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Foods, Volume 9, Issue 9 (September 2020) – 202 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The incidence of L. monocytogenes has not significantly decreased in the last few years, which highlights the need for more control measurements in the food industry. The verification of food processing plants is the key to avoiding cross-contamination and assuring the safety of food products. However, analysis of the food contact surface requires improvement. In this study, a new methodology based on recombinase polymerase reaction (RPA) combined with lateral flow strips (RPA-LF) was developed to detect L. monocytogenes. The complete methodology reached an LoD95 of 18.2 CFU/cm2 and allowed a reduction in time and the need for complex equipment. View this paper
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Article
Impact of Olive Extract Addition on Corn Starch-Based Active Edible Films Properties for Food Packaging Applications
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1339; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091339 - 22 Sep 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1925
Abstract
Active edible films based on corn starch containing glycerol as a plasticizer and an olive extract obtained from Spanish olive fruit (Olea europaea) by-products (olive extract; OE) at different concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 wt%) were prepared by using the [...] Read more.
Active edible films based on corn starch containing glycerol as a plasticizer and an olive extract obtained from Spanish olive fruit (Olea europaea) by-products (olive extract; OE) at different concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 wt%) were prepared by using the casting technique and further solvent-evaporation. OE showed high total phenolic and flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity, which was evaluated by using three different methods: free radical scavenging assay by (1,1-dipheny l-2-picrylhydrazyl) DPPH, 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) ABTS radical inhibition and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The incorporation of OE into the corn starch/glycerol matrix underlined the antioxidant potential and antimicrobial effect against E. coli and S. aureus of these novel active films, being noticeable for films added with 0.2 wt% OE. The developed active films showed a clear thermo-oxidative stability improvement with OE incorporation, in particular at 0.2 wt% loading with an increase of around 50 °C in the initial degradation temperature (Tini) and oxidation onset temperature (OOT). The functional properties of control films were also improved with OE addition resulting in a decrease in Young’s modulus, elongation at break, shore D hardness and water vapor permeability. The present work suggested the potential of the developed corn starch-based edible films as low-price and sustainable food packaging systems to prevent the oxidative deterioration of packaged foodstuff while reducing also the generation of olive by-products. Full article
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Article
Potential Use of Silica Nanoparticles for the Microbial Stabilisation of Wine: An In Vitro Study Using Oenococcus oeni as a Model
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1338; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091338 - 22 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1235
Abstract
The emerging trend towards the reduction of SO2 in winemaking has created a need to look for alternative methods to ensure the protection of wine against the growth of undesired species of microorganisms and to safely remove wine microorganisms. This study describes [...] Read more.
The emerging trend towards the reduction of SO2 in winemaking has created a need to look for alternative methods to ensure the protection of wine against the growth of undesired species of microorganisms and to safely remove wine microorganisms. This study describes the possible application of silica nanospheres as a wine stabilisation agent, with Oenococcus oeni (DSM7008) as a model strain. The experiment was conducted firstly on model solutions of phosphate-buffered saline and 1% glucose. Their neutralising effect was tested under stirring with the addition of SiO2 (0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/mL). Overall, the highest concentration of nanospheres under continuous stirring resulted in the greatest decrease in cell counts. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses showed extensive damage to the bacterial cells after stirring with silica nanomaterials. Then, the neutralising effect of 0.5 mg/mL SiO2 was tested in young red wine under stirring, where cell counts were reduced by over 50%. The obtained results suggest that silica nanospheres can serve as an alternative way to reduce or substitute the use of sulphur dioxide in the microbial stabilisation of wine. In addition, further aspects of following investigations should focus on the protection against enzymatic and chemical oxidation of wine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Wine Microbiology)
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Article
The Relationship between In Vitro and In Vivo Starch Digestion Kinetics of Breads Varying in Dietary Fibre
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1337; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091337 - 22 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1633
Abstract
The relationship between in vitro and in vivo starch digestion kinetics was studied in portal vein catheterised pigs fed breads varying in dietary fibre (DF) content and composition. The breads were a low DF white wheat bread, two high DF whole grain rye [...] Read more.
The relationship between in vitro and in vivo starch digestion kinetics was studied in portal vein catheterised pigs fed breads varying in dietary fibre (DF) content and composition. The breads were a low DF white wheat bread, two high DF whole grain rye breads without and with whole kernels and two experimental breads with added arabinoxylan or oat β-glucan concentrates, respectively. In vitro, samples were collected at 0, 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min and the cumulative hydrolysis curve for starch was modelled, whereas the in vivo cumulative absorption models for starch were based on samples taken every 15 min up to 60 min and then every 30 min up to 240 min. The starch hydrolysis rate in vitro (0.07 to 0.16%/min) was far higher than the rate of glucose appearance in vivo (0.017 to 0.023% absorbed starch/min). However, the ranking of the breads was the same in vitro and in vivo and there was a strong relationship between the kinetic parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Food Digestion)
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Article
Improvement of the Shelf-Life Status of Modified Atmosphere Packaged Camel Meat Using Nisin and Olea europaea Subsp. laperrinei Leaf Extract
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1336; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091336 - 22 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1360
Abstract
The impact of combined biopreservation treatment with Olea europaea subsp. laperrinei leave extracts (laper.OLE) and nisin on the quality attributes of camel steaks packaged under high O2 (80%) and CO2 (20%) atmosphere was investigated during refrigerated (1 ± 1 [...] Read more.
