Special Issue "Chemical and Sensory Analysis of Alcoholic Beverages"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Quality and Safety".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 November 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Kerry Wilkinson
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia
Interests: grape and wine chemistry; analytical chemistry; sensory analysis; consumer research; viticulture; winemaking
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Dimitra Capone
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia
Interests: wine flavour chemistry; compound identification; chemical analysis; GC-MS; GC-MS/MS; GC-MS-olfactometry; HPLC-MS/MS

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The chemical constituents of alcoholic beverages strongly influence their sensory properties, that is, their aroma, flavor, taste, and textural qualities. This Special Issue will compile research into all facets of the compositional and/or sensory analysis of alcoholic beverages, from the origin of raw materials, to the influence of the production, maturation, and/or packaging; consumer-based studies are also welcome. We invite submissions that explore the relationships between the chemical components, sensory evaluation, and quality of alcoholic beverages. Papers that focus on the development and application of novel methods (chemical or sensory) for the analysis of alcoholic beverages are especially encouraged.

We invite submissions comprising original research and review articles that explore advances in the chemical and/or sensory analysis of alcoholic beverages for inclusion in this Special Issue.

Prof. Kerry Wilkinson
Dr. Dimitra Capone
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Flavor
  • Analysis
  • Alcoholic beverages
  • Aroma
  • Sensory
  • Chemistry
  • Chemical composition
  • Wine
  • Beer
  • Spirits

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
Grape and Wine Composition in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cannonau Explored by GC-MS and Sensory Analysis
Foods 2021, 10(1), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010101 - 06 Jan 2021
Viewed by 519
Abstract
GC-FID/MS is a powerful technique used to analyze food and beverage aromas. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in grape berries play an important role in determining wine quality and are affected by many factors, such as climate and soil that mainly influence their relative [...] Read more.
GC-FID/MS is a powerful technique used to analyze food and beverage aromas. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in grape berries play an important role in determining wine quality and are affected by many factors, such as climate and soil that mainly influence their relative concentrations. Wine aroma is generated by a complex mixture of compounds, and the sensory relevance of individual VOCs is far from elucidated. Herein, the VOC content (free and glycosylated) of Cannonau grape skin and juice and of Cannonau wine collected in different areas of Sardinia is explored. Wine sensory analysis was also carried out and the relationship between sensory attributes and VOCs was investigated. Although Cannonau grapes showed the same VOC fingerprint, great variability was identified between samples, although only the differences in 2-phenylethanol and benzyl alcohol concentration in the grape skins and benzyl alcohol and a terpenoid in grape juice were significantly different according to ANOVA. The correlation between VOC content and the sensory profile highlights the role played by 2-methyl-1-butanol and 2-phenylethanol in increasing wine sensory complexity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Sensory Analysis of Alcoholic Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Deep Ocean Water Concentrate Changes Physicochemical Characteristics, the Profile of Volatile Components and Consumer Acceptance for Taiwanese Rice Shochu
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1806; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121806 - 04 Dec 2020
Viewed by 488
Abstract
To study the effects of deep-ocean water concentrate (DOWC) on sake quality, Taichung No. 10 indica rice (Oryza sativa subsp. indica) and Tainan No. 11 japonica rice (O. sativa subsp. japonica) were used as raw materials, and basic physicochemical [...] Read more.
