Special Issue "New Frontiers in Wine Microbiology"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 November 2020) | Viewed by 15790

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Aspasia Nisiotou
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Hellenic Agricultural Organisation “DEMETER”, Sofokli Venizelou 1, GR-14123 Lycovrissi Attikis, Greece
Interests: wine science; wine microbiology; alcoholic fermentation; grape/wine microbial ecology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The current advances in “omics” technologies and analytical techniques have allowed a better understanding of the grape/wine microbial ecology and have revealed new insights into wine microbiology. We have now started to explore the structure of microbial assemblages in vineyards, grapes, and wineries with the aim of better understanding the complex microbial functions and interactions during winemaking. Despite these advances, our current knowledge on the diverse and crucial roles of different microbial species and strains in wine production, quality, and safety is still limited. A number of questions regarding the particular role of individual microorganisms or possible microbial interactions during wine production remain to be addressed. Microbes may also negatively affect wine quality during processing and storage. Spoilage by Dekkera bruxellensis, for instance, still remains a challenge for winemakers.

The current Special Issue will publish recent advancements in wine microbiology and biotechnology, regarding both grape/wine microbial ecology and all relative aspects of wine technology.

Dr. Aspasia Nisiotou
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • wine microbiology grape/wine microbial ecology alcoholic fermentation
  • malolactic fermentation
  • wine yeasts
  • wine bacteria
  • wine quality
  • wine spoilage
  • microbial interactions

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
New Frontiers in Wine Microbiology
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1077; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10051077 - 13 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 929
Abstract
The wine sectoris currently facing new challenges [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Wine Microbiology)