The impact of combined biopreservation treatment with Olea europaea subsp. laperrinei leave extracts (laper.OLE) and nisin on the quality attributes of camel steaks packaged under high O2 (80%) and CO2 (20%) atmosphere was investigated during refrigerated (1 ± 1 °C) long-term storage. As measured by reversed phase HPLC/DAD analysis, oleuropein is the phenolic compound most present in the chemical composition of laper.OLE (63.03%). Camel steaks treated with laper.OLE had a lower concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RSs) in the course of 30 days of storage. Surface metmyoglobin (MetMb) increased at a reduced rate in laper.OLE-treated samples compared to control samples. Neither modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) nor biopreservation treatments significantly altered the tenderness of camel steaks, expressed in terms of Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), as compared to control samples. After 30 days of storage, psychrotrophic bacteria and Pseudomonas spp. counts were significantly lower in camel steaks treated with a combination of laper.OLE and nisin than in untreated steaks. Moreover, samples treated with laper.OLE received higher scores on bitterness acceptability. In sum, the use of combined biopreservation methods could be a sustainable solution for the preservation and promotion of the quality characteristics of camel meat in arid regions. Full article
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Article
Susceptibility to Bacteriocins in Biofilm-Forming, Variable Staphylococci Isolated from Local Slovak Ewes’ Milk Lump Cheeses
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1335; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091335 - 22 Sep 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1133
Abstract
Seventeen staphylococci isolated from 54 Slovak local lump cheeses made from ewes’ milk were taxonomically allotted to five species and three clusters/groups involving the following species: Staphylococcus aureus (5 strains), Staphylococcus xylosus (3 strains), Staphylococcus equorum (one strain) Staphylococcus succinus (5 strains) and [...] Read more.
Seventeen staphylococci isolated from 54 Slovak local lump cheeses made from ewes’ milk were taxonomically allotted to five species and three clusters/groups involving the following species: Staphylococcus aureus (5 strains), Staphylococcus xylosus (3 strains), Staphylococcus equorum (one strain) Staphylococcus succinus (5 strains) and Staphylococcus simulans (3 strains). Five different species were determined. The aim of the study follows two lines: basic research in connection with staphylococci, and further possible application of the bacteriocins. Identified staphylococci were mostly susceptible to antibiotics (10 out of 14 antibiotics). Strains showed γ-hemolysis (meaning they did not form hemolysis) except for S. aureus SAOS1/1 strain, which formed β-hemolysis. S. aureus SAOS1/1 strain was also DNase positive as did S. aureus SAOS5/2 and SAOS51/3. The other staphylococci were DNase negative. S. aureus SAOS1/1 and SAOS51/3 showed biofilm formation on Congo red agar. However, using quantitative plate assay, 12 strains out of 17 showed low-grade biofilm formation (0.1 ≤ A570 < 1), while five strains did not form biofilm (A570 < 0.1). The growth of all strains, including those strains resistant to enterocins, was inhibited by nisin and gallidermin, with high inhibition activity resulting in the inhibition zone in size from 1600 up to 102,400 AU/mL (arbitrary unit per milliliter). This study contributes to microbiota colonization associated with raw ewe’s milk lump cheeses; it also indicates bacteriocin treatment benefit, which can be used in prevention and/or elimination of staphylococci. Full article
Review
Role of Sensory Evaluation in Consumer Acceptance of Plant-Based Meat Analogs and Meat Extenders: A Scoping Review
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1334; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091334 - 22 Sep 2020
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 9256
Abstract
Growing demand for sustainable food has led to the development of meat analogs to satisfy flexitarians and conscious meat-eaters. Successful combinations of functional ingredients and processing methods result in the generation of meat-like sensory attributes, which are necessary to attract non-vegetarian consumers. Sensory [...] Read more.
Growing demand for sustainable food has led to the development of meat analogs to satisfy flexitarians and conscious meat-eaters. Successful combinations of functional ingredients and processing methods result in the generation of meat-like sensory attributes, which are necessary to attract non-vegetarian consumers. Sensory science is a broader research field used to measure and interpret responses to product properties, which is not limited to consumer liking. Acceptance is evaluated through hedonic tests to assess the overall liking and degree of liking for individual sensory attributes. Descriptive analysis provides both qualitative and quantitative results of the product’s sensory profile. Here, original research papers are reviewed that evaluate sensory attributes of meat analogs and meat extenders through hedonic testing and/or descriptive analysis to demonstrate how these analytical approaches are important for consumer acceptance. Sensory evaluation combined with instrumental measures, such as texture and color, can be advantageous and help to improve the final product. Future applications of these methods might include integration of sensory tests during product development to better direct product processing and formulation. By conducting sensory evaluation, companies and researchers will learn valuable information regarding product attributes and overall liking that help to provide more widely accepted and sustainable foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory and Consumer Research for a Sustainable Food System)
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Article
Effect of Prior Chilling Period and Alga-Extract Packaging on the Quality of a Canned Underutilised Fish Species
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1333; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091333 - 21 Sep 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1261
Abstract
The effect of a prior chilling period and an alga extract packaging on the quality of a canned underutilised mackerel species (Scomber colias) was investigated. For this different chilling times (0, 4 and 9 days) were taken into account and three [...] Read more.
The effect of a prior chilling period and an alga extract packaging on the quality of a canned underutilised mackerel species (Scomber colias) was investigated. For this different chilling times (0, 4 and 9 days) were taken into account and three concentrations of aqueous extracts of the macroalga Fucus spiralis were tested in a brine-packaging medium. Chemical changes related to quality were analysed after 3 months of canned storage. A substantial increase (p < 0.05) in free fatty acid content was observed in canned fish by increasing the chilling time; however, alga extract presence in the packaging medium led to decreased mean values. Concerning lipid oxidation development, an increased chilling time led to higher values (p < 0.05) of thiobarbituric acid index and fluorescent compounds formation; remarkably, an increased presence of alga extract led to a higher (p < 0.05) peroxide retention and lower (p < 0.05) fluorescent compounds content. Average colour L* and a* values showed a decrease and an increase, respectively, with chilling time; however, such changes were minimised with the alga extract content in the packaging system. Trimethylamine content revealed a marked increase as a result of the sterilisation step, but no influence (p > 0.05) of the chilling time or the alga-packaging medium could be implied. Full article
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Article
Microencapsulation of Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana L.) Juice Using Spray-Drying
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1332; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091332 - 21 Sep 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1646
Abstract
Horseradish contains many bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity. The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of various wall materials and their ratios on the physical properties and bioactive-compound retention and stability in microencapsulated horseradish leaf and root juices. Horseradish juice was microencapsulated [...] Read more.