To study the effects of deep-ocean water concentrate (DOWC) on sake quality, Taichung No. 10 indica rice (Oryza sativa subsp. indica) and Tainan No. 11 japonica rice (O. sativa subsp. japonica) were used as raw materials, and basic physicochemical property parameters in shochu were analyzed differentially. Sake fermentation mash analysis results revealed that DOWC addition did not significantly affect the basic physicochemical properties during sake brewing, but it significantly reduced citric acid and malic acid contents in Taichung No. 10 indica rice sake sample by 52–66% and 73–93%, respectively. DOWC addition significantly increased citric acid content in Tainan No. 11 japonica rice sake sample by 32–202%. Rice shochu analysis results revealed that DOWC addition significantly increased isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate contents in shochu made from japonica rice and indica rice, respectively. The results indicate that rice variety directly affects the types of volatile compounds in rice shochu. Principal component analysis and sensory evaluation results revealed that DOWC addition affected the composition of volatile compounds in the two types of rice shochu and resulted in differences in flavor evaluation. DOWC addition affects yeast metabolites and directly changes the volatile compound composition and flavor of rice shochu. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Sensory Analysis of Alcoholic Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of the Volatile Compounds and Sensory Attributes of Long-Term Aging Vin Santo Wine from Malvasia di Candia Aromatic Grapes
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1736; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121736 - 25 Nov 2020
Viewed by 440
Abstract
In an effort to offer a contribution to fill the gap of knowledge about the relationship between the sensory properties and aromatic profile of Malvasia grapes, the present work was aimed at evaluating volatile compounds, aroma, and sensory attributes of long-term aging (15 [...] Read more.
In an effort to offer a contribution to fill the gap of knowledge about the relationship between the sensory properties and aromatic profile of Malvasia grapes, the present work was aimed at evaluating volatile compounds, aroma, and sensory attributes of long-term aging (15 years) Vin Santo wine obtained from Malvasia di Candia aromatica grapes. In this article, the aromatic profile are studied using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID), and sensory analysis by involving a panel of trained assessors to explore the sensory profile resulting after long-term aging (up to 15 years). The GC-MS and GC-FID analyses of wines allowed the identification and semi-quantification of twenty-seven volatiles belonging to 12 conventional groups of compounds. From a sensory perspective, the Vin Santo wines analyzed in this study presented a very complex sensory profile characterized by 19 sensory descriptors of which 14 related to olfactory terms. The relationship between sensory and GC-FID data deduced from three samples representing nearly three years in the past 15 years was investigated by means of Partial Least Square (PLS) modeling, showing that specific volatile compounds could predict a specific orthonasal and/or retronasal odor perceived by the trained panel of assessors, clearly differentiating the Vin Santo vintages. Identifying the main volatiles and aromas of long-term Vin Santo wine may be helpful to winemakers, since wine aging sensory properties are often associated with a prestigious image and contribute to defining wine quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Sensory Analysis of Alcoholic Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Bottle Aging on the Composition and Sensory Properties of Flavored Chardonnay and Shiraz Wines
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1208; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091208 - 01 Sep 2020
Viewed by 671
Abstract
Natural flavorings could potentially be used to enhance the intensity of wine aroma and flavor; albeit since flavor additives are not legally permitted winemaking aids, flavored wines would need to be labeled as wine products. In this study, changes in the composition and [...] Read more.
Natural flavorings could potentially be used to enhance the intensity of wine aroma and flavor; albeit since flavor additives are not legally permitted winemaking aids, flavored wines would need to be labeled as wine products. In this study, changes in the composition and sensory profiles of flavored Chardonnay (n = 2) and Shiraz (n = 2) wines were compared at bottling, and then again after 12 months of bottle aging. Flavorings and flavored wines were also analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine the key constituents responsible for changes to aroma and flavor profiles. However, many of the volatile compounds identified in flavor additives were not detected at appreciably higher concentrations in flavored wines, which was attributed to the very small quantities of flavorings that were added to base wines. The sensory profiles of control and flavored wines were determined by descriptive analysis, and the addition of flavorings to base wines significantly influenced the perception of some sensory attributes. Flavored Chardonnay wines exhibited enhanced fruit aromas and flavors, while fruit and developed attributes were enhanced in flavored Shiraz wines. Differences in sensory profiles were less apparent in Chardonnay wines following bottle aging, but depending on the flavorings added, flavored Shiraz wines could still be discriminated from their corresponding control wines after bottle aging. Results from this study demonstrate the potential for flavor additives to be used to enhance desirable attributes and/or mitigate wine sensory deficiencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Sensory Analysis of Alcoholic Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Pre-Fermentation Water Addition to High-Sugar Shiraz Must: Effects on Wine Composition and Sensory Properties
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1193; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091193 - 28 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 731
Abstract
Changes to Australian regulations now allow the limited addition of water to high-sugar musts pre-fermentation. In light of these changes, this study explored how water addition affects Shiraz wine composition and sensory properties. Wines were made from grapes at ≈13.5, 14.5 and 15.5° [...] Read more.
