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Foods, Volume 12, Issue 7 (April-1 2023) – 208 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): To feed a world population of 9.3 billion, by 2050, more sustainable alternative protein sources have been sought. Alternative plant proteins are an emerging area for food and feed purposes since they may offer the nutritional requirements of protein and essential amino acids, with a lower carbon footprint and less water use compared to animal production, contributing to the world’s plant biodiversity and animal welfare. A future sustainable diet should rely on biodiversity, including legumes, cereals, and other protein sources, e.g., nuts, seeds, mushrooms, and macro- and microalgae. Among alternative protein sources, grain legumes (e.g., beans, lentils, chickpea, grass pea, fava beans, and pea) have huge versatility, being adjusted to the most diverse cultural and food habits worldwide. View this paper
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Article
Characterization of the Aroma Profiles of Guangdong Black Teas Using Non-Targeted Metabolomics
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1560; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071560 - 06 Apr 2023
Viewed by 787
Abstract
Guangdong black teas have diverse flavors and aromas. To explore the molecular basis of these aromas, we extracted and analyzed the volatile flavor compounds of 31 black tea samples from 7 districts (Yingde, Luokeng, Renhua, Meizhou, Chaozhou, Lianshan, and Heyuan) in Guangdong Province [...] Read more.
Guangdong black teas have diverse flavors and aromas. To explore the molecular basis of these aromas, we extracted and analyzed the volatile flavor compounds of 31 black tea samples from 7 districts (Yingde, Luokeng, Renhua, Meizhou, Chaozhou, Lianshan, and Heyuan) in Guangdong Province with headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Then, 135 volatile flavor compounds (VFCs) were identified and grouped into 12 classes according to their chemical structure. Notably, alcohols accounted for 31.40–44.43% of total VFCs. The score plot of supervised partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) revealed good discrimination for most black tea samples. Additionally, 64 compounds with variable importance in projection > 1.0 were identified as differential odorants. Through an odor activity value analysis, eight volatile compounds were identified as the key active differential VFCs: linalool, methyl salicylate, phenylethyl alcohol, p-cresol, 3-methyl-butanoic acid, geraniol, benzaldehyde, and benzeneacetaldehyde. Thus, benzeneacetaldehyde and linalool in YJ-Yingde samples, benzaldehyde in Luokeng samples with an almond-like aroma, phenylethyl alcohol in the Heyuan samples, and p-cresol and 3-methyl-butanoic acid in the Chaozhou samples were the key volatile flavor compounds that could differentiate local black teas from other black teas. These findings will enrich the research in tea aroma chemistry and provide a method for identifying the origins of Guangdong black teas. Full article
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Article
Epicatechin Inhibited Lipid Oxidation and Protein Lipoxidation in a Fish Oil-Fortified Dairy Mimicking System
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1559; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071559 - 06 Apr 2023
Viewed by 474
Abstract
In this study, a typical tea polyphenol epicatechin (EC) was investigated for its impact on the oxidative stability of whey protein isolate (WPI) in a fish oil-fortified emulsion. The oil-in-water emulsion system consisted of fish oil (1%, w/w), WPI (6 [...] Read more.
In this study, a typical tea polyphenol epicatechin (EC) was investigated for its impact on the oxidative stability of whey protein isolate (WPI) in a fish oil-fortified emulsion. The oil-in-water emulsion system consisted of fish oil (1%, w/w), WPI (6 mg/mL), and EC (0.1, 1, and 2 mM), and the oxidation reaction was catalyzed by Fenton’s reagent at 25 °C for 24 h. The results showed EC exhibited a dose-dependent activity in the reduction of lipid oxidation (TBARS) and protein carbonylation. A Western blot analysis demonstrated that protein lipoxidation was inhibited by EC via interrupting the covalent binding of lipid secondary oxidation products, MDA, onto proteins. In addition, protein lipoxidation induced a loss of tryptophan fluorescence, and protein hydrolysis was partially recovered by EC. The findings of this study provide an in-depth understanding of the performance of phenolic antioxidants in relieving lipid oxidation and subsequent protein lipoxidation in oil-containing dairy products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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Article
Anti-Inflammatory and Vasorelaxant Effects Induced by an Aqueous Aged Black Garlic Extract Supplemented with Vitamins D, C, and B12 on Cardiovascular System
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1558; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071558 - 06 Apr 2023
Viewed by 614
Abstract
Multiple studies demonstrated biological activities of aged black garlic, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and cardioprotective effects. We aimed to investigate the protective effects of an aged black garlic water extract (ABGE) alone or in association with multivitamins consisting of combined Vitamins D, C, and [...] Read more.