Horseradish contains many bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity. The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of various wall materials and their ratios on the physical properties and bioactive-compound retention and stability in microencapsulated horseradish leaf and root juices. Horseradish juice was microencapsulated using maltodextrin, maltodextrin/gum Arabic, soy protein isolate, and starch with three different core-to-wall ratios. The total phenolic, total flavonoid, total flavan-3-ol, and total phenolic-acid contents, as well as antioxidant activity, were determined using spectrophotometric methods, whereas individual phenol profiles were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Multivariate analysis of variance showed that plant material, wall material, and core-to-wall ratio had a significant effect on the bioactive-compound retention and antioxidant-activity preservation. Microcapsules produced from horseradish leaf juice had a significantly higher content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity compared to root-juice microcapsules. However, better retention was observed for microencapsulated horseradish root juice. Maltodextrin and maltodextrin/gum Arabic were the most effective wall materials for the retention of bioactive compounds, while they also had a smaller particle size and better solubility. The horseradish-juice microcapsules possess a high content of rutin. The highest stability of bioactive compounds after storage was found at a core-to-wall ratio of 20:80. Full article
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Article
Effect of Roasting and Brewing on the Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Tartary Buckwheat
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1331; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091331 - 21 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1315
Abstract
We evaluated the effect of the roasting and brewing conditions of Tartary buckwheat (TB), which is widely used in infusion teas, on its antioxidant and antiproliferative activities in vitro. TB was roasted at 210 °C for 10 min and brewed at a high [...] Read more.
We evaluated the effect of the roasting and brewing conditions of Tartary buckwheat (TB), which is widely used in infusion teas, on its antioxidant and antiproliferative activities in vitro. TB was roasted at 210 °C for 10 min and brewed at a high temperature for a short time (HTST; 85–90 °C, 3 min) or at room temperature for a long time (RTLT; 25–30 °C, 24 h). Roasted TB (RTB) tea brewed at RTLT had the highest total polyphenol content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) among the four TB teas for different roasting and brewing conditions. Moreover, RTB brewed at RTLT showed the greatest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-, 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)-, and alkyl-scavenging activities. The TB tea brewed at RTLT had higher Fe2+-chelating activity than that brewed at HTST, irrespective of roasting. Moreover, RTB tea brewed at RTLT inhibited the proliferation of human pancreatic and breast cancer cells. Overall, RTB-RTLT displayed the largest effect on antioxidant and antiproliferative effects. Finally, rutin was found to possess the most pronounced effect on the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of the TB teas. These results indicate that the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of RTB are enhanced by RTLT brewing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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Article
Sensory and Volatile Profiles of Korean Commercially Distilled Soju Using Descriptive Analysis and HS-SPME-GC-MS
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1330; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091330 - 21 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1267
Abstract
Volatile compositions and sensory characteristics of 11 commercially distilled soju samples were investigated using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and sensory descriptive analysis. A total of 59 major volatile compounds, consisting of 32 esters, 10 alcohols, 2 acids, 5 [...] Read more.
Volatile compositions and sensory characteristics of 11 commercially distilled soju samples were investigated using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and sensory descriptive analysis. A total of 59 major volatile compounds, consisting of 32 esters, 10 alcohols, 2 acids, 5 aldehydes, 3 ketones, 1 hydrocarbon, 1 furan, 2 phenols, and 3 miscellaneous compounds, were identified. From the principal component analysis (PCA) of volatile data, MSJ made by atmospheric distillation showed a clear distinction in volatile compositions compared to that of other samples made by vacuum distillation. Based on PCA of the sensory data determined by a panel of ten judges, MSJ was associated with a large amount of longer chain esters that showed high intensities in bitter taste and yeast/nuruk-related flavor attributes. HYJ, LPJ, and HAJ made with rice as a raw material were associated with lower intensities of the alcohol aroma, while JRJ and OKJ aged in oak barrels were associated with fruit flavor, sweet flavor, and brandy aroma. In the partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis to see any relationship between volatile and sensory data, longer chain esters like ethyl tetradecanoate, and ethyl hexadecanoate were highly associated with bleach aroma. In contrast, positive correlations were seen with barley aroma and yeast flavor with hexanal, nonanal, benzaldehyde, and 2-methoxy-phenol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory Evaluation and Flavor Analysis of Foods)
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Article
Modified Atmosphere and Humidity Film Reduces Browning Susceptibility of Oriental Melon Suture Tissue during Cold Storage
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1329; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091329 - 21 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1702
Abstract
Oriental melons have a relatively short shelf life as they are harvested during the summer season and susceptible to cold-induced injuries. Typical chilling injury when stored at 4 °C is expressed as browning of the fruit suture. To prolong the shelf life and [...] Read more.
Oriental melons have a relatively short shelf life as they are harvested during the summer season and susceptible to cold-induced injuries. Typical chilling injury when stored at 4 °C is expressed as browning of the fruit suture. To prolong the shelf life and reduce browning of the fruit, the effects of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), X-tend modified atmosphere (MA)/modified humidity (MH) bulk packaging (XF), and polyethylene (PE) packaging, on oriental melons were investigated during storage at 4 °C and 10 °C for 14 days and under retail display conditions at 20 °C. The O2 concentrations in PE packages stored at 4 °C and 10 °C ranged from 17.4 to 18.5%, whereas those in XF packages were reduced to 16.3–16.6%. The CO2 content of XF package (4.2–4.6%) was higher than that of PE package (1.4–1.9%) stored at 4 °C or 10 °C. Relative humidity (RH) saturated in the PE packages but not in the XF packages after seven days of storage. Furthermore, PE packages performed better at maintaining melon weight and firmness than XF packages during storage at 10 °C for 14 days and under retail display conditions at 20 °C. PE and XF packages effectively reduced the browning index of the peel and white linear sutures of oriental melons compared with the unpackaged control during cold storage at 4 °C, and this observation was maintained at the retail display condition at 20 °C. The enhanced CO2 levels, reduced O2 levels, and optimal RH values that were provided by the MAP, prevented the browning symptoms, and improved the marketability and shelf life of oriental melons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Packaging Strategies)
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Article
Consistent Effects of Whey Protein Fortification on Consumer Perception and Liking of Solid Food Matrices (Cakes and Biscuits) Regardless of Age and Saliva Flow
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1328; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091328 - 21 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1709
Abstract
Although there are numerous high protein products on the market, they are typically not designed with, or for, older consumers. This is surprising considering that dietary guidelines recognise the need for higher protein intake in later life. Protein fortified products are, however, associated [...] Read more.
