Application of Surfactant and/or Biosurfactants in Food Industry

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 December 2020) | Viewed by 24932

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Chemical Engineering Department, School of Industrial Engineering (EEI), University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain
2. Chemical Engineering Department, Escuela de Ingeniería de Barcelona Este (EEBE), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC)-BarcelonaTECH, 08930 Barcelona, Spain
Interests: bioactive ingredients; surface-active compounds; natural products; cosmetic formulations; green technology; waste valorization; fermentation; Lactobacillus species; probiotic and prebiotic properties
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Guest Editor
Chemical Engineering Department, School of Industrial Engineering, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain
Interests: biosurfactants; lactic acid; food additives; biotechnology processes; food preservatives

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Surfactants and biosurfactants are surface-active compounds which are used in the food industry as: (i) cleaning or treating agents of food-contact surfaces (indirect application) or (ii) food additives/ingredients (direct application). Biosurfactants or microbial surfactants are composed of lipids, carbohydrates, or proteins, making them more biocompatible and biodegradable than chemical surfactants.

Apart from their characteristic surface-active properties, surfactants and biosurfactants have shown antimicrobial, antiadhesive, and antibiofilm—among other—activities against food pathogens. They can also act as antioxidants and emulsifiers.

Therefore, this Special Issue focuses on: (i) the characterization of surfactants or biosurfactants based on their properties (e.g., antimicrobial, antiadhesive, antioxidant, emulsifying, etc.) for food application; (ii) the application of surfactants or biosurfactants in the food industry; (iii) the development of food products with surfactants or biosurfactants; and (iv) the regulatory perspectives of surfactants or biosurfactants in the food industry. For that, original research articles, reviews, industrial cases, and short communications are welcomed and encouraged.

Prof. Ana Belén Moldes
Dr. Xanel Vecino
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • surface-active molecules
  • microbial surfactants
  • bioemulsifiers
  • food additives
  • food preservatives
  • food processing
  • food formulation
  • food pathogens
  • emulsifying activity
  • antiadhesive activity
  • antimicrobial activity

Published Papers (7 papers)