Multiple studies demonstrated biological activities of aged black garlic, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and cardioprotective effects. We aimed to investigate the protective effects of an aged black garlic water extract (ABGE) alone or in association with multivitamins consisting of combined Vitamins D, C, and B12, on mouse heart specimens exposed to E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Moreover, we studied the hydrogen sulphide (H2S) releasing properties and the membrane hyperpolarization effect of the Formulation composed by ABGE and multivitamins, using Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells (HASMCs). ABGE, vitamins D and C, and the Formulation suppressed LPS-induced gene expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) on mouse heart specimens. The beneficial effects induced by the extract could be related to the pattern of polyphenolic composition, with particular regard to gallic acid and catechin. The Formulation also increased fluorescence values compared to the vehicle, and it caused a significant membrane hyperpolarization of HASMCs compared to ABGE. To conclude, our present findings showed that ABGE, alone and in association with multivitamins, exhibited protective effects on mouse heart. Moreover, the Formulation increased intracellular H2S formation, further suggesting its potential use on cardiovascular disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Components in Health Promotion and Disease Prevention)
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Article
Utilising Spent Tea Leaves Powder as Functional Ingredient to Enhance the Quality of Non-Gluten Shortbread Cookies
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1557; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071557 - 06 Apr 2023
Viewed by 873
Abstract
The increasing prevalence of gluten-related disorders has led to higher consumer demand for convenient, gluten-free bakery products with health-promoting properties. In this study, non-gluten shortbread cookies were incorporated with various kinds of spent (green, oolong, and black) tea leaves powder (STLP) at 8% [...] Read more.
The increasing prevalence of gluten-related disorders has led to higher consumer demand for convenient, gluten-free bakery products with health-promoting properties. In this study, non-gluten shortbread cookies were incorporated with various kinds of spent (green, oolong, and black) tea leaves powder (STLP) at 8% w/w. Cookies with STLP had significantly higher (p < 0.05) moisture (2.18–2.35%), crude fibre (14.5–14.9%), total dietary fibre (22.38–22.59%), insoluble dietary fibre (15.32–15.83%), soluble dietary fibre (7.06–7.66%), and ash (1.9–2.0%) contents, but were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in carbohydrate (53.2–53.9%) and energy value (426.4–428.2 kcal) compared to control cookies (1.62%; 1.43%; 6.82%; 4.15%; 2.67%; 7.70%; 62.2%; and 457.8 kcal, respectively). The addition of STLP significantly enhanced (p < 0.05) the antioxidant properties of the cookies. Non-gluten shortbread cookies with spent green tea leaves powder (GTC) received the highest (p < 0.05) score for all sensory attributes, including overall acceptability. In addition, the shelf-life quality of the formulated cookie samples in terms of the moisture content, water activity, colour, texture, microbiology, and sensory properties was maintained (p > 0.05) for at least 22 days at 25 °C. STLP, which would have been previously thrown away, could be utilized as a potential functional ingredient to produce non-gluten shortbread cookies with enhanced nutritional, physicochemical, microbiological, sensory, and antioxidative properties. Full article
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Article
Pickering Emulsion Stabilized by Fish Myofibrillar Proteins Modified with Tannic Acid, as Influenced by Different Drying Methods
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1556; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071556 - 06 Apr 2023
Viewed by 980
Abstract
A novel food-grade, particles-based Pickering emulsion (PE) was prepared from a marine source. Yellow stripe trevally is an under-utilized species. The use of its muscle protein as solid food-grade particles for the preparation of a Pickering emulsion can be a potential means of [...] Read more.
A novel food-grade, particles-based Pickering emulsion (PE) was prepared from a marine source. Yellow stripe trevally is an under-utilized species. The use of its muscle protein as solid food-grade particles for the preparation of a Pickering emulsion can be a potential means of obtaining the natural nutritive emulsifier/stabilizer. Fish myofibrillar proteins (FMP) were modified with tannic acid (TA) at varying concentrations (0.125, 0.25, and 0.5%) followed by freeze-drying (FD) or spray-drying (SD). Physicochemical characteristics and emulsifying properties of obtained FMP-TA complexed particles were assessed for structural changes and oil-in-water emulsion stabilization. The addition of TA caused a reduction in surface hydrophobicity and total sulfhydryl content values for either FD-FMP or SD-FMP. Conversely, disulfide bond content was significantly increased, particularly when TA at 0.5% was used (p < 0.05). FTIR, spectrofluorometer, and the protein pattern also confirmed the cross-linking between FMP and TA. SD-FMP modified with 0.5% TA (SD-FMP-0.5TA) rendered the highest emulsifying stability index but had a lowered emulsifying activity index (p < 0.05). Confocal microscopic images, droplet size, and rheological properties revealed that a SD-FMP-0.5TA-stabilized emulsion had higher stability after 45 days of storage than an FD-FMP-0.5TA-stabilized emulsion. Therefore, the SD-FMP-0.5TA complex could be used as a potential food-grade stabilizer/emulsifier for PE with enhanced emulsifying properties. Full article
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Article
Purification and Characterization of the Enzyme Fucoidanase from Cobetia amphilecti Utilizing Fucoidan from Undaria pinnatifida
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1555; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071555 - 06 Apr 2023
Viewed by 659
Abstract
Fucoidanase is an unstable enzyme with high specificity that requires a large about of time to screen it from microorganisms. In this study, enzymatic hydrolysis was used to produce low-molecular-weight fucoidan from microorganisms via the degradation of high-molecular-weight fucoidan without damage to the [...] Read more.