Although there are numerous high protein products on the market, they are typically not designed with, or for, older consumers. This is surprising considering that dietary guidelines recognise the need for higher protein intake in later life. Protein fortified products are, however, associated with negative sensory attributes and poor consumer acceptance. This paper investigates the extent of mouthdrying sensations within a high protein solid food matrix, along with the effect of age and saliva flow. Solid models using cakes and biscuits, with or without protein fortification, were investigated. The sensory profile and physical properties were analysed and two volunteer studies (n = 84; n = 70) were carried out using two age groups (18–30; 65+). Volunteers rated individual perception and liking of products, and salivary flow rates (mL/min) were measured. Unstimulated salivary flow rates were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in older adults, although this was not found to influence product perception. Protein fortification of cakes and biscuits significantly increased (p < 0.05) perceived mouthdrying, hardness and “off” flavours, and significantly reduced (p < 0.05) melting rate, moistness and liking compared with the control versions. There is a clear need to address negative sensory attributes associated with protein fortification of cakes and biscuits to ensure product suitability for older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimised Food Products for Elderly Populations)
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Communication
Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Hydroponic Lettuce in Retail: A Comparative Survey
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1327; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091327 - 21 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1673
Abstract
Hydroponic produce is gaining popularity due to its suitability for urban agriculture. The general public also considers that hydroponic produce is free from microbiological contamination. In this study, we compared the frequency and abundance of tetracycline-resistant and sulphadiazine-resistant bacteria and the minimal inhibitory [...] Read more.
Hydroponic produce is gaining popularity due to its suitability for urban agriculture. The general public also considers that hydroponic produce is free from microbiological contamination. In this study, we compared the frequency and abundance of tetracycline-resistant and sulphadiazine-resistant bacteria and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of these isolates in conventional, organic, and hydroponic lettuce sold in retail. We also determined the frequency of samples carrying tetB, tetX, sul1, sul2, and int1 genes by PCR and further quantified the copy number of tetX, sul1, and int1 genes in samples positive for these genes using qPCR. As expected, the number of resistant bacteria and the MICs of these isolates were lowest in hydroponic lettuce and highest in organic lettuce. All tested resistant genes, except int1, were detected in samples of all three production methods, but no significant difference was observed between the three groups in the frequency of samples carrying the resistance genes examined or in their copy number. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first study directly reporting the existence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and resistance genes in hydroponic vegetables sold in retail. The result highlights that the risk of antibiotic-resistant bacteria contamination in hydroponic produce should be further investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiological Safety and Quality of Food)
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Article
UHPLC–MS/MS-Based Nontargeted Metabolomics Analysis Reveals Biomarkers Related to the Freshness of Chilled Chicken
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1326; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091326 - 20 Sep 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1606
Abstract
To identify metabolic biomarkers related to the freshness of chilled chicken, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS/MS) was used to obtain profiles of the metabolites present in chilled chicken stored for different lengths of time. Random forest regression analysis and stepwise multiple linear regression [...] Read more.
To identify metabolic biomarkers related to the freshness of chilled chicken, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS/MS) was used to obtain profiles of the metabolites present in chilled chicken stored for different lengths of time. Random forest regression analysis and stepwise multiple linear regression were used to identify key metabolic biomarkers related to the freshness of chilled chicken. A total of 265 differential metabolites were identified during storage of chilled chicken. Of these various metabolites, 37 were selected as potential biomarkers by random forest regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis indicated that the biomarkers identified using random forest regression analysis showed a strong correlation with the freshness of chilled chicken. Subsequently, stepwise multiple linear regression analysis based on the biomarkers identified by using random forest regression analysis identified indole-3-carboxaldehyde, uridine monophosphate, s-phenylmercapturic acid, gluconic acid, tyramine, and Serylphenylalanine as key metabolic biomarkers. In conclusion, our study characterized the metabolic profiles of chilled chicken stored for different lengths of time and identified six key metabolic biomarkers related to the freshness of chilled chicken. These findings can contribute to a better understanding of the changes in the metabolic profiles of chilled chicken during storage and provide a basis for the further development of novel detection methods for the freshness of chilled chicken. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodomics: New Approaches to Evaluate Food Quality)
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Article
Consumer Attitudes towards Local and Organic Food with Upcycled Ingredients: An Italian Case Study for Olive Leaves
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1325; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091325 - 20 Sep 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2340
Abstract
Food made with upcycled ingredients has received considerable attention in very recent years as a result of the need to both reduce waste and increase food nutritional properties. However, consumer acceptance of these novel foods is fundamental to their market uptake. This paper [...] Read more.
Food made with upcycled ingredients has received considerable attention in very recent years as a result of the need to both reduce waste and increase food nutritional properties. However, consumer acceptance of these novel foods is fundamental to their market uptake. This paper aims to assess the likelihood of the acceptance of food obtained from upcycled ingredients of olive oil productions and its association with some relevant recent consumption trends, such as organic food consumption and attention to food origin. In addition, particular attention is given to age group behaviors to appraise the differences between generations. Results suggest that, despite the negative influence of food technophobia, a core of sustainability-minded consumers seems to emerge that is interested in organic or local products, that could also favor the uptake of these novel food made with upcycled ingredients in the market. Results suggest that developing organic or “local” food products with upcycled ingredients can increase the probability of consumer acceptance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability of Olive Oil System)
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Article
Assessment of Dietary Selenium and Vitamin E on Laying Performance and Quality Parameters of Fresh and Stored Eggs in Japanese Quails
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1324; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091324 - 20 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1444
Abstract
The effect of dietary supplementation with VE and Se on the laying productive performance, immunity, and the quality parameters of fresh and stored eggs was assessed. For this study, five treatments, namely control (basal diet), control plus 30 mg of VE and 0.4 [...] Read more.
