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Review

Potential Risk of Three Zoonotic Protozoa (Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Toxoplasma gondii) Transmission from Fish Consumption

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Servicio de Análisis, Investigación y Gestión de Animales Silvestres (SAIGAS), Veterinary Faculty, Universidad CEU-Cardenal Herrera, Tirant lo Blanc St 7, 46115 Alfara del Patriarca, Valencia, Spain
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Farmacy Department, Universidad CEU-Cardenal Herrera, Santiago Ramón y Cajal St, 46115 Alfara del Patriarca, Valencia, Spain
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Wildlife Ecology & Health Group (WE&H), Veterinary Faculty, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Travessera dels Turons, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1913; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121913
Received: 26 November 2020 / Revised: 15 December 2020 / Accepted: 18 December 2020 / Published: 21 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews on Food Microbiology, Foodborne Pathogens, and Probiotics)
In recent decades, worldwide fish consumption has increased notably worldwide. Despite the health benefits of fish consumption, it also can suppose a risk because of fishborne diseases, including parasitic infections. Global changes are leading to the emergence of parasites in new locations and to the appearance of new sources of transmission. That is the case of the zoonotic protozoa Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Toxoplasma gondii; all of them reach aquatic environments and have been found in shellfish. Similarly, these protozoa can be present in other aquatic animals, such as fish. The present review gives an overview on these three zoonotic protozoa in order to understand their potential presence in fish and to comprehensively revise all the evidences of fish as a new potential source of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Toxoplasma gondii transmission. All of them have been found in both marine and freshwater fishes. Until now, it has not been possible to demonstrate that fish are natural hosts for these protozoa; otherwise, they would merely act as mechanical transporters. Nevertheless, even if fish only accumulate and transport these protozoa, they could be a “new” source of infection for people. View Full-Text
Keywords: fishborne parasites; zoonotic protozoa; Cryptosporidium spp.; Giardia duodenalis; Toxoplasma gondii fishborne parasites; zoonotic protozoa; Cryptosporidium spp.; Giardia duodenalis; Toxoplasma gondii
MDPI and ACS Style

Moratal, S.; Dea-Ayuela, M.A.; Cardells, J.; Marco-Hirs, N.M.; Puigcercós, S.; Lizana, V.; López-Ramon, J. Potential Risk of Three Zoonotic Protozoa (Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Toxoplasma gondii) Transmission from Fish Consumption. Foods 2020, 9, 1913. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121913

AMA Style

Moratal S, Dea-Ayuela MA, Cardells J, Marco-Hirs NM, Puigcercós S, Lizana V, López-Ramon J. Potential Risk of Three Zoonotic Protozoa (Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Toxoplasma gondii) Transmission from Fish Consumption. Foods. 2020; 9(12):1913. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121913

Chicago/Turabian Style

Moratal, Samantha, M. A. Dea-Ayuela, Jesús Cardells, Naima M. Marco-Hirs, Silvia Puigcercós, Víctor Lizana, and Jordi López-Ramon. 2020. "Potential Risk of Three Zoonotic Protozoa (Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Toxoplasma gondii) Transmission from Fish Consumption" Foods 9, no. 12: 1913. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121913

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