Changes to Australian regulations now allow the limited addition of water to high-sugar musts pre-fermentation. In light of these changes, this study explored how water addition affects Shiraz wine composition and sensory properties. Wines were made from grapes at ≈13.5, 14.5 and 15.5° Baume. Water was added to musts from the ripest fruit by direct addition, or by using a juice substitution (run-off and replace) approach. To compare the effect of juice run-off independently, saigneé treatments were included. Wines made from the fruit that was harvested earlier generally had a lower “opacity” and higher “red fruit” aroma as the defining sensory attributes. Undiluted wines made from riper fruit had higher phenolics, and were characterised by “dark fruit” and “dried fruit” attributes, and “spice”, a “brown colour” and “opacity”. These attributes were accentuated in wines from the same fruit which received saigneé treatments and reduced in all of the water addition treatments. In particular, higher levels of water addition without juice substitution increased the “cooked vegetable” and “drain” attributes in the wines. This indicates possible negative effects of larger water additions, such that a low to moderate adjustment in Shiraz winemaking is suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Sensory Analysis of Alcoholic Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of the Timing and Temperature of Malolactic Fermentation on the Aroma Composition and Mouthfeel Properties of Chardonnay Wine
Foods 2020, 9(6), 802; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060802 - 18 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1007
Abstract
Malolactic fermentation (MLF) is an important process in wine production due to the resulting reduction in acidity. MLF is typically induced by the addition of Oenococcus oeni after the completion of alcoholic fermentation (AF), but can occur concurrent with AF by co-inoculation of [...] Read more.
Malolactic fermentation (MLF) is an important process in wine production due to the resulting reduction in acidity. MLF is typically induced by the addition of Oenococcus oeni after the completion of alcoholic fermentation (AF), but can occur concurrent with AF by co-inoculation of O. oeni with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This study investigated the effect of MLF inoculation timing and temperature (15 °C and 21 °C) and the presence of the non-Saccharomyces yeast Torulaspora delbrueckii on Chardonnay wine aroma and mouthfeel. Aroma composition was measured using headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GCMS). Mouthfeel attributes of the wines produced were assessed by a winemaker panel, using Napping® and Ultra-flash profiling. Significant differences in aroma composition and mouthfeel perception were found based on MLF timing and inoculation conditions, as well as between temperatures. Temperature had a greater impact on the aroma composition for sequential inoculations, while there were little differences based on the temperature of concurrent fermentations. Treatment type and temperature also affected the chemical composition of finished wines. Mouthfeel was impacted, although not as strongly as aroma composition. These findings demonstrate the usefulness of various MLF practices to influence the sensory qualities of a Chardonnay wine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Sensory Analysis of Alcoholic Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Polymeric Sorbent Sheets Coupled to Direct Analysis in Real Time Mass Spectrometry for Trace-Level Volatile Analysis—A Multi-Vineyard Evaluation Study
Foods 2020, 9(4), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040409 - 02 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1126
Abstract
Etched polymeric sorbent sheets (solid-phase mesh-enhanced sorption from headspace (SPMESH) sheets) were recently described as an alternative to solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for rapid, parallel, multi-sample extraction and pre-concentration of headspace volatiles. In this report, a workflow was evaluated based on SPMESH sheet extraction [...] Read more.