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13 pages, 2340 KiB  
Article
Combining Celery Oleoresin, Limonene and Rhamnolipid as New Strategy to Control Endospore-Forming Bacillus cereus
by Paula de Camargo Bertuso, Débora M. Drappé Mayer and Marcia Nitschke
Foods 2021, 10(2), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020455 - 19 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3119 | Correction
Abstract
Foodborne diseases (FBD) are a great problem worldwide, leading millions of people to seek medical help and to significant economic losses for industry. Among the agents implicated in FDB is Bacillus cereus, a Gram-positive, toxigenic and endospore-forming bacterium. In this study, rhamnolipid [...] Read more.
Foodborne diseases (FBD) are a great problem worldwide, leading millions of people to seek medical help and to significant economic losses for industry. Among the agents implicated in FDB is Bacillus cereus, a Gram-positive, toxigenic and endospore-forming bacterium. In this study, rhamnolipid (RL) biosurfactant, celery oleoresin (OR) and limonene (LN) were evaluated as bio-based alternatives for controlling the growth of vegetative cells and endospores of B. cereus. To address their antimicrobial activity, the compounds were tested separately and in combination. Results demonstrate that, when combined with RL, both OR and LN have lower minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values and increased endospore inhibition potential. A percentage of endospore inhibition from 73% to 98%, corresponding to a 2.8–3.6 log reduction in spore outgrowth, was observed. RL inhibited B. cereus growth and endospore germination and potentially enhanced the antimicrobial efficacy of the natural hydrophobic compounds tested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Surfactant and/or Biosurfactants in Food Industry)
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23 pages, 1599 KiB  
Article
Can a Corn-Derived Biosurfactant Improve Colour Traits of Wine? First Insight on Its Application during Winegrape Skin Maceration versus Oenological Tannins
by Giulia Scalzini, Alejandro López-Prieto, Maria A. Paissoni, Vasileios Englezos, Simone Giacosa, Luca Rolle, Vincenzo Gerbi, Susana Río Segade, Benita Pérez Cid, Ana B. Moldes and Jose M. Cruz
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1747; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121747 - 26 Nov 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2222
Abstract
In winemaking, oenological tannins are used to preserve wine colour by enhancing the antioxidant activity, taking part in copigmentation, and forming polymeric pigments with anthocyanins. As a novel processing aid, in this study, a biosurfactant extract was evaluated as a solubilizing and stabilizing [...] Read more.
In winemaking, oenological tannins are used to preserve wine colour by enhancing the antioxidant activity, taking part in copigmentation, and forming polymeric pigments with anthocyanins. As a novel processing aid, in this study, a biosurfactant extract was evaluated as a solubilizing and stabilizing agent of anthocyanins in red wine. The biosurfactant extract under evaluation was obtained from a fermented residual stream of the corn milling industry named corn steep liquor (CSL). Two red winegrape varieties (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Aglianico and Cabernet sauvignon) were studied for anthocyanin content and profile, and colour traits, during simulated skin maceration for 7 days at 25 °C, as well as polymerization and copigmentation at the end of maceration. A model wine solution was used as a control, which was added either with the CSL biosurfactant or with four different oenological tannins (from grape skin, grape seed, quebracho, and acacia). The results showed that CSL biosurfactant addition improved the colour properties of skin extracts by the formation of more stable compounds mainly through copigmentation interactions. These preliminary results highlighted that the effectiveness of CSL biosurfactant is variety-dependent; however, there is no significant protection of individual anthocyanin compounds as observed for delphinidin and petunidin forms using quebracho tannin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Surfactant and/or Biosurfactants in Food Industry)
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18 pages, 5748 KiB  
Article
Vitamin D3 Loaded Niosomes and Transfersomes Produced by Ethanol Injection Method: Identification of the Critical Preparation Step for Size Control
by Oscar R. Estupiñan, Pablo Garcia-Manrique, Maria del Carmen Blanco-Lopez, Maria Matos and Gemma Gutiérrez
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1367; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101367 - 26 Sep 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4267
Abstract
Vesicular nanocarriers have an important role in drug delivery and dietary supplements. Size control and optimization of encapsulation efficiency (EE) should be optimized for those applications. In this work, we report on the identification of the crucial step (injection, evaporation, or sonication) innanovesicles [...] Read more.
Vesicular nanocarriers have an important role in drug delivery and dietary supplements. Size control and optimization of encapsulation efficiency (EE) should be optimized for those applications. In this work, we report on the identification of the crucial step (injection, evaporation, or sonication) innanovesicles (transfersomes and niosomes) preparation by theethanol injection method (EI). The identification of each production step on the final vesicle size was analyzed in order to optimize further scale-up process. Results indicated that the final size of transfersomeswas clearly influenced by the sonication step while the final size of niosomes was mainly governed by the injection step. Measurements of final surface tension of the different vesicular systems prepared indicate a linear positive tendency with the vesicle size formed. This relation could help to better understand the process and design a vesicular size prediction model for EI. Vitamin D3 (VitD3) was encapsulated in the systems formulated with encapsulation efficiencies larger than 90%. Interaction between the encapsulated compound and the membrane layer components is crucial for vesicle stability. This work has an impact on the scaling-up production of vesicles for further food science applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Surfactant and/or Biosurfactants in Food Industry)
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14 pages, 1456 KiB  
Article
Spruce Galactoglucomannan-Stabilized Emulsions Enhance Bioaccessibility of Bioactive Compounds
by Hongbo Zhao, Kirsi S. Mikkonen, Petri O. Kilpeläinen and Mari I. Lehtonen
Foods 2020, 9(5), 672; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050672 - 23 May 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3816
Abstract
The increasing public awareness of health and sustainability has prompted the development of functional foods rich in health-promoting ingredients. Processing technologies and sustainable multifunctional ingredients are needed for structuring these formulations. Spruce galactoglucomannan (GGM), the main hemicelluloses in softwood cell walls, are an [...] Read more.
