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Open AccessArticle

Modelling Changes in Volatile Compounds in British Columbian Varietal Wines That Were Bottle Aged for Up to 120 Months

1
Science and Technology Branch, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Summerland, BC V0H 1Z0, Canada
2
Food Nutrition and Health, Faculty of Land and Food Systems, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
3
Analytical Core Laboratory, Faculty of Land and Food Systems, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
4
Wine Research Centre, Faculty of Land and Food Systems, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Beverages 2019, 5(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages5030057
Received: 11 July 2019 / Revised: 10 August 2019 / Accepted: 2 September 2019 / Published: 6 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue How Important Volatile Compounds Are for the Success of Beverages?)
This research quantified 46 volatile compounds in vintage wines (1998–2005) from British Columbia (BC), which had been bottle-aged for up to 120 months. Wines were analyzed up to five times, between December 2003 and October 2008. Compounds were identified using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and their concentrations were related to “wine age” using single linear regression (SLR). SLR models were developed for each wine compound (eight alcohol, 12 ester/acetate, one acid, one aldehyde, one sulfur) in eight varietal wines: six red (Cabernet franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Meritage, Merlot, Pinot noir, Syrah) and two white (Chardonnay, Pinot gris). Parameter estimates (b0, intercept; b1, slope) and R2 values for models were reported for each compound and each variety. Most of the significant SLR models (109/123) had negative slopes (−b1 coefficients), indicating a decrease in the compounds’ concentration with “wine age”. The b1 coefficients were very small for isobutyl acetate, ethyl isovalerate and ethyl decanoate (−0.00013 to −0.0006 mg/L/mon) and largest (most negative) for 3-methyl-1-butanol, ethyl lactate and isobutyl alcohol (−2.26 to −6.26 mg/L/mon). A few SLR models (14/123) had positive slopes (+b1 coefficients), indicating an increase in the compounds’ concentration with “wine age”, particularly for acetaldehyde, diethyl succinate, ethyl formate and dimethyl sulfide. The +b1 coefficients were smallest for ethyl decanoate (0.0001 mg/L/mon) and dimethyl sulfide (0.00024 mg/L/mon) and largest for dimethyl succinate and acetaldehyde (0.06 mg/L/mon). These values varied by four orders of magnitude (104), reflecting the large concentration range observed for the different volatile compounds. The work provided, for the first time, an empirical (non-theoretical) approach to documenting the evolution of volatile compounds in BC wines. It equipped the industry with an easy-to-use new tool for predicting the concentration of desirable or undesirable compounds in their wines and assisted the industry with decision making regarding the release of their wines into the marketplace. View Full-Text
Keywords: wine aging; varietal wines; volatile compounds; regression analysis wine aging; varietal wines; volatile compounds; regression analysis
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Bejaei, M.; Cliff, M.A.; Madilao, L.L.; vanVuuren, H.J.J. Modelling Changes in Volatile Compounds in British Columbian Varietal Wines That Were Bottle Aged for Up to 120 Months. Beverages 2019, 5, 57.

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