The effect of dietary supplementation with VE and Se on the laying productive performance, immunity, and the quality parameters of fresh and stored eggs was assessed. For this study, five treatments, namely control (basal diet), control plus 30 mg of VE and 0.4 mg kg−1 sodium selenite (VE30SS), control plus 30 mg of VE and 0.4 mg kg−1 of Sel-Plex® (VE30SP), control plus 120 mg VE and 0.4 mg kg−1 Sodium selenite (VE120SS), and control plus 120 mg VE and 0.4 mg kg−1 Sel-Plex (VE120SP), were examined. There was no huge impact of VE and Se on feed consumption, FCR and egg yield rate. Quality parameters of fresh egg including egg surface area, eggshell thickness, yolk selenium concentration, albumen height, and Haugh unit were significantly increased following VE and Se supplementation (p < 0.05). For stored eggs, VE and Se significantly increased egg yolk color intensity (p < 0.05). Regardless of storage temperature, eggs from birds fed with VE and Se had less weight loss during 30 days of storage. Albumen height was significantly higher in VE and Se fed birds in eggs stored at 5 °C for 15 and 30 days. The combination of Sel-Plex with either levels of VE had significantly higher blood total antioxidant capacity. Dietary VE and Selenium, notably Sel-Plex, improved the antioxidant potential of blood and egg quality of laying quails. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eggs and Eggproducts: Unravelling the Secrets)
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Article
Effect of Organic Fertilizers on Selected Health Beneficial Bioactive Compounds and Aroma Profile of Red Topepo Sweet Pepper
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1323; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091323 - 19 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1381
Abstract
Phytochemicals and antioxidant properties of red sweet pepper cv Topepo grown in soil amended with different organic fertilizers were compared with that grown in unamended soil. Organic fertilizers are an environmentally friendly alternative to recovery infertile soils that resulted from the intensified agricultural [...] Read more.
Phytochemicals and antioxidant properties of red sweet pepper cv Topepo grown in soil amended with different organic fertilizers were compared with that grown in unamended soil. Organic fertilizers are an environmentally friendly alternative to recovery infertile soils that resulted from the intensified agricultural practices in red Topepo production. The aim was to discriminate the effects of organic fertilizers one from each other on the quality of red Topepo to find out the better sustainable fertilization practice for its cultivation. Results showed that compost from vegetable residues (CV) enhanced the synthesis of total phenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, vitamin E, carotenoids, anthocyanins, as well as carbohydrates, antioxidant activities, and aroma profiling, compared to horse manure (HD), compost from olive pomace (CO), and control (CTR). The results indicated a specificity between the quality of red Topepo and compost composition, highlighting that vegetable residues increased the synthesis of secondary metabolites, enhancing sustainably, the nutraceutical, sensorial, and economic value of red Topepo. The fertilizer composition resulted largely responsible for the synthesis of bioactive compounds, flavor, and aroma of this fruit. Full article
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Article
Technological Feature Assessment of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Cricket Powder’s Spontaneous Fermentation as Potential Starters for Cricket-Wheat Bread Production
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1322; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091322 - 19 Sep 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1624
Abstract
The bacterial community profile of cricket powder highlighted the presence of four main genera: Bacteroides spp., Parabacteroides spp., Lactococcus spp., and Enterococcus spp. The spontaneous fermentation of cricket powder allowed for the isolation and characterization of seven lactic acid bacteria strains belonging to [...] Read more.
The bacterial community profile of cricket powder highlighted the presence of four main genera: Bacteroides spp., Parabacteroides spp., Lactococcus spp., and Enterococcus spp. The spontaneous fermentation of cricket powder allowed for the isolation and characterization of seven lactic acid bacteria strains belonging to six species: Latilactobacillus curvatus, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum, Latilactobacillus sakei, Lactococcus garvieae, Weissella confusa, and Enterococcus durans. The strains were characterized and selected according to different technological properties. L. plantarum CR L1 and L. curvatus CR L13 showed the best performance in terms of general aminopeptidase activity, acidification, and growth rate in MRS broth and in dough with cricket powder and wheat flour, as well as robustness during consecutive backslopping. Thus, they were used as starter-mixed to produce sourdough to manufacture bread fortified with 20% cricket powder. The addition of cricket powder led to a significant increase of protein (up to 94%) and lipid content, from 0.7 up to 6 g/100 g of bread. Spontaneous fermentation represents a source of microbial diversity that can be exploited in order to obtain potential starters for food with innovative ingredients. Edible insects powder can be successfully added in leavened baked goods to enhance their nutritional value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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Article
A Systematic AQbD Approach for Optimization of the Most Influential Experimental Parameters on Analysis of Fish Spoilage-Related Volatile Amines
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1321; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091321 - 19 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1165
Abstract
The volatile amines trimethylamine (TMA) and dimethylamine (DMA) could be used as important spoilage indices for seafood products, assisting in the determination of the rejection period. In the present study, a systematic analytical duality-by-design (AQbD) approach was used as a powerful strategy to [...] Read more.
The volatile amines trimethylamine (TMA) and dimethylamine (DMA) could be used as important spoilage indices for seafood products, assisting in the determination of the rejection period. In the present study, a systematic analytical duality-by-design (AQbD) approach was used as a powerful strategy to optimize the most important experimental parameters of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) conditions for the quantification of TMA and DMA in Sparus aurata. This optimization enabled the selection of the best points in the method operable design region for HS-SPME extraction (30 min; 35 °C; NaOH 15 M and NaCl 35%, w/v) and GC-MS analysis (80 °C; gradient 50 °C/min; flow rate 1 mL/min and splitless mode). The rejection day, estimated through the TMA concentration (>12 mg/100 g, at days 9–10), was compared with sensory (quality index method: day 7–8), physical (Torrymeter: day 8–9), and microbial (day 9–10) analysis, corroborating the suitability of the proposed approach for estimating the period for which they will retain an acceptable level of eating quality from a safety and sensory perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Article
Bioactive Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity of Some Wild Edible Greens as Affected by Different Cooking Treatments
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1320; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091320 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 1824
Abstract
The study aimed to assess the influence of three cooking methods (boiling, steaming, and microwave-cooking) on (i) composition in individual phenolic compounds, (ii) total phenolic content (TPC), and (iii) total antioxidant activity (TAA) of eight Mediterranean wild edible species (Asparagus acutifolius, [...] Read more.