Fucoidanase is an unstable enzyme with high specificity that requires a large about of time to screen it from microorganisms. In this study, enzymatic hydrolysis was used to produce low-molecular-weight fucoidan from microorganisms via the degradation of high-molecular-weight fucoidan without damage to the sulfate esterification structure of oligosaccharide. The microbial strain HN-25 was isolated from sea mud and was made to undergo mutagenicity under ultraviolet light. Fucoidanase was extracted via ultrasonication and its enzymatic activity was improved via optimization of the ultrasonic conditions. The enzymatic properties and degradation efficiency of fucoidanase were characterized. The microbial strain HN-25 is a Gram-negative aerobic and rod-shaped-cell bacterium, and therefore was identified as Cobetia amphilecti via 16s rDNA. The results proved that fucoidanase is a hydrolytic enzyme with a molecular weight of 35 kDa and with high activity and stability at 30 °C and pH 8.0. The activity of fucoidanase was significantly enhanced by sodium and calcium ions and inhibited by a copper ion and ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA). There was a significant decrease in the molecular weight of fucoidan after enzymatic hydrolysis. The low-molecular-weight fuicodan was divided into four fractions, mainly concentrated at F3 (20~10 kDa) and F4 (≤6 kDa). These consequences suggest that fucoidanase obtained from Cobetia amphilecti is stable and efficient and could be a good tool in the production of bioactive compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Bioactive Compounds Derived from Marine Origin Foods)
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Article
Molecular Docking Revealed the Potential Anti-Oxidative Stress Mechanism of the Walnut Polypeptide on HT22 Cells
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1554; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071554 - 06 Apr 2023
Viewed by 579
Abstract
The preparation of novel antioxidant peptides from food raw materials is one of the research focuses, but there are fewer studies on the preparation of antioxidant peptides from walnut meal, a by-product of processing walnuts. This study analyzed the antioxidant properties and protective [...] Read more.
The preparation of novel antioxidant peptides from food raw materials is one of the research focuses, but there are fewer studies on the preparation of antioxidant peptides from walnut meal, a by-product of processing walnuts. This study analyzed the antioxidant properties and protective effects of walnut protein hydrolyzed by alkaline protease and trypsin on the oxidative stress of HT22 cells. The peptides were identified by UPLC-MS/MS, and the anti-oxidative peptides were screened based on virtual computer tools. The potential anti-oxidative stress mechanism of the walnut polypeptide on HT22 cells was explored by molecular docking. The results revealed that walnut protein hydrolysates (WPH) with molecular weights of less than 1 kDa had good antioxidant properties and inhibited oxidative damage of HT22 cells by regulating the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Six of the ninety identified new peptides showed good solubility, non-toxicity, and bioactivity. The molecular docking results showed that the six peptides could dock with Keap1 successfully, and EYWNR and FQLPR (single-letter forms of peptide writing) could interact with the binding site of Nrf2 in the Keap1-Kelch structural domain through hydrogen bonds with strong binding forces. The results of this study provided important information on the antioxidant molecular mechanism of the walnut polypeptide and provided a basis for further development of walnut antioxidant polypeptide products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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Article
Consumer Attitude towards Genetically Modified Foods in Iran: Application of Three-Dimensional Model of Corporate Social Responsibility
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1553; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071553 - 06 Apr 2023
Viewed by 755
Abstract
Although GM food production is considered an important strategy to meet the growing food needs of the population around the world, a majority of the GM food consumers express doubts about purchasing and eating them. However, it can be argued that consumers have [...] Read more.
Although GM food production is considered an important strategy to meet the growing food needs of the population around the world, a majority of the GM food consumers express doubts about purchasing and eating them. However, it can be argued that consumers have different opinions about GM foods and their influence on human health and the natural environment. GM food producer Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) may significantly affect such opinions, but the effect of this variable has been partially neglected in previous research studies. To address this gap, the present study investigates Iranian consumers’ concerns about GM foods, trust in these products, and perception of GM food producer CSR as determinants of attitudes towards GM food. Data were collected from Iranian consumers. A cross-sectional survey research with a multi-stage random sampling approach was employed to capture the responses of 372 Iranian consumers. The results showed that consumers have both negative and positive attitudes towards GM foods. Perceived social equity, trust, and health concerns were the most important determinants of attitude towards GM foods. According to the results, these variables could account for 52.9% (Cox and Snell R2) and up to 70.6% (Nagelkerke R2) of the variance of the dependent variable. Furthermore, results revealed statistically significant differences among the consumers with different educational levels in terms of perceived social equity, perceived environmental responsibility, and environmental concern. The research contributes to the body of knowledge in GM food consumption by evolving the CSR to assess attitudes of users concerning GM foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Security and Sustainability)
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Article
Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) Scales Collagen Peptides (SCPs): Preparation, Whitening Activity Screening and Characterization
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1552; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071552 - 06 Apr 2023
Viewed by 624
Abstract
This study involves the preparation of scale collagen peptides (SCPs) with whitening activity from silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and their characterization and peptide sequence identification. In this article, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe structure changes of sliver carp [...] Read more.