The increasing public awareness of health and sustainability has prompted the development of functional foods rich in health-promoting ingredients. Processing technologies and sustainable multifunctional ingredients are needed for structuring these formulations. Spruce galactoglucomannan (GGM), the main hemicelluloses in softwood cell walls, are an abundantly available, emerging sustainable food hydrocolloid that have the ability to efficiently emulsify and stabilize oil-in-water emulsions. In this study, we illustrate how this lignocellulosic stabilizer affects the digestion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in vitro. A 100% decrease in the initial TAG content was observed during the in vitro digestion, suggesting that complete hydrolysis of the TAGs was achieved by the digestive enzymes. Besides, no release of mono-, di-, and oligosaccharides or phenolic compounds from GGM was detected. Our results demonstrate that the GGM-stabilized emulsion could potentially deliver lipophilic bioactive ingredients and enhance their bioaccessibility. In addition, this bio-stabilizer itself would remain stable in the upper gastrointestinal track and serve as a prebiotic for gut microbiota. We anticipate GGM to complement or even replace many of the conventional carriers of bioactive components in future health care products and functional foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Surfactant and/or Biosurfactants in Food Industry)
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13 pages, 1062 KiB  
Article
Fungistatic and Fungicidal Capacity of a Biosurfactant Extract Obtained from Corn Steep Water
by Alejandro López-Prieto, Xanel Vecino, Lorena Rodríguez-López, Ana Belén Moldes and José Manuel Cruz
Foods 2020, 9(5), 662; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050662 - 20 May 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3498 | Correction
Abstract
Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds that are produced by microorganisms, which in addition to their surfactant capacity, can possess interesting antimicrobial activities that are used in their incorporation into the agrifood industry. In this work, the preservative capacity of a novel biosurfactant extract obtained [...] Read more.
Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds that are produced by microorganisms, which in addition to their surfactant capacity, can possess interesting antimicrobial activities that are used in their incorporation into the agrifood industry. In this work, the preservative capacity of a novel biosurfactant extract obtained from a residual stream of the corn-milling industry was evaluated against two different fungi (Aspergillus brasiliensis and Candida albicans) under different biosurfactant concentrations (0.33–0.99 mg/mL), temperatures (4–40 °C), and incubation times (5–11 days). All the assays started with the same concentration of fungi (2 × 106 CFU/mL). The results showed that temperature played an important role in the fungicidal and fungistatic effects of this biosurfactant extract. It was observed that at a low biosurfactant concentration (0.33 mg/mL) and at low temperatures in the range tested, this biosurfactant extract possessed an important fungicidal effect (complete inhibition) on A. brasiliensis, while at intermediate temperatures, it achieved a fungistatic effect (50% of inhibition) at the highest concentration. Regarding C. albicans, it was observed that this strain was more resistant than A. brasiliens, although it was possible to achieve growth inhibitions of 76.3% at temperatures of 40 °C after 8 days of incubation with a biosurfactant concentration of 0.99 mg/mL. This work supports the possible application of biosurfactants extracted from corn steep water as preservatives and antimicrobial agents against fungal contaminations on agrifood products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Surfactant and/or Biosurfactants in Food Industry)
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14 pages, 6742 KiB  
Article
Influence of Protein Type on the Antimicrobial Activity of LAE Alone or in Combination with Methylparaben
by Myriam Loeffler, Verena Schwab, Nino Terjung, Jochen Weiss and D. Julian McClements
Foods 2020, 9(3), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030270 - 2 Mar 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3042
Abstract
The cationic surfactant Lauric arginate (LAE) has gained approval for utilization in meat products (limit: 200 mg/kg). However, as for other antimicrobials, its activity is reduced when applied to complex food matrices. The current study therefore aims to better understand protein-antimicrobial agent-interactions and [...] Read more.
The cationic surfactant Lauric arginate (LAE) has gained approval for utilization in meat products (limit: 200 mg/kg). However, as for other antimicrobials, its activity is reduced when applied to complex food matrices. The current study therefore aims to better understand protein-antimicrobial agent-interactions and their influence on the antimicrobial activity of (i) LAE and (ii) methylparaben against Listeria innocua and Pseudomonas fluorescens in defined model systems (pH 6). Antimicrobials were utilized alone or in combination with nutrient broth containing either no protein or 2% bovine serum albumin, whey protein isolate, or soy protein hydrolysate. LAE was found to form complexes with all proteins due to electrostatic attraction, determined using microelectrophoretic and turbidity measurements. Minimal lethal concentrations of LAE were remarkably increased (4–13 fold) in the presence of proteins, with globular proteins having the strongest impact. Combinations of LAE (0–200 µg/mL) with the less structure-sensitive component methylparaben (approved concentration 0.1%) remarkably decreased the concentrations of LAE needed to strongly inhibit or even kill both, L. innocua and P. fluorescens in the presence of proteins. The study highlights the importance of ingredient interactions impacting microbial activity that are often not taken into account when examining antimicrobial components having different structure sensitivities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Surfactant and/or Biosurfactants in Food Industry)
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4 pages, 752 KiB  
Correction
Correction: López-Prieto et al. Fungistatic and Fungicidal Capacity of a Biosurfactant Extract Obtained from Corn Steep Water. Foods 2020, 9, 662
by Alejandro López-Prieto, Xanel Vecino, Lorena Rodríguez-López, Ana Belén Moldes and José Manuel Cruz
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1318; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061318 - 8 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1379
Abstract
The authors would like to make the following correction to the published paper [1]: a few words should be corrected in the abstract, pages 7 and 9 [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Surfactant and/or Biosurfactants in Food Industry)
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