The study aimed to assess the influence of three cooking methods (boiling, steaming, and microwave-cooking) on (i) composition in individual phenolic compounds, (ii) total phenolic content (TPC), and (iii) total antioxidant activity (TAA) of eight Mediterranean wild edible species (Asparagus acutifolius, Asphodeline lutea, Beta vulgaris, Helminthotheca echioides, Sonchus oleraceus, Taraxacum officinale, Urospermum picroides, Urtica dioica). In raw greens, several caffeic acid derivatives (chicoric, caftaric, chlorogenic, neochlorogenic, 1,5-and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acids) and flavonoids (glycosides of apigenin, luteolin, quercetin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol) were identified. Cooking treatments did not affect qualitative phenolic composition, while quantitative changes were recorded in some phenolic compounds and in TPC. Generally, boiling decreased TPC and TAA, while chicoric, caftaric, chlorogenic acids and quercetin-3-rutinoside increased in some species after steaming and microwave-cooking, showing positive correlation with TAA. Results confirmed steaming and microwave-cooking as mild procedures able to increase antioxidant capacity of some species, producing beneficial effects on their nutraceutical properties. Full article
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Article
A Miniaturized QuEChERS Method Combined with Ultrahigh Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Tandem Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Oregano Samples
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1319; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091319 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4649
Abstract
Recent and unexpected food alerts about relatively high amounts of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in oregano samples have stressed the need to develop analytical strategies to ensure food safety in this type of foodstuff. Accordingly, this work presents the development of a miniaturized strategy based [...] Read more.
Recent and unexpected food alerts about relatively high amounts of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in oregano samples have stressed the need to develop analytical strategies to ensure food safety in this type of foodstuff. Accordingly, this work presents the development of a miniaturized strategy based on the QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) method combined with ultrahigh liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) for the determination of 21 pyrrolizidine alkaloids suggested by the European Food Safety Authority to be monitored in food. The analytical method was properly validated, with overall average recoveries from 77 to 96% and relative standard deviations <13% (n = 9). The method proved to be a sustainable analytical strategy which meets green analytical chemistry principles as it showed good performance by using small amounts of sample (0.2 g), organic solvents (1000 µL), clean-up sorbents (175 mg) and partitioning salts (0.65 g). Its feasibility was verified through the analysis of 23 oregano samples. Of the samples analyzed, 100% were contaminated, with an average concentration of 1254 µg/kg. Lasiocarpine, lasiocarpine N-oxide, europine, europine N-oxide, senecivernine, senecionine, echimidine N-oxide, lycopsamine N-oxide and intermedine N-oxide were the alkaloids which significantly contributed to the contamination of the samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Technologies for Determination of Contamination in Foods)
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Article
Associations between Psycho-Hedonic Responses to Sweet and Savoury Tastes with Diet and Body Composition in a Sample of Asian Females
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1318; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091318 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1436
Abstract
Taste preferences guide food choices and dietary behaviours, yet few studies have shown a relationship between sweet and savoury taste preference and differences in dietary intakes or energy consumed from different “taste clusters”. We investigated differences in psycho-hedonic responses to sweet and savoury [...] Read more.
Taste preferences guide food choices and dietary behaviours, yet few studies have shown a relationship between sweet and savoury taste preference and differences in dietary intakes or energy consumed from different “taste clusters”. We investigated differences in psycho-hedonic responses to sweet and savoury tastes and their association with energy intake, proportion of energy from macronutrients and energy intake from different “taste clusters”. In addition, we evaluated correspondence between two methods to classify “sweet-liker” status and the overlap between sweet and savoury taste preferences. Psycho-hedonic responses to sweet and savoury tastes of female participants (n = 66) were captured via staircase paired preference and the “sweet-liker phenotype” classification method. Quantitative dietary energy and macronutrient intakes were measured using three-day food diary, and the relative contributions of specific taste clusters to energy intake were derived for each participant. All participants completed anthropometric assessments measuring body mass index (BMI) and adiposity. Results showed no association between sweet and savoury preferences with dietary energy or macronutrient intakes, though there was a trend towards higher sweet food consumption among “sweet-likers”. A higher preference for savouriness was not associated with differences in daily energy intake, energy intake from protein, BMI or adiposity levels. There was little overlap in sweet and savoury preferences, suggesting a bi-modal split in taste preferences. “Sweet-likers” preferred a higher mean sucrose concentration than sweet “dislikers” (p < 0.001) indicating agreement between the two approaches. Future studies should consider comparing taste-liker differences using food choice tasks to address the current gap between taste preference measures and actual dietary behaviours. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Research on the Drivers of Food Liking and Choices)
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Review
The Link between the Consumer and the Innovations in Food Product Development
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1317; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091317 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 52 | Viewed by 5559
Abstract
New lifestyles, higher incomes and better consumer awareness are increasing the demand for a year-round supply of innovative food products. In past decades, important developments have been achieved in areas related to food and the food industry. This review shows that factors influencing [...] Read more.
New lifestyles, higher incomes and better consumer awareness are increasing the demand for a year-round supply of innovative food products. In past decades, important developments have been achieved in areas related to food and the food industry. This review shows that factors influencing performance in new product development (NPD) are dynamic and continuously guiding project development. The data obtained by direct involvement of consumers can impact positively successful product development and enhance the company’s financial performance. The study of consumer behaviour and attitudes towards new foods encompasses multiple aspects, such as preference, choice, desire to eat certain foods, buying intentions and frequency of consumption. Additionally, both the consumers’ willingness to purchase and the willingness to pay a premium are important in NPD, launching and success. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Motivations Associated with Food Choices and Eating Practices)
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Article
Fabrication of Spray-Dried Microcapsules Containing Noni Juice Using Blends of Maltodextrin and Gum Acacia: Physicochemical Properties of Powders and Bioaccessibility of Bioactives during In Vitro Digestion
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1316; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091316 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1575
Abstract
Microencapsulation of fermented noni juice (FNJ) into powder format could protect bioactive compounds, reduce the unpleasant odour and improve the acceptability for consumers. Blends of maltodextrin (MD) and gum acacia (GA) were used to achieve spray-drying microencapsulation of noni juice at different blending [...] Read more.