Research

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Article
Potential Use of Silica Nanoparticles for the Microbial Stabilisation of Wine: An In Vitro Study Using Oenococcus oeni as a Model
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1338; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091338 - 22 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1235
Abstract
The emerging trend towards the reduction of SO2 in winemaking has created a need to look for alternative methods to ensure the protection of wine against the growth of undesired species of microorganisms and to safely remove wine microorganisms. This study describes [...] Read more.
The emerging trend towards the reduction of SO2 in winemaking has created a need to look for alternative methods to ensure the protection of wine against the growth of undesired species of microorganisms and to safely remove wine microorganisms. This study describes the possible application of silica nanospheres as a wine stabilisation agent, with Oenococcus oeni (DSM7008) as a model strain. The experiment was conducted firstly on model solutions of phosphate-buffered saline and 1% glucose. Their neutralising effect was tested under stirring with the addition of SiO2 (0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/mL). Overall, the highest concentration of nanospheres under continuous stirring resulted in the greatest decrease in cell counts. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses showed extensive damage to the bacterial cells after stirring with silica nanomaterials. Then, the neutralising effect of 0.5 mg/mL SiO2 was tested in young red wine under stirring, where cell counts were reduced by over 50%. The obtained results suggest that silica nanospheres can serve as an alternative way to reduce or substitute the use of sulphur dioxide in the microbial stabilisation of wine. In addition, further aspects of following investigations should focus on the protection against enzymatic and chemical oxidation of wine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Wine Microbiology)
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Article
Effect of Biofilm Formation by Lactobacillus plantarum on the Malolactic Fermentation in Model Wine
Foods 2020, 9(6), 797; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060797 - 17 Jun 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1534
Abstract
Biofilm life-style of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) strains was evaluated in vitro as a new and suitable biotechnological strategy to assure L-malic acid conversion in wine stress conditions. Sixty-eight L. plantarum strains isolated from diverse sources were assessed for their ability [...] Read more.
Biofilm life-style of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) strains was evaluated in vitro as a new and suitable biotechnological strategy to assure L-malic acid conversion in wine stress conditions. Sixty-eight L. plantarum strains isolated from diverse sources were assessed for their ability to form biofilm in acid (pH 3.5 or 3.2) or in ethanol (12% or 14%) stress conditions. The effect of incubation times (24 and 72 h) on the biofilm formation was evaluated. The study highlighted that, regardless of isolation source and stress conditions, the ability to form biofilm was strain-dependent. Specifically, two clusters, formed by high and low biofilm producer strains, were identified. Among high producer strains, L. plantarum Lpls22 was chosen as the highest producer strain and cultivated in planktonic form or in biofilm using oak supports. Model wines at 12% of ethanol and pH 3.5 or 3.2 were used to assess planktonic and biofilm cells survival and to evaluate the effect of biofilm on L-malic acid conversion. For cells in planktonic form, a strong survival decay was detected. In contrast, cells in biofilm life-style showed high resistance, assuring a prompt and complete L-malic acid conversion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Wine Microbiology)
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Article
Reduction of Sulfur Compounds through Genetic Improvement of Native Saccharomyces cerevisiae Useful for Organic and Sulfite-Free Wine
Foods 2020, 9(5), 658; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050658 - 20 May 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1343
Abstract
Sulfites and sulfides are produced by yeasts in different amounts depending on different factors, including growth medium and specific strain variability. In natural must, some strains can produce an excess of sulfur compounds that confer unpleasant smells, inhibit malolactic fermentation and lead to [...] Read more.
Sulfites and sulfides are produced by yeasts in different amounts depending on different factors, including growth medium and specific strain variability. In natural must, some strains can produce an excess of sulfur compounds that confer unpleasant smells, inhibit malolactic fermentation and lead to health concerns for consumers. In organic wines and in sulfite-free wines the necessity to limit or avoid the presence of sulfide and sulfite requires the use of selected yeast strains that are low producers of sulfur compounds, with good fermentative and aromatic aptitudes. In the present study, exploiting the sexual mass-mating spores’ recombination of a native Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain previously isolated from grape, three new S. cerevisiae strains were selected. They were characterized by low sulfide and sulfite production and favorable aromatic imprinting. This approach, that occurs spontaneously also in nature, allowed us to obtain new native S. cerevisiae strains with desired characteristics that could be proposed as new starters for organic and sulfite-free wine production, able to control sulfur compound production and to valorize specific wine types. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Wine Microbiology)
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Article
Molecular Characterization and Enological Potential of A High Lactic Acid-Producing Lachancea thermotolerans Vineyard Strain
Foods 2020, 9(5), 595; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050595 - 07 May 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 1774
Abstract
Lactic acid production is an important feature of the yeast Lachancea thermotolerans that has gained increasing interest in winemaking. In particular, in light of climate change, the biological acidification and ethanol reduction by the use of selected yeast strains may counteract the effect [...] Read more.
Lactic acid production is an important feature of the yeast Lachancea thermotolerans that has gained increasing interest in winemaking. In particular, in light of climate change, the biological acidification and ethanol reduction by the use of selected yeast strains may counteract the effect of global warming in wines. Here, the enological potential of a high lactate-producing L. thermotolerans strain (P-HO1) in mixed fermentations with S. cerevisiae was examined. Among the different inoculation schemes evaluated, the most successful implantation of L. thermotolerans was accomplished by sequential inoculation of S. cerevisiae, i.e., at 1% vol. ethanol. P-HO1produced the highest levels of lactic acid ever recorded in mixed fermentations (10.4 g/L), increasing thereby the acidity and reducing ethanol by 1.6% vol. L. thermotolerans was also associated with increases in ethyl isobutyrate (strawberry aroma), free SO2, organoleptically perceived citric nuances and aftertaste. To start uncovering the molecular mechanisms of lactate biosynthesis in L. thermotolerans, the relative expressions of the three lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) paralogous genes, which encode the key enzyme for lactate biosynthesis, along with the alcohol dehydrogenase paralogs (ADHs) were determined. Present results point to the possible implication of LDH2, but not of other LDH or ADH genes, in the high production of lactic acid in certain strains at the expense of ethanol. Taken together, the important enological features of P-HO1 highlighted here, and potentially of other L. thermotolerans strains, indicate its great importance in modern winemaking, particularly in the light of the upcoming climate change and its consequences in the grape/wine system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Wine Microbiology)
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Article