Etched polymeric sorbent sheets (solid-phase mesh-enhanced sorption from headspace (SPMESH) sheets) were recently described as an alternative to solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for rapid, parallel, multi-sample extraction and pre-concentration of headspace volatiles. In this report, a workflow was evaluated based on SPMESH sheet extraction followed by direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) using grape samples harvested from multiple commercial vineyards at different maturities. SPMESH sheet-DART-MS(-MS) was performed on two grape-derived odorants related to wine quality: 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot grape homogenate (n = 86 samples) and linalool in Muscat-type grape juice samples (n = 18 samples). As part of the optimization process, an MS-MS method was developed for IBMP and an equilibration procedure prior to extraction was established for homogenate samples. Following optimization, we achieved good correlation between SPMESH sheet-DART-MS and SPME-GC-MS for both IBMP (range by GC-MS = < 2 ng/L to 28 ng/L, R2 = 0.70) and linalool (range by GC-MS = 135 to 415 μg/L, R2 = 0.66). The results indicate SPMESH sheet-DART-MS is suitable for rapid measurements of trace level volatiles in grapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Sensory Analysis of Alcoholic Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Temporal Check-All-That-Apply (TCATA) Reveals Matrix Interaction Effects on Flavor Perception in a Model Wine Matrix
Foods 2019, 8(12), 641; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120641 - 04 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2066
Abstract
Traditionally, the sensory properties of wine were characterized using a trained panel and descriptive analysis (DA)—a static sensory evaluation method. As wine is a complex mixture, with evolving sensory properties, a way to capture these changes is needed in order to fully describe [...] Read more.
Traditionally, the sensory properties of wine were characterized using a trained panel and descriptive analysis (DA)—a static sensory evaluation method. As wine is a complex mixture, with evolving sensory properties, a way to capture these changes is needed in order to fully describe the sensory experience of wine perception. In this study, temporal check-all-that-apply (TCATA), a dynamic sensory evaluation method, was used to characterize model wine samples reminiscent of a white, hybrid wine. Twelve model wines varied in levels of ethanol, glycerol, and caffeic acid, representing commercial levels in Pennsylvania. Samples were evaluated for up to three minutes by a trained TCATA panel (n = 12) for flavor, taste, and mouthfeel attributes. In general, the experimental factors, ethanol and glycerol, along with interactions between factors, had the greatest temporal effects, with significant differences in flavor attributes occurring within the first 30 s of evaluation, while taste and mouthfeel attributes showed significant differences throughout the evaluation period. Overall, ethanol had the greatest impact on temporal wine perception. The findings of this study further suggest that a temporal evaluation method, like TCATA, should be paired with DA to completely characterize a complex and evolving sample. Further, changes in wine matrix components affect sensory perception both in direct and indirect ways—the latter indicated by taste-taste suppression and cross-modal interaction effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Sensory Analysis of Alcoholic Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Volatile Composition and Sensory Profiles of a Shiraz Wine Product Made with Pre- and Post-Fermentation Additions of Ganoderma lucidum Extract
Foods 2019, 8(11), 538; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110538 - 01 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1170
Abstract
Novel Shiraz red wine products enriched with Ganoderma lucidum (GL) extract, a traditional Asian medicinal mushroom, were developed and characterized. GL extract was added at different levels prior to and after primary fermentation to investigate its impact on the juice fermentation [...] Read more.
Novel Shiraz red wine products enriched with Ganoderma lucidum (GL) extract, a traditional Asian medicinal mushroom, were developed and characterized. GL extract was added at different levels prior to and after primary fermentation to investigate its impact on the juice fermentation kinetics, and the chemical composition and sensory properties of the resulting wines. The fermentation kinetics of red grape juice were not significantly different between ferments. Basic chemical analyses plus headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME), gas chromatography‒mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and a rate-all-that-apply (RATA) (n = 65) sensory panel were used to investigate the influence of GL extract additions on wine composition and sensory characteristics. Of the 54 sensory attributes assessed, 39 significantly differentiated the wines. A clear separation between GL wine treatments was evident with PLS regression, where specific volatiles were correlated with relevant sensory attributes that dominated the wines. These products could be promising for emerging wine markets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Sensory Analysis of Alcoholic Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigating Alcohol Sweetspot Phenomena in Reduced Alcohol Red Wines
Foods 2019, 8(10), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100491 - 14 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 997
Abstract
Warmer growing seasons, variations to grape ripening dynamics, and stylistic changes have contributed to increased wine alcohol levels, which can negatively impact sensory properties. As a consequence, winemakers have sought technological innovations to produce reduced alcohol wine (RAW). The sensory methodology used by [...] Read more.