Microencapsulation of fermented noni juice (FNJ) into powder format could protect bioactive compounds, reduce the unpleasant odour and improve the acceptability for consumers. Blends of maltodextrin (MD) and gum acacia (GA) were used to achieve spray-drying microencapsulation of noni juice at different blending ratios. The physicochemical properties including microstructure, moisture content, water activity, particle size, bulk/tapped density, dissolution rate, ATR-FTIR and the bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds in powders during in vitro digestion were examined. Results showed that blends produced with more GA produced microcapsules with lower moisture content, water activity and bulk/tapped density, but slower powder dissolution. The ATR-FTIR results suggested that there were no significant chemical interactions between the core material and carrier or between the MD and GA in the blend powders. The spray-dried noni juice powder produced using the blends with higher ratio of GA to MD showed a better protection on the bioactive compounds, resulting in a higher bioaccessibility of powders during in vitro digestion. This study provides insights into microencapsulation of noni juice using blends of MD and GA and examines the physicochemical properties and bioaccessibilities of spray-dried powders as affected by the selected carriers. Full article
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Article
Investigating the Relationships between Basic Tastes Sensitivities, Fattiness Sensitivity, and Food Liking in 11-Year-Old Children
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1315; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091315 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1668
Abstract
This study investigates the relationships between basic tastes and fattiness sensitivity and food liking in 11-year-old children. The basic taste sensitivity of 106 children was measured using different methods, namely detection (DT) and recognition (RT) thresholds, and taste responsiveness. Caffeine and quinine (bitter), [...] Read more.
This study investigates the relationships between basic tastes and fattiness sensitivity and food liking in 11-year-old children. The basic taste sensitivity of 106 children was measured using different methods, namely detection (DT) and recognition (RT) thresholds, and taste responsiveness. Caffeine and quinine (bitter), sucrose (sweet), citric acid (sour), sodium chloride (salty), and monosodium glutamate (umami) were investigated for DT and RT at five concentrations in water solutions. In addition, taste responsiveness and liking were collected for the high-intensity concentrations. PROP (6-n-propylthiouracil) responsiveness was tested on paper strips. Fattiness sensitivity was measured by a paired comparison method using milk samples with varying fat content. Liking for 30 food items was recorded using a food-list questionnaire. The test was completed in a gamified “taste detective” approach. The results show that DT correlates with RT for all tastes while responsiveness to PROP correlates with overall taste responsiveness. Caffeine and quinine differ in bitterness responsiveness and liking. Girls have significantly lower DTs than boys for bitterness and sweetness. Food liking is driven by taste and fattiness properties, while fatty food liking is significantly influenced by fattiness sensitivity. These results contribute to a better holistic understanding of taste and fattiness sensitivity in connection to food liking in preadolescents. Full article
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Article
Quality Attributes of Cryoconcentrated Calafate (Berberis microphylla) Juice during Refrigerated Storage
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1314; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091314 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1566
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the potential of centrifugal block cryoconcentration (CBCC) at three cycles applied to fresh calafate juice. The fresh juice and cryoconcentrate at each cycle were stored for five weeks at 4 °C and quality attributes were analyzed every 7 [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the potential of centrifugal block cryoconcentration (CBCC) at three cycles applied to fresh calafate juice. The fresh juice and cryoconcentrate at each cycle were stored for five weeks at 4 °C and quality attributes were analyzed every 7 days. CBCC had significant effects in the calafate juice, since in the last cycle, the cryoconcentrate reached a high value of total soluble solids (TSS, ≈42 °Brix), with final attractive color, and an increase of approximately 2.5, 5.2, 5.1, 4.0 and 5.3 times in relation to the fresh juice values, for total bioactive compounds (TBC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), respectively. However, at 35 days under storage, these values decreased by 5%, 13%, 15%, 19%, 24% and 27%, for TSS, TBC, DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and ORAC, respectively. Additionally, until the day 14, the panelists indicated a good acceptability of the reconstituted cryoconcentrate. Therefore, CBCC can be considered a novel and viable technology for the preservation of quality attributes from fresh calafate juice with interesting food applications of the cryoconcentrates due to their high stability during storage time in comparison to the fresh juice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of the Bioactive Compounds in Foods)
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Article
Bioprospecting Cultivated Tropical Green Algae, Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskal) J. Agardh: A Perspective on Nutritional Properties, Antioxidative Capacity and Anti-Diabetic Potential
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1313; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091313 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2134
Abstract
Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskal) J. Agardh is a green seaweed used as food and folk medicine since ancient times in the Indo-Pacific region, particularly in southeast Asia. In this study, the proximate nutrient composition, phytochemical, anti-oxidant and anti-diabetic properties of sea grape C. racemosa [...] Read more.
Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskal) J. Agardh is a green seaweed used as food and folk medicine since ancient times in the Indo-Pacific region, particularly in southeast Asia. In this study, the proximate nutrient composition, phytochemical, anti-oxidant and anti-diabetic properties of sea grape C. racemosa collected from culture fishponds in Johor, Malaysia were analysed. The contents (dry weight basis) of carbohydrate, crude protein, crude lipids, ash and caloric value obtained were 33.42 ± 1.34%, 20.27 ± 0.14%, 4.20 ± 0.32%, 28.25 ± 0.27% and 2544.67 ± 7.04 cal g−1, respectively. The amino acid score (AAs) and biological protein value (213.43 mg g−1) indicated that C. racemosa presented a better protein quality. The most abundant fatty acids were C16:0 (palmitic acid: 63.27%), followed by C18:1 (oleic acid: 5.80%), and C18:2 ῳ6 (linoleic acid: 5.33%). The analysis of the ash content indicated that essential minerals and trace elements, such as Ca, Fe, and Mn, were present in the seaweed. The total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) observed in the ethyl acetate extract were 17.88 ± 0.78 mg GAE g−1 and 59.43 ± 2.45 mg QE g−1, respectively. The ethyl acetate extract of C. racemosa demonstrated notable anti-diabetic activity in diabetic induced rats. The low (100 mg kg−1) and high (200 mg kg−1) doses of cultivated C. racemosa extract exhibited a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in blood glucose levels while preventing weight loss, reducing plasma AST, ALT levels as a sign of hepatoprotective effect and recording albumin levels similar to positive control in diabetic induced rats. The results support the usefulness of cultivated C. racemosa as a potential functional food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Foods and Health Effects)
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Article
Chicken Egg White—Advancing from Food to Skin Health Therapy: Optimization of Hydrolysis Condition and Identification of Tyrosinase Inhibitor Peptides
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1312; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091312 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1436
Abstract
Active fragments (bioactive peptides) from the chicken egg white proteins were expected to exert tyrosinase inhibitory activities in which skin hyperpigmentation could be prevented. Egg white was hydrolyzed by trypsin, chymotrypsin and the combination of both enzymes. The enzyme treatments achieved >50% degree [...] Read more.