Patterns of Genetic Diversity and the Invasion of Commercial Starters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Vineyard Populations of Santorini Island
Foods 2020, 9(5), 561; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050561 - 02 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1122
Abstract
Autochthonous Saccharomyces cerevisiae vineyard populations are important components of the grape/wine system. Besides their direct impact on winemaking, they also constitute an untapped reservoir of genotypes with special technological attributes for the wine industry. Research so far on S. cerevisiae populations has focused [...] Read more.
Autochthonous Saccharomyces cerevisiae vineyard populations are important components of the grape/wine system. Besides their direct impact on winemaking, they also constitute an untapped reservoir of genotypes with special technological attributes for the wine industry. Research so far on S. cerevisiae populations has focused on spatial distribution on large scales, yet little is known about the genetic variability of populations within viticultural zones and their temporal genotypic variation. Here, S. cerevisiae populations from different vineyards in Santorini, a small Aegean island, were genotyped and their genetic diversity was assessed within and between vineyards during two consecutive years. Despite the relative geographical isolation of the island, a relatively high genetic diversity was uncovered. The vast majority of genotypes were vineyard-specific, while in one of the vintages, significant differences in the genotypic composition of vineyards were detected. Overall, higher differences were detected between vintages rather than among vineyards. Notably, only four genotypes were common for the two vintages, three of which were commercial S. cerevisiae strains, probably “escapees” from wineries. Nevertheless, the populations of the two vintages were not genetically distinct. Present results highlight the magnitude of genetic diversity in natural wine yeast populations on a small spatial scale, yet the invasion of commercial starters may constitute a potential risk for loss of local yeast biodiversity. However, present results show that industrial strains do not necessarily dominate over the natural strains or their high abundance may be temporary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Wine Microbiology)
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Article
Identification and Characterization of Non-Saccharomyces Species Isolated from Port Wine Spontaneous Fermentations
Foods 2020, 9(2), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020120 - 23 Jan 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1846
Abstract
In winemaking, non-Saccharomyces yeast species contribute important organoleptic complexity. Current interest focuses on abundant and dominant strains characteristically present in the early phase of spontaneous alcoholic fermentations. Non-Saccharomyces species are particularly relevant in Port wine production such that the fermentation is [...] Read more.
In winemaking, non-Saccharomyces yeast species contribute important organoleptic complexity. Current interest focuses on abundant and dominant strains characteristically present in the early phase of spontaneous alcoholic fermentations. Non-Saccharomyces species are particularly relevant in Port wine production such that the fermentation is prematurely stopped, after the metabolism of only one half of the available sugar, through fortification with aguardente. This work aimed to isolate, identify and characterize non-Saccharomyces species present in spontaneously fermenting Port. To accomplish these goals, yeasts were isolated from a selection of frozen must samples (2012–2016 harvests), using a pre-screening process choosing only the best candidates based on the organoleptic quality of the corresponding fortified wine. From five hundred non-Saccharomyces isolates, twelve species were identified. The three most abundant species, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Lachancea thermotolerans, and Metschnikowia pulcherrima, representing 89% of the isolates, exhibited particularly high diversity with high growth performance variability when exposed to typical stress conditions associated with common enological parameters. Less abundant species included Issatchenkia orientalis, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Hanseniaspora vineae, Hanseniaspora osmophila, Candida zemplinina, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Issatchenkia occidentalis, and Zygosaccharomyces bisporus. This is the first study providing insights into the identification and characterization of non-Saccharomyces species responsible for spontaneous Port wine production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Wine Microbiology)
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Article
Freeze-Dried Immobilized Kefir Culture in Low Alcohol Winemaking
Foods 2020, 9(2), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020115 - 21 Jan 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1623
Abstract
Low alcohol wines represent a rising trend in the global market. Since for ethanol removal, certain physicochemical methods that negatively affect wine quality are applied, the aim of this present study was to evaluate the efficiency of freeze-dried, immobilized kefir culture on natural [...] Read more.
Low alcohol wines represent a rising trend in the global market. Since for ethanol removal, certain physicochemical methods that negatively affect wine quality are applied, the aim of this present study was to evaluate the efficiency of freeze-dried, immobilized kefir culture on natural supports (apple pieces, grape skins and delignified cellulosic material) in low alcohol winemaking at various temperatures (5–30 °C). Initially, genetic analysis of kefir culture was performed by Next Generation Sequencing. There was an immobilization of kefir culture on grape skins-enhanced cell survival during freeze-drying in most cases, even when no cryoprotectant was used. Simultaneous alcoholic and malolactic fermentations were performed in repeated batch fermentations for >12 months, using freeze-dried free or immobilized cells produced with no cryoprotectant, suggesting the high operational stability of the systems. Values of great industrial interest for daily ethanol productivity and malic acid conversion [up to 39.5 g/(Ld) and 67.3%, respectively] were recorded. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that freeze-drying rather than the fermentation temperature affected significantly minor volatiles. All low alcohol wines produced were accepted during the preliminary sensory evaluation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Wine Microbiology)
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Article
Evaluation of Malolactic Bacteria Associated with Wines from Albariño Variety as Potential Starters: Screening for Quality and Safety
Foods 2020, 9(1), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010099 - 17 Jan 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1800
Abstract
The biodiversity of lactic acid bacteria in musts and wines of Albariño variety has been studied. The identification of species was addressed through a combination of biochemical and genetic methods (API® 50 CHL test, 16S rDNA and recA gene sequences, Amplified Ribosomal [...] Read more.
The biodiversity of lactic acid bacteria in musts and wines of Albariño variety has been studied. The identification of species was addressed through a combination of biochemical and genetic methods (API® 50 CHL test, 16S rDNA and recA gene sequences, Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis -ARDRA- and 16S-26S intergenic region analysis). The results grouped the isolates into six species predominating those of the genus Lactobacillus and showing a typical biogeographical distribution. Among sixteen strains evaluated, eight of them showed malolactic activity. The study of the presence of genes hdc, odc, and tdc, along with the LC/MS-MS analysis of biogenic amines in wine, showed five strains lacking aminogenic ability. The absence of the pad gene in the above-mentioned strains discards its ability to produce volatile phenols that may adversely affect the aroma. Finally, all malolactic strains showed β-glucosidase activity so that they could contribute to enhance and differentiate the aromatic profile of Albariño wines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Wine Microbiology)
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Review

