Special Issue "Sensory Analysis and Consumer Research in New Product Development"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Sensory and Consumer Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 December 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Claudia Ruiz-Capillas
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Spanish National Research Council, CSIC, Department of Products, Madrid, Spain
Interests: meat quality; food safety; animal production; food analysis; meat science; poultry; animal nutrition; food microbiology and safety; food science and technology; food preservation
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Ana Herrero Herranz
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Spanish National Research Council, CSIC, Department of Products, Madrid, Spain
Interests: development of healthy meat products; vibrational spectroscopic techniques (raman and infrared spectroscopy); textural properties; biogenic amines; food safety; quality indices; sensorial analysis
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sensory analysis is an essential tool in new product development to evaluate not only the quality but also the potential commercial viability of new foods. There are different types of sensory analysis available, ranging from traditional sensory profiling methods such as Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) to the more recently developed rapid sensory profiling techniques using non-trained assessors, such as Check All That Apply (CATA), Napping, Flash Profile, Free Sorting, Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS), etc., each having their advantages and disadvantages.

Consumer research is also essential, as attitudes, behaviors, and emotions need to be understood and measured to gather insight into the development of successful new products. The study of the context in sensory evaluation is also becoming more important, with the focus shifting from the product to the consumer and virtual reality being used as a tool to bring sensory analysis out of the traditional booths. The field of sensory and consumer research is constantly evolving, and its infiltration of social media and the use of data mining could also provide useful complementary insights for the development of new foods.

This Special Issue encourages authors to submit original research articles or reviews addressing consumer research, advances in sensory analysis techniques (both new and traditional), and the application of both sensory and consumer science in new product development.

Dr. Claudia Ruiz-Capillas
Dr. Ana Herrero Herranz
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • food quality
  • sensory properties
  • sensory analysis
  • rapid sensory profiling techniques
  • consumer research
  • new product development
  • Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA)
  • Check All That Apply (CATA)
  • Napping
  • Flash Profile
  • Free Sorting
  • Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS)

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Sensory Analysis and Consumer Research in New Product Development
Foods 2021, 10(3), 582; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030582 - 10 Mar 2021
Viewed by 356
Abstract
Sensory analysis examines the properties (texture, flavor, taste, appearance, smell, etc [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory Analysis and Consumer Research in New Product Development)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Generating New Snack Food Texture Ideas Using Sensory and Consumer Research Tools: A Case Study of the Japanese and South Korean Snack Food Markets
Foods 2021, 10(2), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020474 - 22 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 544
Abstract
Food companies spend a large amount of money and time to explore markets and consumer trends for ideation. Finding new opportunities in food product development is a challenging assignment. The majority of new products launched in the market are either copies of existing [...] Read more.
Food companies spend a large amount of money and time to explore markets and consumer trends for ideation. Finding new opportunities in food product development is a challenging assignment. The majority of new products launched in the market are either copies of existing concepts or line extensions. This study demonstrates how the global marketplace can be used for generating new texture concepts for snack foods. One hundred and twenty-three prepacked snack foods from South Korea (SK) and ninety-five from Japan (JP) were purchased for this study. Projective mapping (PM) was used to sort the snacks on a 2-dimensional map (texture and flavor). Sensory scientists grouped snacks on similarities and dissimilarities. PM results showed, 65% (JP) and 76% (SK) snacks were considered as hard textures, ranging from moderate to extremely hard. Sixty-five percent of JP snacks were savory, whereas 59% of SK snacks had a sweet flavor. The PM 2-dimensional map was used to find white spaces in the marketplace. Thirty-two diversified snacks from each country were screened and profiled using descriptive sensory analysis by trained panelists. Attributes such as sustained fracturability, sustained crispness, initial crispness, and fracturability were the main sensory texture characteristics of snacks. Results showed how descriptive analysis results can be used as initial sensory specifications to develop prototypes. Prototype refinement can be performed by doing multiple developmental iterations and consumer testing. The study showed how white spaces are potential opportunities where new products can be positioned to capture market space. Practical Application: The methodology produced in this study can be used by food product developers to explore new opportunities in the global marketplace. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory Analysis and Consumer Research in New Product Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Trends of Using Sensory Evaluation in New Product Development in the Food Industry in Countries That Belong to the EIT Regional Innovation Scheme
Foods 2021, 10(2), 446; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020446 - 18 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 513
Abstract
Sensory evaluation plays an important role in New Product Development (NPD) in food industry. In the present study, the current trends of using sensory evaluation in NPD in the food industry in countries that belong to EIT Regional Innovation Scheme (RIS) were identified. [...] Read more.