Active fragments (bioactive peptides) from the chicken egg white proteins were expected to exert tyrosinase inhibitory activities in which skin hyperpigmentation could be prevented. Egg white was hydrolyzed by trypsin, chymotrypsin and the combination of both enzymes. The enzyme treatments achieved >50% degree of hydrolysis (DH) at substrate-to-enzyme (S/E) ratio of 10–30 (w/w) and hydrolysis time of 2–5 h. A crossed D-optimal experimental design was then used to determine the optimal enzyme composition, S/E ratio and hydrolysis time in order to yield hydrolysates with strong monophenolase and diphenolase inhibitory activities. The optimized conditions 55% trypsin, 45% chymotrypsin, S/E 10:1 w/w and 2 h achieved 45.9% monophenolase activity inhibition whereas 100% trypsin, S/E 22.13:1 w/w and 3.18 h achieved 48.1% diphenolase activity inhibition. LC/MS and MS/MS analyses identified the peptide sequences and the subsequent screening had identified 7 peptides (ILELPFASGDLLML, GYSLGNWVCAAK, YFGYTGALRCLV, HIATNAVLFFGR, FMMFESQNKDLLFK, SGALHCLK and YFGYTGALR) as the potential inhibitor peptides. These peptides were able to bind to H85, H94, H259, H263, and H296 (hotspots for active residues) as well as F92, M280 and F292 (stabilizing residues) of tyrosinase based on structure-activity relationship analysis. These findings demonstrated the potential of egg white-derived bioactive peptides as skin health therapy. Full article
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Review
Production and Properties of Starch Citrates—Current Research
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1311; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091311 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1812
Abstract
Starch modification by chemical reaction is widely used to improve the properties of native starch. Modified by citric acid, starch is characterized by specific properties resulting from the presence of citrate residues and as a result of cross-linking starch. The chemicals used for [...] Read more.
Starch modification by chemical reaction is widely used to improve the properties of native starch. Modified by citric acid, starch is characterized by specific properties resulting from the presence of citrate residues and as a result of cross-linking starch. The chemicals used for preparing starch citrates are safe for human health and the natural environment compared to the harsh chemicals used for conventional modifications. Starch citrates are traditionally produced by heating starch–citric acid mixtures in semi-dry conditions or by a heat moisture treatment. The conditions of the modification process (roasting temperature, heating time, citric acid dose) and the botanic source or genotype of starch determine the degree of substitution and the properties of the obtained preparations. Changes of starch properties occurring during esterification lead to reduced relative crystallinity, resulting in a decrease in the affinity for water, the gelatinization parameters, and the viscosity of starch citrate. However, one of the most important outcome of the modification is the formation of resistant starch (RS), which has increased resistance to the action of amylolytic enzymes. Currently, new methods for producing starch citrates with improved functional and rheological properties while maintaining the highest possible content of resistant starch are being sought. The article presents an overview of recent studies on the production, properties. And applicability of starch citrates with special attention paid to their role as preparations of resistant starch (RS). The use of citric acid for modification of starch is better for the technology process, while using cross-linking is better than simply using esterification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch: Properties, Processing, and Functionality in Food Systems)
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Article
Monitoring Viscosity and Total Solids Content of Milk Protein Concentrate Using an Inline Acoustic Flowmeter at Laboratory Scale
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1310; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091310 - 17 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2426
Abstract
Control of milk concentrate viscosity and total solids (TS) content prior to spray drying can improve dairy ingredient manufacture. However, the availability of hygienic and appropriately pressure rated process viscometers for inline monitoring of viscosity is limited. An acoustic flowmeter (FLOWave) is an [...] Read more.
Control of milk concentrate viscosity and total solids (TS) content prior to spray drying can improve dairy ingredient manufacture. However, the availability of hygienic and appropriately pressure rated process viscometers for inline monitoring of viscosity is limited. An acoustic flowmeter (FLOWave) is an inline process analytical technology (PAT) tool that measures changes in acoustic signals in response to changes in liquid properties (i.e., acoustic transmission (AT), acoustic impedance (AI), temperature and volume flowrate). In this study, an acoustic flowmeter is evaluated as an inline PAT tool for monitoring viscosity of milk protein concentrate (MPC85), protein and TS content of (MPC85), and standardised MPC (sMPC). Laboratory scale experiments were carried out at 45 °C for five different concentrations (4–21%) of MPC85 and sMPC. Results showed that AT decreased with an increase in MPC85 viscosity (e.g., AT was 98.79 ± 0.04% and 86.65 ± 0.17% for 4% and 21% TS content, respectively). Non-linear regression was carried out to develop a relationship between AT and offline viscosity (R2 (coefficient of determination) value = 0.97 and standard error of prediction = 1.86 mPa·s). AI was observed to increase at higher protein and TS content which was dependent on protein to total solid ratio (P_TSR). Multiple linear regression was carried out to develop the relationship between AI, protein content, TS content and P_TSR. Results demonstrated that AI could be used to monitor the protein and TS content of milk protein concentrate (R2 > 0.96). Overall this study demonstrated the potential of an inline acoustic flowmeter for monitoring process viscosity, protein and TS during dairy concentrate processing. Full article
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