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Open AccessArticle

Phenolic Content of Apple Juice for Cider Making as Influenced by Common Pre-Fermentation Processes Using Two Analytical Methods

1
Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 98 Sandy Bay, Tasmania 7001, Australia
2
WineTQ, P.O. Box 3, Monash 5342, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Beverages 2019, 5(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages5030053
Received: 14 June 2019 / Revised: 29 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 August 2019 / Published: 22 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Juices: Technology, Chemistry, and Nutrition)
Pre-fermentation methods can influence the cider produced from apple juice. This study analyses the influence of pre-fermentation methods; maceration and press fractioning, on the total phenolic content of juice from four apple varieties; ‘Red Delicious’, ‘Pink Lady’, ‘Sturmer’, and ‘Bulmer’s Norman’. The must was macerated for 0 or 2 h and juice was collected at free run or under 200 kpa. Base juice characteristics and total phenolic content was analysed using the Folin–Ciocalteu method and spectrophotometric absorbance at 280 nm (A280), a method used for the analysis of white wine. Both methods of analysing the total phenolic content were used, measuring the same samples to determine if the methods are comparable. No interaction was found between pre-fermentation technique and the results varied by variety and analytical method. High pressure improved the phenolic extraction for ‘Bulmer’s Norman’ juice compared to free run juice when analysed by A280. Non-macerated juice had higher total phenolic content than macerated juice for ‘Red Delicious’ and ‘Pink Lady’ juice when analysed using the Folin–Ciocalteu method. There was a moderate positive correlation between the analytical methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: maceration; press fractioning; Folic–Ciocalteu; spectrophotometric absorbance maceration; press fractioning; Folic–Ciocalteu; spectrophotometric absorbance
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Way, M.L.; Jones, J.E.; Swarts, N.D.; Dambergs, R.G. Phenolic Content of Apple Juice for Cider Making as Influenced by Common Pre-Fermentation Processes Using Two Analytical Methods. Beverages 2019, 5, 53.

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