Sensory evaluation plays an important role in New Product Development (NPD) in food industry. In the present study, the current trends of using sensory evaluation in NPD in the food industry in countries that belong to EIT Regional Innovation Scheme (RIS) were identified. The research was conducted in the first quarter of 2020. Computer assisted self-interviewing (CASI) technique for survey data collection was used. The sample included 122 respondents representing RIS countries that are the EU Member States and European Horizon 2020 Associated Countries that are classified as modest and moderate innovators according to European Innovation Scoreboard. The analysis presented in the paper allowed to describe the methods of sensory evaluation that can be used to support NPD in the food industry, identify the trends of using sensory evaluation in NPD in the food industry companies in RIS countries. The research results showed that almost 70% of companies apply sensory evaluation methods in NPD. The larger the company, the more often the methods of sensory evaluation are used in NPDs. Almost 60% of companies employing 51–100, 101–1000 and more than 5000 people, respectively declare the use of expert (analytical) test. However, regardless of size, most companies prefer consumer (affective) test to expert tests. Based on the results, it seems that the potential of usage sensory evaluation methods is not yet fully exploited in the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory Analysis and Consumer Research in New Product Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Sensory Features, Liking and Emotions of Consumers towards Classical, Molecular and Note by Note Foods
Foods 2021, 10(1), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010133 - 10 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 583
Abstract
Modern cuisine served at top-end restaurants attempts to attract customers, who increasingly demand new flavor, pleasure and fun. The materials were six dishes prepared using lemon or tomatoes and made in the traditional (classical), molecular and Note by Note (NbN) versions. The study [...] Read more.
Modern cuisine served at top-end restaurants attempts to attract customers, who increasingly demand new flavor, pleasure and fun. The materials were six dishes prepared using lemon or tomatoes and made in the traditional (classical), molecular and Note by Note (NbN) versions. The study explores sensory characteristics, consumer liking of key attributes, their declared sensations and emotions, as well as consumers’ facial expressions responding to the dishes. These objectives were investigated by descriptive quantitative analysis and consumer tests. Tests included a 9-point hedonic scale for degree of liking a dish, Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) for declared sensations and FaceReader for facial expressions. The influence of factors associated with consumer attitudes toward new food and willingness to try the dishes in the future were also determined. It was stated that the product profiles represent different sensory characteristics due to the technology of food production and the ingredients used. The food neophobia and consumer innovativeness had a significant (p ≤ 0.05) effect on liking. The odor-, flavor-, texture- and overall-liking of the NbN dishes were lower than that of traditional versions but did not vary from scores for molecular samples. The expected liking of NbN dishes was higher than experienced-liking. Traditional and modern products differed in CATA terms. Classical dishes were perceived by consumers as more tasty, traditional and typical while modern cuisine dishes were perceived as more surprising, intriguing, innovative and trendy. Mimic expressions assessment by FaceReader showed similar trends in some emotions in both classical dishes and separate temporal patterns in modern products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory Analysis and Consumer Research in New Product Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Adding Value to Bycatch Fish Species Captured in the Portuguese Coast—Development of New Food Products
Foods 2021, 10(1), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010068 - 31 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 497
Abstract
We live in a world of limited biological resources and ecosystems, which are essential to feed people. Consequently, diversifying target species and considering full exploitation are essential for fishery sustainability. The present study focuses on the valorization of three low commercial value fish [...] Read more.
We live in a world of limited biological resources and ecosystems, which are essential to feed people. Consequently, diversifying target species and considering full exploitation are essential for fishery sustainability. The present study focuses on the valorization of three low commercial value fish species (blue jack mackerel, Trachurus picturatus; black seabream, Spondyliosoma cantharus; and piper gurnard, Trigla lyra) and of two unexploited species (comber, Serranus cabrilla and boarfish, Capros aper) through the development of marine-based food products with added value. A preliminary inquiry with 155 consumers from Região de Lisboa e Vale do Tejo (Center of Portugal) was conducted to assess fish consumption, the applicability of fish product innovation, and the importance of valorizing discarded fish. Five products (black seabream ceviche, smoked blue jack mackerel pâté, dehydrated piper gurnard, fried boarfish, and comber pastries) were developed and investigated for their sensory characteristics and consumer liking by hedonic tests to 90 consumers. The most important descriptors were identified for each product (texture, flavor, color, and appearance). Comber pastries had the highest purchase intention (88%), followed by black seabream ceviche (85%) and blue jack mackerel pâté (76%). Sensory evaluations showed a clear tendency of consumers to accept reformulated products, with the introduction of the low-value and unexploited species under study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory Analysis and Consumer Research in New Product Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Part Meat and Part Plant: Are Hybrid Meat Products Fad or Future?