This study involves the preparation of scale collagen peptides (SCPs) with whitening activity from silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and their characterization and peptide sequence identification. In this article, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe structure changes of sliver carp scales; enzymatic hydrolysis was optimized through protease screening and response surface optimization. The ultrafiltration was used to separate SCPs and the whitening activity was comprehensively evaluated using radical scavenging rate and tyrosinase-inhibiting activity, among others. An optimal component was characterized and identified using various modern spectral analysis techniques. The results showed that the surface of silver carp scales after decalcification was smooth and clear. The pepsin had the highest peptide yield and tyrosinase-inhibiting activity (90.01% and 82.25%, respectively). The optimal enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were an enzyme dosage of 16.1%, a solid–liquid ratio of 1:15.6 and a time of 4.9 h. The proportions of hydrophobic and basic amino acids in the peptide composition were 32.15% and 13.12%, respectively. Compared with SCPs2, SCPs1 (6096.68–9513.70 Da) showed better ·OH scavenging ability, tyrosinase-inhibiting activity and moisture absorption. SCPs1 was a macromolecular fragment of type I collagen with a triple helix structure, containing three peptide sequences with the potential for tyrosinase activity inhibition (AGPPGADGQTGQRGE, SGPAGIAGPAGPRGPAGPNGPPGKD and KRGSTGEQGSTGPLGMRGPRGAA). These results show that SCPs1 is a collagen peptide product with whitening potential. Full article
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Article
Dynamic Changes in Non-Volatile Components during Steamed Green Tea Manufacturing Based on Widely Targeted Metabolomic Analysis
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1551; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071551 - 06 Apr 2023
Viewed by 665
Abstract
Steamed green tea has unique characteristics that differ from other green teas. However, the alteration patterns of non-volatile metabolites during steamed green tea processing are not fully understood. In this study, a widely targeted metabolomic method was employed to explore the changes in [...] Read more.
Steamed green tea has unique characteristics that differ from other green teas. However, the alteration patterns of non-volatile metabolites during steamed green tea processing are not fully understood. In this study, a widely targeted metabolomic method was employed to explore the changes in non-volatile metabolites during steamed green tea processing. A total of 735 non-volatile compounds were identified, covering 14 subclasses. Of these, 256 compounds showed significant changes in at least one processing step. Most amino acids, main catechins, caffeine, and main sugars were excluded from the analysis. The most significant alterations were observed during steaming, followed by shaping and drying. Steaming resulted in significant increases in the levels of most amino acids and their peptides, most phenolic acids, most organic acids, and most nucleotides and their derivates, as well as some flavonoids. Steaming also resulted in significant decreases in the levels of most lipids and some flavonoids. Shaping and drying caused significant increases in the levels of some flavonoids, phenolic acids, and lipids, and significant decreases in the levels of some amino acids and their peptides, some flavonoids, and some other compounds. Our study provides a comprehensive characterization of the dynamic alterations in non-volatile metabolites during steamed green tea manufacturing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tea Processing and Functional Chemistry)
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Article
Structural Evolution of Global Soybean Trade Network and the Implications to China
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1550; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071550 - 06 Apr 2023
Viewed by 643
Abstract
China experiences a serious shortage of soybean supplies and relies heavily on international trade with high vulnerability and large uncertainty, which maybe sows food security risks. It is of great significance to analyze the structural evolution of the global soybean trade network and [...] Read more.