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Review
Organic Winemaking and Its Subsets; Biodynamic, Natural, and Clean Wine in California
Foods 2021, 10(1), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010127 - 08 Jan 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1888
Abstract
From the ancient times, when wine/oenos was described as “Wine, the benevolent demon” by ancient Greek gastronomist and philosopher Athinaios in “Dipnosofistes”, to modern days, the craft has seen significant fruition. The wine industry has evolved over time, and more so recently, to [...] Read more.
From the ancient times, when wine/oenos was described as “Wine, the benevolent demon” by ancient Greek gastronomist and philosopher Athinaios in “Dipnosofistes”, to modern days, the craft has seen significant fruition. The wine industry has evolved over time, and more so recently, to encompass many different subsets, one of which is the organic wine market. The organic wine industry has grown in recent years, especially in California. This rapid gain in interest has resulted in the evolution of several subsets, including biodynamic, natural, and clean wine. While biodynamic and natural wine, function more as a fulfillment of niche markets, clean wine may provide benefits for consumers that otherwise suffer from side effects of wine consumption. Low sulfite levels and lack of histamines in clean wine plausibly decrease headaches and adverse effects some consumers experience when drinking wine. An overview of the organic wine industry and its evolution with potential contributions to consumers, with an emphasis on clean wine, is discussed herein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Wine Microbiology)
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