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1888; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121888 - 17 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 668
Abstract
There is a growing interest in flexitarian diets, which has resulted in the commercialisation of new hybrid meat products, containing both meat and plant-based ingredients. Consumer attitudes towards hybrid meat products have not been explored, and it is not clear which factors could [...] Read more.
There is a growing interest in flexitarian diets, which has resulted in the commercialisation of new hybrid meat products, containing both meat and plant-based ingredients. Consumer attitudes towards hybrid meat products have not been explored, and it is not clear which factors could affect the success of such products. This study is the first to overview of the UK hybrid meat product market and to explore consumer’s attitudes towards hybrid meat products in 201 online reviews, using tools and techniques of corpus linguistics (language analysis). In the positive reviews, consumers emphasised the taste dimension of the hybrid meat products, seeing them as healthier options with good texture and easy to prepare. The negative reviews related to the poor sensory quality and not to the concept of hybridity itself. Using a multidisciplinary approach, our findings revealed valuable insights into consumer attitudes and highlighted factors to consider to market new hybrid meat products effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory Analysis and Consumer Research in New Product Development)
Open AccessArticle
Functional Tea-Infused Set Yoghurt Development by Evaluation of Sensory Quality and Textural Properties
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1848; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121848 - 11 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 656
Abstract
In the present study, the potential to design natural tea-infused set yoghurt was investigated. Three types of tea (Camellia sinensis): black, green and oolong tea as well as lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) were used to produce set yoghurt. The [...] Read more.
In the present study, the potential to design natural tea-infused set yoghurt was investigated. Three types of tea (Camellia sinensis): black, green and oolong tea as well as lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) were used to produce set yoghurt. The sensory quality (using Quantitative Descriptive Profile analysis and consumer hedonic test) and texture analysis, yield stress, physical stability and colour analysis were assessed to describe the profile of the yoghurt and influence of quality attributes of the product on the consumer acceptability of infused yoghurts in comparison with plain yoghurt. Among the analyzed plant additives for yoghurt, addition of 2% oolong tea to the yoghurt allows a functional food to be obtained with satisfactory texture and sensory properties, accepted by consumers at the same level as for control yoghurt. Both types of yoghurt were also characterised by high consumer willingness to buy, which confirms the legitimacy of using oolong tea as a natural, functional yoghurt additive that improves the sensory quality of the product. The high overall quality of yoghurt with oolong tea in comparison to other plant extracts was associated with the intensive peach flavour and odour, nectar and sweet odour and flavour, and the highest creaminess and thickness. That was confirmed by principal component analysis (PCA) where the overall sensory quality of yoghurts was mainly positively correlated with peach flavour and odour, sweet odour and yoghurt odour, while it was negatively correlated with herbs flavor and odour, and green tea flavour and odour. The sensory profile confirmed no differences in textural profile between plain yoghurt and the tea-infused one measured in the mouth, which corresponds to the result of textural properties such as firmness and adhesiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory Analysis and Consumer Research in New Product Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Cricket-Enriched Oat Biscuit: Technological Analysis and Sensory Evaluation
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1561; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111561 - 28 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 793
Abstract
Insect-containing products are gaining more space in the market. Bakery products are one of the most promising since the added ground insects can enhance not only the nutritional quality of the dough, but technological parameters and sensory properties of the final products. In [...] Read more.