China experiences a serious shortage of soybean supplies and relies heavily on international trade with high vulnerability and large uncertainty, which maybe sows food security risks. It is of great significance to analyze the structural evolution of the global soybean trade network and its implications to China for ensuring food security. This paper constructed a global soybean trade network (GSTN) and analyzed the structural evolutionary characteristics of GSTN from 2000 to 2020 using the complex network analysis method and simulated the impact of targeted destruction on China through scenario analysis. The results showed that GSTN was gradually complex exhibiting a small word and a scale-free network property. The global soybean exporter was dominated by some major soybean-producing countries in America. The US played an important role in maintaining GSTN’s robustness. China was the world’s largest soybean importer; unfortunately, its soybean imports relied heavily on a few countries, and the anti-interference ability of China’s soybean trade tended to decline. Therefore, China’s soybean trade was increasingly vulnerable to being tightly controlled by other countries when some uncertain factors occurred, such as trade frictions and changes in policy decisions from importing and exporting countries. The US and Brazil were key countries with significant soybean trade ties to China. To assess the impact of the two countries on China’s soybean trade, targeted destruction method was used through destroying them in the network. Targeted destruction scenario analysis indicated the two countries played important roles in the anti-interference ability of China’s soybean trade. Brazil played a positive role in China’s control of soybean trade flows, while the US did not. Some policies for China’s soybean production and international trade were proposed. A balance between the domestic production and import of soybean is needed. Optimizing the soybean trade import system and seeking more trade partners is crucial. Improving soybean self-sufficiency is the fundamental way to reduce the high-import dependence. The study provided some insights for coping with international market fluctuations and improving the sustainability of China’s soybean trade. Full article
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Article
From Waste to Taste: Application of Fermented Spent Rootlet Ingredients in a Bread System
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1549; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071549 - 06 Apr 2023
Viewed by 613
Abstract
The process of upcycling and incorporating food by-products into food systems as functional ingredients has become a central focus of research. Barley rootlets (BR) are a by-product of the malting and brewing industries that can be valorised using lactic acid bacteria fermentation. This [...] Read more.
The process of upcycling and incorporating food by-products into food systems as functional ingredients has become a central focus of research. Barley rootlets (BR) are a by-product of the malting and brewing industries that can be valorised using lactic acid bacteria fermentation. This research investigates the effects of the inclusion of unfermented (BR-UnF), heat-sterilised (BR-Ster), and five fermented BR ingredients (using Weissella cibaria MG1 (BR-MG1), Leuconostoc citreum TR116 (BR-TR116), Lactiplantibacillus plantarum FST1.7 (BR-FST1.7), Lactobacillus amylovorus FST2.11 (BR-FST2.11), and Limosilactobacillus reuteri R29 (BR-R29) in bread. The antifungal compounds in BR ingredients and the impact of BR on dough rheology, gluten development, and dough mixing properties were analysed. Additionally, their effects on the techno-functional characteristics, in vitro starch digestibility, and sensory quality of bread were determined. BR-UnF showed dough viscoelastic properties and bread quality comparable to the baker’s flour (BF). BR-MG1 inclusion ameliorated bread specific volume and reduced crumb hardness. Breads containing BR-TR116 had comparable bread quality to BF, while the inclusion of BR-R29 substantially slowed microbial spoilage. Formulations containing BR-FST2.11 and BR-FST1.7 significantly reduced the amounts of sugar released from breads during a simulated digestion and resulted in a sourdough-like flavour profile. This study highlights how BR fermentation can be tailored to achieve desired bread characteristics. Full article
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Article
High Genetic Diversity and Virulence Potential in Bacillus cereus sensu lato Isolated from Milk and Cheeses in Apulia Region, Southern Italy
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1548; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071548 - 06 Apr 2023
Viewed by 706
Abstract
The Bacillus cereus group includes species that act as food-borne pathogens causing diarrheal and emetic symptoms. They are widely distributed and can be found in various foods. In this study, out of 550 samples of milk and cheeses, 139 (25.3%) were found to [...] Read more.
The Bacillus cereus group includes species that act as food-borne pathogens causing diarrheal and emetic symptoms. They are widely distributed and can be found in various foods. In this study, out of 550 samples of milk and cheeses, 139 (25.3%) were found to be contaminated by B. cereus sensu lato (s.l.). One isolate per positive sample was characterized by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) and for the presence of ten virulence genes. Based on MLST, all isolates were classified into 73 different sequence types (STs), of which 12 isolates were assigned to new STs. Virulence genes detection revealed that 90% and 61% of the isolates harboured the nheABC and the hblCDA gene cluster, respectively. Ninety-four percent of the isolates harboured the enterotoxin genes entS and entFM; 8% of the isolates possessed the ces gene. Thirty-eight different genetic profiles were identified, suggesting a high genetic diversity. Our study clearly shows the widespread diffusion of potentially toxigenic isolates of B. cereus s.l. in milk and cheeses in the Apulia region highlighting the need to adopt GMP and HACCP procedures along every step of the milk and cheese production chain in order to reduce the public health risk linked to the consumption of foods contaminated by B. cereus s.l. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Article
The Effect of Erythritol on the Physicochemical Properties of Reformulated, High-Protein, and Sugar-Free Macarons Produced from Whey Protein Isolate Intended for Diabetics, Athletes, and Physically Active People
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1547; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071547 - 06 Apr 2023
Viewed by 689
Abstract
This study reports the possibility of obtaining sugar-free WPI-based macarons with erythritol addition. The whey protein isolate (WPI) solution (20%, w/v) was whipped, and erythritol was added to the foam at concentrations of 20, 40, and 60 g, with 125 [...] Read more.
