storing food under pressure, either at room or at low temperature, for time periods of days, weeks, or months. Recent scientific literature shows that hyperbaric storage at room temperature (HS-RT) could be an efficient method for fruit juice preservation. Depending on the level applied, pressure can inhibit and even inactivate the endogenous microflora of the fresh juice, while properly preserving other organoleptic and quality indicators. Even though the method has not yet been implemented in the food industry, its industrial viability has been evaluated from different points of view (product quality, consumer acceptation, vessel design, economic, or environmental, among others). The results reveal that HS-RT is effective in extending the shelf-life of both acidic and low-acidic fruit juices. Moreover, the energetic costs and the carbon footprint of HS-RT are considerably lower than those of refrigeration, therefore, HS-RT could be a reliable and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional cold storage. However, before industrial implementation, much more research is needed to clarify the effects of the storage conditions on the agents that cause fruit juice deterioration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Trends in Beverage Processing)
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Open AccessReview
Grape Infusions: The Flavor of Grapes and Health-Promoting Compounds in Your Tea Cup
Beverages 2019, 5(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages5030048 - 01 Aug 2019
Viewed by 489
Abstract
Traditionally, tea, a beverage made from the processed leaves of the tea plant, Camellia sinensis, and herbal infusions have been primarily consumed for their pleasant taste. Nowadays, they are also consumed because they contain nutraceutical compounds, such as polyphenols. Grapes and grape/wine [...] Read more.
Traditionally, tea, a beverage made from the processed leaves of the tea plant, Camellia sinensis, and herbal infusions have been primarily consumed for their pleasant taste. Nowadays, they are also consumed because they contain nutraceutical compounds, such as polyphenols. Grapes and grape/wine sub-products such as non-fermented/semi-fermented or fermented grapes, skins, and seeds are a rich source of health-promoting compounds, presenting a great potential for the development of new beverages. Therefore, these grape/wine sub-products are used in the beverage sector for the preparation of infusions, tisanes, and decoctions. Besides polyphenols, fermented grapes, skins, and seeds, usually discarded as waste, are enriched with other health-promoting/nutraceutical compounds, such as melatonin, glutathione, and trehalose, among others, which are produced by yeasts during alcoholic fermentation. In this review, we summarize the benefits of drinking herbal infusions and discuss the potential application of some grapevine fermentation waste products in the production of healthy beverages that we can call grape infusions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity Research and Bioactive Compounds in Beverages)
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Open AccessReview
Thermal and Non-Thermal Physical Methods for Improving Polyphenol Extraction in Red Winemaking
Beverages 2019, 5(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages5030047 - 01 Aug 2019
Viewed by 486
Abstract
Maceration-fermentation is a critical stage in the elaboration of high-quality red wine. During this stage, the solid parts of the grape berries remain in contact with the fermenting must in order to extract polyphenols mainly located in the grape skin cells. Extracted polyphenols [...] Read more.