Insect-containing products are gaining more space in the market. Bakery products are one of the most promising since the added ground insects can enhance not only the nutritional quality of the dough, but technological parameters and sensory properties of the final products. In the present research, different amounts of ground Acheta domesticus (house cricket) were used to produce oat biscuits. Colour, hardness, and total titratable acidity (TTA) values were measured as well as a consumer sensory test was completed using the check-all-that-apply (CATA) method. An estimation of nutrient composition of the samples revealed that, according to the European Unions Regulation No. 1924/2006, the products with 10 and 15 g/100 g cricket enrichment (CP10 and CP15, respectively) can be labelled as protein sources. Results of the colour, TTA, and texture measurements showed that even small amounts of the cricket powder darkened the colour of the samples and increased their acidity, but did not influence the texture significantly. Among product-related check all that apply (CATA) attributes, fatty and cheesy flavour showed a significant positive effect on overall liking (OAL). On the other hand, burnt flavour and brown colour significantly decreased OAL. OAL values showed that consumers preferred the control product (CP0) and the product with 5 g/100 g cricket enrichment (CP5) samples over CP10 and rejected CP15. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory Analysis and Consumer Research in New Product Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Association between the Consumer Food Quality Perception and Acceptance of Enhanced Meat Products and Novel Packaging in a Population-Based Sample of Polish Consumers
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1526; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111526 - 23 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 504
Abstract
The consumer acceptance of novel enhanced-quality products and their willingness to buy such products may be a crucial topic in the field of marketing. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between consumers’ perceptions of food quality and their acceptance [...] Read more.
The consumer acceptance of novel enhanced-quality products and their willingness to buy such products may be a crucial topic in the field of marketing. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between consumers’ perceptions of food quality and their acceptance of enhanced meat products and novel packaging. The study was conducted using the Computer-Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) method in a random group of 1009 respondents, who were recruited as a representative sample based on data from the Polish National Identification Number database. The participants were asked about the most important quality determinants of food products of animal origin and about quality improvement methods and their acceptance of those methods. The quality determinants of animal-based food products were indicated as follows: origin, production technology, manufacturer, components and nutritional value, visual and sensory characteristics, expiry date, and cost. The quality improvement methods were clustered into groups that were associated with product enhancement and application of novel packaging, and the acceptance of those methods was also verified. Indicating specific quality determinants of animal-derived food products affects the consumer acceptance of product enhancement (p = 0.0264) and novel packaging as quality improvement methods (p = 0.0314). The understanding that enhancement is applied for the purpose of quality improvement did not influence the acceptance of products (p = 0.1582), whereas the knowledge that novel packaging is applied influenced the acceptance (p = 0.0044). The obtained results suggested that in the case of application of novel packaging, a higher level of knowledge may be a reason for consumer’s rejection of the resulting products, but the appearance and taste of products may contribute to the higher acceptance of novel packaging. Educating consumers may improve their acceptance of product enhancement, as concerns about the addition of food preservatives may lead them to reject enhanced products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory Analysis and Consumer Research in New Product Development)
Open AccessArticle
Consumer-Based Sensory Characterization of Steviol Glycosides (Rebaudioside A, D, and M)
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1026; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081026 - 31 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 920
Abstract
Rebaudioside (Reb) D and M are the recent focus of the food industry to address the bitter taste challenge of Reb A, which is the most commonly used steviol glycoside in natural sweetener stevia. This study evaluated the sensory characteristics of Reb A, [...] Read more.
Rebaudioside (Reb) D and M are the recent focus of the food industry to address the bitter taste challenge of Reb A, which is the most commonly used steviol glycoside in natural sweetener stevia. This study evaluated the sensory characteristics of Reb A, D, and M, compared to 14% (w/v) sucrose, using a consumer panel and explored the relationship between 6-n-Propylthiouracil (PROP) taster status (i.e., non-tasters, medium tasters, supertasters) and the perceived intensity of sweet and bitter tastes of the three steviol glycosides. A total of 126 participants evaluated the intensities of in-mouth, immediate (5 s after expectorating), and lingering (1 min after expectorating) sweetness and bitterness of 0.1% Reb A, D, M, and 14% sucrose and described the aftertaste of the sweeteners by using a check-all-that-apply (CATA) question. The results showed that in-mouth sweetness and bitterness of Reb D and M were not significantly different from sucrose, unlike Reb A which showed significant bitterness. However, Reb D and M showed more intense lingering sweetness than sucrose. The CATA analysis resulted that Reb D and M were closer to positive attribute terms and also to sucrose than Reb A, but Reb D and M were still considered artificial, which may cause them to be perceived negatively. When comparing among PROP taster groups, no significant differences in the perceived sweetness and bitterness of the three steviol glycosides were found. This study generates important information about Reb A, D, and M for the food industry, especially working with products formulated to deliver reductions in sugar using a natural high-intensity sweetener, stevia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory Analysis and Consumer Research in New Product Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Sensory Analysis in Assessing the Possibility of Using Ethanol Extracts of Spices to Develop New Meat Products
Foods 2020, 9(2), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020209 - 18 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 788
Abstract
The food industry has endeavoured to move toward the direction of clean labelling. Therefore, replacing synthetic preservatives with natural plant extracts has gained significant importance. It is necessary to determine whether products enriched with such extracts are still accepted by consumers. In this [...] Read more.