This study reports the possibility of obtaining sugar-free WPI-based macarons with erythritol addition. The whey protein isolate (WPI) solution (20%, w/v) was whipped, and erythritol was added to the foam at concentrations of 20, 40, and 60 g, with 125 g of almond flour. The rheological properties (τ, G′, G″, and tan (δ)) and stability of the macaron batters before baking were evaluated. In order to produce the macarons, the batters were solidified at 147 °C for 12 min. The textural and surface properties (roughness and color), as well as the microstructures and water activities, were determined for the macarons. It was feasible to produce macarons over the entire range of the tested erythritol content. Even the smallest amount of erythritol (20 g) facilitated the preservation of the macaron structure. The medium erythritol concentration (40 g) improved the stability of the batters and their rheology and was the most effective for air pocket stabilization during baking; however, its largest addition (60 g) resulted in an increase in the final macaron volume. The increased erythritol addition improved mechanical properties and shelf life, producing a smoothing effect on the macaron surfaces and having a significant effect on their color co-ordinates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy)
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Article
Comparing the Volatile and Soluble Profiles of Fermented and Integrated Chinese Bayberry Wine with HS-SPME GC–MS and UHPLC Q-TOF
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1546; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071546 - 06 Apr 2023
Viewed by 733
Abstract
To evaluate the flavor characteristics of Chinese bayberry alcoholic beverages, fermented bayberry wine (FBW) and integrated bayberry wine (IBW) were investigated for their volatile and soluble profiles using HS-SPME GC–MS and UHPLC Q-TOF and were analyzed with multidimensional statistical analysis, including PCA and [...] Read more.
To evaluate the flavor characteristics of Chinese bayberry alcoholic beverages, fermented bayberry wine (FBW) and integrated bayberry wine (IBW) were investigated for their volatile and soluble profiles using HS-SPME GC–MS and UHPLC Q-TOF and were analyzed with multidimensional statistical analysis, including PCA and OPLS-DA. The volatile compounds 1-pentanol, β-caryophyllene and isopentanol were only detected in IBW. β-caryophyllene, the key flavor component of bayberry, was found to be the most abundant volatile compound in IBW (25.89%) and was 3.73 times more abundant in IBW than in FBW. The levels of ethyl octanoate, ethyl nonanoate, and ethyl decanoate were also several times higher in IBW than in FBW. These compounds contributed to the strong bayberry aroma and better fruity flavor of IBW. On the other hand, high levels of ethyl acetate and octanoic acid in FBW, representing pineapple/overripe or sweat odor, were key contributors to the fermented flavor of FBW. Soluble sugars, such as sucrose, D-glucose, and D-tagatose, as well as amino acids, such as L-glutamate and L-aspartate, had much higher levels in IBW. The anthocyanin pigment cyanidin 3-glucoside, which generates red color, was also higher in IBW. On the other hand, most of the differentially expressed alcohols, acids, amino acids, purines/pyrimidines and esters were present in higher concentrations in FBW compared to IBW. This demonstrated that IBW has a much sweeter and more savory taste as well as a better color generated by more anthocyanins, while FBW presents a more acidic and drier taste as well as a complex formation of alcohols and esters. The study also prompts the need for further research on the flavor profiles of IBW and its potential application and market value. Full article
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Article
Effect of Black Garlic on Microbiological Properties, Lipid Oxidation, Residual Nitrite, Nitrosamine Formation and Sensory Characteristics in a Semi-Dry Fermented Sausage
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1545; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071545 - 06 Apr 2023
Viewed by 635
Abstract
This study was conducted with the aim of determining the effects of different black garlic (BG) levels (1%, 2% and 3%) on quality characteristics of a semi-dry fermented sausage (heat-treated sucuk). In addition, the effect of cooking time (0, 1 or 3 min [...] Read more.
This study was conducted with the aim of determining the effects of different black garlic (BG) levels (1%, 2% and 3%) on quality characteristics of a semi-dry fermented sausage (heat-treated sucuk). In addition, the effect of cooking time (0, 1 or 3 min at 180 °C on a hot plate) on nitrosamine formation was investigated. Fresh garlic (FG, 1%) was evaluated as the control group. BG (2% and 3%) caused a reduction in the count of lactic acid bacteria while leading to an increase in pH. FG1% gave the highest number of Micrococcus/Staphylococcus, as well as aw value. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) value increased with increasing BG levels. FG (1%) showed the highest residual nitrite amount (p < 0.05). The scores for color, taste and general acceptability were reduced by the use of BG (p < 0.05). No significant difference was observed between the garlic treatments in terms of N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-Nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) when no additional cooking was applied. Cooking time was determined to have no significant effect on NDMA in 3% BG. The use of BG caused an increase in N-Nitrosopiperidine (NPIP) (p < 0.05). As for PCA, a closer correlation between NPIP and the groups containing BG was observed, while there was a strong correlation between NDMA and the FG group cooked for 3 min. The use of BG caused an increase in NPIP, but affected NDMA and NDEA depending on the cooking time. Full article
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Review
Plant-Based Milk Alternatives in Child Nutrition
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1544; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071544 - 06 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1790
Abstract
Plant-based milk alternatives can be distinguished in two main categories, differing in production processes and regulation: plant-based formulas and plant-based drinks. They are now a widely accepted class of products on the international market. The various plant-based milk alternatives differ in nutritional characteristics [...] Read more.