Maceration-fermentation is a critical stage in the elaboration of high-quality red wine. During this stage, the solid parts of the grape berries remain in contact with the fermenting must in order to extract polyphenols mainly located in the grape skin cells. Extracted polyphenols have a considerable impact on sensory properties (color, flavor, astringency, and bitterness) and on the aging behavior of red wine. In order to obtain wines with a sufficient proportion of those compounds, long maceration times are required. The presence of the solid parts of the grapes during red wine fermentation involves several problems for the wineries such as production capacity reduction, higher energy consumption for controlling the fermentation temperature and labor and energy consumption for periodically pump the grape must over the skin mass. Physical techniques based on heating such as thermovinification and flash expansion are currently being applied in wineries to improve the extraction of polyphenols and to reduce maceration time. However, these techniques present a series of problems derived from the heating of the grapes that affect wine quality. A series of recent studies have demonstrated that non-thermal innovative technologies such as pulsed electric fields (PEF) and ultrasound may represent effective alternatives to heating for assisting polyphenol extraction. In terms of general product quality and energetic requirements, this review compares these thermal and non-thermal physical technologies that aim to reduce maceration time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Trends in Beverage Processing)
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Open AccessCommunication
Detection and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Typing of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates from Milk Vending Machines in Croatia
Beverages 2019, 5(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages5030046 - 19 Jul 2019
Viewed by 417
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in raw milk from vending machines, based on culture and molecular detection of pathogen and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis typing. From December 2015 to January 2017, a total of 319 [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in raw milk from vending machines, based on culture and molecular detection of pathogen and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis typing. From December 2015 to January 2017, a total of 319 milk samples from 36 vending machines were examined for the presence and count of L. monocytogenes by reference methods ISO 11290:1 and ISO 11290:2. Molecular detection of pathogens was performed by loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP) coupled with bioluminescence (Molecular Detection Assay). L. monocytogenes was detected by MDA in 14 milk samples (4.38%) from four farms, compared to eight positive samples (2.5%) retrieved by a reference ISO method. Cultivable L. monocytogenes isolates were subjected to Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis typing and pulsotypes were compared with those obtained during the previous survey in Croatia (2014‒2015). It was found that identical PFGE patterns of L. monocytogenes occur in milk samples of the same producer over a three-year period, indicating the persistence of pathogens in raw milk vending machines. The results obtained support the need for more effective control of milk in the entire food chain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk)
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Open AccessEditorial
Beverage Sensory Modification
Beverages 2019, 5(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages5030045 - 03 Jul 2019
Viewed by 485
Abstract
The Special Issue on “Beverage Sensory Modification” gathers a series of articles that feature the broad sense of sensory modification, either by improving flavor, taste, and mouthfeel properties or by preventing their spoilage [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beverage Sensory Modification) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant Properties of Thai Traditional Herbal Teas
Beverages 2019, 5(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages5030044 - 02 Jul 2019
Viewed by 512
Abstract
Recipes for Thai traditional herbal teas have been formulated based on Thai traditional medicine, which tries to achieve a balance of the body’s elements (fire, water, wind and earth) in each season. This study aims to assess the benefits of Thai traditional herbal [...] Read more.
Recipes for Thai traditional herbal teas have been formulated based on Thai traditional medicine, which tries to achieve a balance of the body’s elements (fire, water, wind and earth) in each season. This study aims to assess the benefits of Thai traditional herbal teas through evaluating their antioxidant properties and measuring the satisfaction levels of healthy volunteers. Antioxidant activity tests performed on 11 tea recipes and on green tea (positive control) included 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), a radical scavenging assay and a 2,2’-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) assay. In addition, total phenolic contents were determined using a Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Tests of satisfaction were performed on volunteer subjects aged between 18 and 30 years old, using the criteria of color, flavor, taste and overall satisfaction. Among the 11 tea recipes tested, the summer recipe 1 containing Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa, Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bertoni, Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. and Morus alba L. demonstrated the most promising antioxidant properties (p > 0.05) and a phenolic content (p > 0.05), which was comparable to green tea. Furthermore, it got the highest satisfaction scores in every assessed category. Therefore, this study shows that Thai traditional herbal teas, developed based on the concepts of Thai traditional medicine, could be a good choice for people looking for health-promoting beverages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity Research and Bioactive Compounds in Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Drying Optimisation to Obtain Carotenoid-Enriched Extracts from Industrial Peach Processing Waste (Pomace)
Beverages 2019, 5(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages5030043 - 02 Jul 2019
Viewed by 536
Abstract
In this study, peach pomace (PP) moisture reduction using conventional oven-drying was investigated by implementing the Box-Behnken experimental design, considering two major process variables, time—t and temperature—T. The purpose was the optimisation of the process to obtain PP extracts as [...] Read more.