The food industry has endeavoured to move toward the direction of clean labelling. Therefore, replacing synthetic preservatives with natural plant extracts has gained significant importance. It is necessary to determine whether products enriched with such extracts are still accepted by consumers. In this study, consumer tests (n = 246) and sensory profiling were used to assess the impact of ethanol extracts of spices (lovage, marjoram, thyme, oregano, rosemary, and basil; concentration 0.05%) on the sensory quality of pork meatballs and hamburgers. The desirability of meat products with spice extracts to consumers depended on the added extract. The highest scores were for products with lovage extract, whose sensory profile was the most similar to the control sample without the addition of an extract (with higher intensity of broth taste compared with the others). Products with rosemary and thyme extracts were characterised by lower desirability than the control. This was related to the high intensity of spicy and essential oil tastes, as well as the bitter taste in the case of products with thyme. The studied extracts of spices allow for the creation of meat products (meatballs and hamburgers) with high consumer desirability, however, the high intensity of essential oil and spicy tastes might be a limitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory Analysis and Consumer Research in New Product Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrothermally Treated Soybeans Can Enrich Maize Stiff Porridge (Africa’s Main Staple) without Negating Sensory Acceptability
Foods 2019, 8(12), 650; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120650 - 06 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1216
Abstract
Maize-based stiff porridge, a starchy protein-deficient staple food, dominates among the populations in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Unfortunately, this is often consumed along with leafy vegetables since the majority of the population in this region lack resources for the purchase of high protein animal [...] Read more.
Maize-based stiff porridge, a starchy protein-deficient staple food, dominates among the populations in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Unfortunately, this is often consumed along with leafy vegetables since the majority of the population in this region lack resources for the purchase of high protein animal source foods, a situation that exacerbates protein-energy malnutrition. Considering this, the current study evaluated the effect of enriching maize-based stiff porridge with flour made from hydrothermally treated soybeans on consumer acceptability. A total of nine experimental flours were prepared from maize and maize-soybean mixtures following a 32 factorial design involving two factors, namely maize flour type (whole maize, non-soaked dehulled maize, and soaked dehulled maize) and soybean flour proportion (0%, 20%, and 30%). A total of 125 adult consumers from a rural setting in Malawi evaluated maize-based stiff porridges made thereof using a 7-point hedonic scale. Subsequently, the participants were asked to guess an ingredient that was added to some of the test samples. The 10% and 20% soybean-enriched maize-based stiff porridges scored 5/7 and above, with some being statistically similar to plain maize-based stiff porridges. No participant recognized that soybeans were incorporated into the maize-based stiff porridges. The study has clearly demonstrated the potential of enriching maize-based stiff porridge with hydrothermally treated soybeans without compromising consumer acceptability. This innovation could significantly contribute towards reducing the burden of energy-protein under-nutrition in SSA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory Analysis and Consumer Research in New Product Development)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Sensory Analysis and Consumer Research in New Meat Products Development
Foods 2021, 10(2), 429; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020429 - 16 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 434
Abstract
This review summarises the main sensory methods (traditional techniques and the most recent ones) together with consumer research as a key part in the development of new products, particularly meat products. Different types of sensory analyses (analytical and affective), from conventional methods (Quantitative [...] Read more.
This review summarises the main sensory methods (traditional techniques and the most recent ones) together with consumer research as a key part in the development of new products, particularly meat products. Different types of sensory analyses (analytical and affective), from conventional methods (Quantitative Descriptive Analysis) to new rapid sensory techniques (Check All That Apply, Napping, Flash Profile, Temporal Dominance of Sensations, etc.) have been used as crucial techniques in new product development to assess the quality and marketable feasibility of the novel products. Moreover, an important part of these new developments is analysing consumer attitudes, behaviours, and emotions, in order to understand the complex consumer–product interaction. In addition to implicit and explicit methodologies to measure consumers’ emotions, the analysis of physiological responses can also provide information of the emotional state a food product can generate. Virtual reality is being used as an instrument to take sensory analysis out of traditional booths and configure conditions that are more realistic. This review will help to better understand these techniques and to facilitate the choice of the most appropriate at the time of its application at the different stages of the new product development, particularly on meat products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory Analysis and Consumer Research in New Product Development)
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