Plant-based milk alternatives can be distinguished in two main categories, differing in production processes and regulation: plant-based formulas and plant-based drinks. They are now a widely accepted class of products on the international market. The various plant-based milk alternatives differ in nutritional characteristics due to their origin and manufacturing; more importantly, whereas formulas from plant and cow origin can be used interchangeably, plant-based drinks are nutritionally different from cow’s milk and can be consumed by children subsequently to the use of formula. Several scientific organizations have expressed differing opinions on the use of these products in the diets of children. In the face of unanimous conclusions regarding the use of these products during the first year of life, in subsequent ages there were conflicting opinions regarding the timing, quantities, and type of product to be used. From the viewpoint of the child’s overall diet and health, it could be suggested that these foods be considered not as simple substitutes for cow’s milk, but as part of a varied diet, within individual advice of use. We suggest accepting the presence of these products in a baby’s diet (omnivores included), planning their use correctly in the context of a balanced diet, according to the specific product and the needs of the individual. Full article
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Review
Extraction, Composition, Functionality, and Utilization of Brewer’s Spent Grain Protein in Food Formulations
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1543; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071543 - 05 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1712
Abstract
In recent years, brewer’s spent grain (BSG) has gained attention as a plant-based protein source because it occurs in large quantities as a by-product of beer brewing. BSG can contribute to future food requirements and support the development of a circular economy. In [...] Read more.
In recent years, brewer’s spent grain (BSG) has gained attention as a plant-based protein source because it occurs in large quantities as a by-product of beer brewing. BSG can contribute to future food requirements and support the development of a circular economy. In light of the dynamic developments in this area, this review aims to understand the proteins present in BSG, and the effect of extraction techniques and conditions on the composition, physicochemical, and techno-functional properties of the obtained protein extracts. The water-insoluble hordeins and glutelins form the major protein fractions in BSG. Depending on the beer brewing process, the extraction technique, and conditions, the BSG protein isolates predominantly contain B, C, and ϒ hordeins, and exhibit a broad molecular weight distribution ranging between <5 kDa and >250 kDa. While the BSG isolates obtained through chemical extraction methods seem promising to obtain gelled food products, physical and enzymatic modifications of BSG proteins through ultrasound and proteolytic hydrolysis offer an effective way to produce soluble and functional protein isolates with good emulsifying and foaming capabilities. Specifically tailored protein extracts to suit different applications can thus be obtained from BSG, highlighting that it is a highly valuable protein source. Full article
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Article
Effects of Germination, Fermentation and Extrusion on the Nutritional, Cooking and Sensory Properties of Brown Rice Products: A Comparative Study
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1542; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071542 - 05 Apr 2023
Viewed by 625
Abstract
In this study, cooked brown rice (BR), germinated brown rice (GBR), fermented brown rice (FBR) and white rice (WR) were prepared by traditional cooking techniques, and extruded brown rice (EBR) was obtained by extrusion processing technology. The nutritional, cooking and sensory properties of [...] Read more.
In this study, cooked brown rice (BR), germinated brown rice (GBR), fermented brown rice (FBR) and white rice (WR) were prepared by traditional cooking techniques, and extruded brown rice (EBR) was obtained by extrusion processing technology. The nutritional, cooking and sensory properties of different BR products were investigated. The results indicated that the soluble dietary fiber (SDF) content, free total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant capacity (DPPH, ABTS, T-AOC) in processed BR products were significantly higher than those in cooked BR and WR. The values of SDF, free TPC, TFC and T-AOC in EBR increased by 38.78%, 232.36%, 102.01% and 153.92%, respectively, compared with cooked BR. Cooked FBR and EBR had more nutrients, required less cooking time, had a softer texture and were whiter than cooked GBR and BR, especially EBR. In addition, the water absorption rate of EBR was 14.29% and 25.41% higher than that of cooked FBR and GBR. The hardness of EBR was significantly lower than that of cooked FBR and BR, even lower than that of cooked WR. However, there was no significant difference between the hardness of cooked GBR and that of cooked BR. The flavor compounds in EBR were similar to that of cooked WR, while those in cooked GBR and FBR did not differ greatly compared to cooked BR. Collectively, cooked FBR and EBR had better nutritional value, cooking and sensory properties than cooked BR, and the comprehensive value of EBR was higher. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Plant to Plate: New Trend in Nutritious and Healthy Food)
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Review
Protective Cultures in Food Products: From Science to Market
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1541; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071541 - 05 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1243
Abstract
An ultimate goal in food production is to guarantee food safety and security. Fermented food products benefit from the intrinsic capabilities of the applied starter cultures as they produce organic acids and bactericidal compounds such as hydrogen peroxide that hamper most food pathogens. [...] Read more.