In this study, peach pomace (PP) moisture reduction using conventional oven-drying was investigated by implementing the Box-Behnken experimental design, considering two major process variables, time—t and temperature—T. The purpose was the optimisation of the process to obtain PP extracts as rich as possible in total carotenoids (TCn). It was shown that effective moisture removal up to a final level of approximately 24%, could be achieved after 8.27 h (496 min) at 70 °C. Under these optimised drying conditions, the maximum carotenoid yield was 84.57 ± 8.56 μg CtE g−1 dm. This yield was by almost 63% lower than that achieved using fresh (non-dried) samples. Temperatures higher than 70 °C were demonstrated to be even more detrimental in this regard, yet from the model built, it was made clear that prolonged drying time may bring about a more pronounced negative effect on the total carotenoid yield. The drop in total carotenoid content of PP as a result of drying was accompanied by a significant decline in the antiradical activity of PP extracts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Valorization of Beverage Industry By-products)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Bioactive Substances in the Wastes of Some Selective Mediterranean Crops
Beverages 2019, 5(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages5030042 - 01 Jul 2019
Viewed by 541
Abstract
Production of added products from industrial byproducts is a challenge for the current natural product industry and the extraction field more generally. Therefore, the aim of this study is to valorize the selected Mediterranean crops that can be applied as antioxidants, natural chelating [...] Read more.
Production of added products from industrial byproducts is a challenge for the current natural product industry and the extraction field more generally. Therefore, the aim of this study is to valorize the selected Mediterranean crops that can be applied as antioxidants, natural chelating agents, or even as biosolvents or biofuels after special treatment. In this study, the wastes of popular Mediterranean plants were extracted via homogenizer-assisted extraction (HAE) by applying response surface methodology (RSM) to examine the effects of process parameters on the total biophenolic contents (TBCs) of their residues. Box–Behnken design model equations calculated for each system were found significant (p < 0.0001) with an adequate value of determination coefficient (R2). Olive leaf had the highest TBC content (58.62 mg-GAE/g-DW with 0.1 g sample, 42.5% ethanol at 6522.2 rpm for 2 min), followed by mandarin peel (27.79 mg-GAE/g-DW with 0.1 g sample, 34.24% ethanol at 8772 rpm for 1.99 min), grapefruit peel (21.12 mg-GAE/g-DW with 0.1 g sample, 42.33% ethanol at 5000 rpm for 1.125 min) and lemon peel (16.89 mg-GAE/g-DW with 0.1 g sample, 33.62% ethanol at 5007 rpm for 1.282 min). The antioxidant activities of the extracts were measured by several in vitro studies. The most prominent biophenols of the wastes were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fourier-transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques were also used for characterization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Valorization of Beverage Industry By-products)
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Open AccessArticle
Preliminary Studies on Genetic Profiling of Coffee and Caffeine Consumption
Beverages 2019, 5(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages5030041 - 01 Jul 2019
Viewed by 453
Abstract
Regular coffee intake has been associated with reduced risk of developing serious chronic diseases. The hypothesis of this study is that coffee consumers present a particular pattern/trend of genotypes that ultimately will shed light on new gene targets to treat the diseases, from [...] Read more.
Regular coffee intake has been associated with reduced risk of developing serious chronic diseases. The hypothesis of this study is that coffee consumers present a particular pattern/trend of genotypes that ultimately will shed light on new gene targets to treat the diseases, from which regular coffee intake has preventive effects. Sixteen SNPs identified at genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on coffee and caffeine consumption were genotyped using real-time restriction-fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The DNA samples were the same from a previous pilot study where 15 healthy volunteers donated two blood samples collected before and after drinking a standard cup of coffee and had caffeine plasma levels and CYP 1A2 genotype (rs762551) determined. The cross-examination of the data showed that six of the sixteen SNPs exhibited a negative allelic effect direction and nine of them showed a positive effect direction of which three of them had results confirmed by a recent GWAS. There is a need of a more in-depth study to understand the effects of the presence or absence of specific variant alleles as players to benefit the health of coffee consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and its Consumption: Benefits and Risks)
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