Warmer growing seasons, variations to grape ripening dynamics, and stylistic changes have contributed to increased wine alcohol levels, which can negatively impact sensory properties. As a consequence, winemakers have sought technological innovations to produce reduced alcohol wine (RAW). The sensory methodology used by industry to optimize the ethanol content of RAW is known as ‘alcohol sweetspotting’. However, to date, there is no scientific evidence to support the alcohol sweetspot phenomenon, and the sensory methodology used for alcohol sweetspotting has not been validated. In this study, different methods of presenting wine samples (i.e., ordered vs. randomized, and linear vs. circular) were employed to determine to what extent presentation order influences the outcome of alcohol sweetspotting trials. Two different approaches to statistical analysis of sensory data, i.e., chi-square goodness of fit vs. one proportion tests, were also evaluated. Statistical analyses confirmed alcohol sweetspots were apparent in some sweetspot determination trials, but outcomes were not reproducible in replicate determinations (either by panel or by individual panelists). Analysis of data using the one proportion test improved the likelihood of identifying statistically significant differences between RAWs, but variation in individuals’ sensitivity to differences in sensory properties following ethanol removal prevented validation of the alcohol sweetspot phenomenon based on the wines studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Sensory Analysis of Alcoholic Beverages)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Gas Chromatography Olfactometry (GC-O) for the (Semi)Quantitative Screening of Wine Aroma
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1892; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121892 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 449
Abstract
This review discusses the different approaches developed by researchers in the last 40 years for the qualitative and semi-quantitative screening of odorants, with special emphasis in wine aroma profiling. In the first part, the aims and possibilities of Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) as odour-screening [...] Read more.
This review discusses the different approaches developed by researchers in the last 40 years for the qualitative and semi-quantitative screening of odorants, with special emphasis in wine aroma profiling. In the first part, the aims and possibilities of Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) as odour-screening and aroma profiling technique are discussed. The critical difference between approaches is whether the ranking of odorants is carried out on an extract containing all the odorants present in the product, or on an extract representative of the odorants contained in the vapour phases that cause the odour and flavour. While the second alternative is more direct and can be more efficient, it requires a good understanding of the factors affecting orthonasal olfaction, handling volatiles (purging, trapping, eluting, and separating) and about the sensory assessment of GC effluents. The review also includes an updated list compiling all the odorants detected in wine by GC-O, including retention indexes and odour descriptions with a general guideline for the identification of odorants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Sensory Analysis of Alcoholic Beverages)
Open AccessReview
Bubbles, Foam Formation, Stability and Consumer Perception of Carbonated Drinks: A Review of Current, New and Emerging Technologies for Rapid Assessment and Control
Foods 2019, 8(12), 596; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120596 - 20 Nov 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1675
Abstract
Quality control, mainly focused on the assessment of bubble and foam-related parameters, is critical in carbonated beverages, due to their relationship with the chemical components as well as their influence on sensory characteristics such as aroma release, mouthfeel, and perception of tastes and [...] Read more.
Quality control, mainly focused on the assessment of bubble and foam-related parameters, is critical in carbonated beverages, due to their relationship with the chemical components as well as their influence on sensory characteristics such as aroma release, mouthfeel, and perception of tastes and aromas. Consumer assessment and acceptability of carbonated beverages are mainly based on carbonation, foam, and bubbles, as a flat carbonated beverage is usually perceived as low quality. This review focuses on three beverages: beer, sparkling water, and sparkling wine. It explains the characteristics of foam and bubble formation, and the traditional methods, as well as emerging technologies based on robotics and computer vision, to assess bubble and foam-related parameters. Furthermore, it explores the most common methods and the use of advanced techniques using an artificial intelligence approach to assess sensory descriptors both for descriptive analysis and consumers’ acceptability. Emerging technologies, based on the combination of robotics, computer vision, and machine learning as an approach to artificial intelligence, have been developed and applied for the assessment of beer and, to a lesser extent, sparkling wine. This, has the objective of assessing the final products quality using more reliable, accurate, affordable, and less time-consuming methods. However, despite carbonated water being an important product, due to its increasing consumption, more research needs to focus on exploring more efficient, repeatable, and accurate methods to assess carbonation and bubble size, distribution and dynamics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Sensory Analysis of Alcoholic Beverages)
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