An ultimate goal in food production is to guarantee food safety and security. Fermented food products benefit from the intrinsic capabilities of the applied starter cultures as they produce organic acids and bactericidal compounds such as hydrogen peroxide that hamper most food pathogens. In addition, highly potent small peptides, bacteriocins, are being expelled to exert antibiotic effects. Based on ongoing scientific efforts, there is a growing market of food products to which protective cultures are added exclusively for food safety and for prolonged shelf life. In this regard, most genera from the order Lactobacillales play a prominent role. Here, we give an overview on protective cultures in food products. We summarize the mode of actions of antibacterial mechanisms. We display the strategies for the isolation and characterization of protective cultures in order to have them market-ready. A survey of the growing market reveals promising perspectives. Finally, a comprehensive chapter discusses the current legislation issues concerning protective cultures, leading to the conclusion that the application of protective cultures is superior to the usage of defined bacteriocins regarding simplicity, economic costs, and thus usage in less-developed countries. We believe that further discovery of bacteria to be implemented in food preservation will significantly contribute to customer’s food safety and food security, badly needed to feed world’s growing population but also for food waste reduction in order to save substantial amounts of greenhouse gas emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance and Future Challenges to Microbial Food Safety)
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Article
Improved Food-Processing Techniques to Reduce Isoflavones in Soy-Based Foodstuffs
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1540; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071540 - 05 Apr 2023
Viewed by 557
Abstract
Soy is a growing protein source; however, the isoflavones it contains are of concern, as they exhibit estrogenic activities whose toxicological limits might be exceeded. Reducing their concentrations to safe levels while preserving nutritional quality in soy foodstuffs is therefore a matter of [...] Read more.
Soy is a growing protein source; however, the isoflavones it contains are of concern, as they exhibit estrogenic activities whose toxicological limits might be exceeded. Reducing their concentrations to safe levels while preserving nutritional quality in soy foodstuffs is therefore a matter of public health. The main objective of this paper is to develop at pilot scale a process for isoflavones’ extraction from soybeans, and to show its feasibility and efficiency. The study was conducted by first optimizing the previously obtained laboratory treatment key factors. These data were then transposed to the pilot level. Finally, the process was adjusted to technical constraints which appeared at pilot scale: the mandatory use of drenching and the exploration of granulometry analysis. The involved steps were validated by monitoring the genistein and daidzein content variations through statistical analysis of the data of an ELISA and a Folin–Ciocalteu assay. Additionally, isoflavones’ recovery from treatment waters for their valorisation and the water cleaning by means of filtration, centrifugation and resin adsorption were carried out. The results showed that the most successful pilot treatment developed involved soybean dehulling, drenching, washing and drying and almost halved isoflavones while preserving the main nutritional characteristics. A combination of techniques led to almost complete recovery of isoflavones from process waters. Full article
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Review
The Possibility of Using Sulphur Shelf Fungus (Laetiporus sulphureus) in the Food Industry and in Medicine—A Review
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1539; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071539 - 05 Apr 2023
Viewed by 905
Abstract
Sulphur shelf fungus (Laetiporus sulphureus) has so far been largely underestimated as a potential raw material for the food industry. Many studies have demonstrated that the extracts obtained from this mushroom and some of their components have positive effects on human [...] Read more.
Sulphur shelf fungus (Laetiporus sulphureus) has so far been largely underestimated as a potential raw material for the food industry. Many studies have demonstrated that the extracts obtained from this mushroom and some of their components have positive effects on human health. They have antioxidant, antibacterial, and anticancer properties and regulate human metabolism and digestive processes. Water extracts also have this effect. In addition, the substances contained in this mushroom have the ability to preserve food by inhibiting the growth of undesirable microorganisms. These properties have led to the situation that in some countries, shelf sulphur fungus is legally recognized as a raw material that meets the requirements of the food and processing industries. This paper is a review of the latest information (mainly for the period 2016–2023) on the chemical composition and the possibility of using L. sulphureus in the food industry and in medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables Volume II)
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Article
How to Effectively Reduce Honey Adulteration in China: An Analysis Based on Evolutionary Game Theory
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1538; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071538 - 05 Apr 2023
Viewed by 558
Abstract
Apiculture has been greatly developed in recent years in China. Beekeeping cooperatives and honey manufacturing enterprises have increased rapidly. As a result, a variety of honey products have entered the market, adding vitality to the food economy; however, the adulteration of honey products [...] Read more.
Apiculture has been greatly developed in recent years in China. Beekeeping cooperatives and honey manufacturing enterprises have increased rapidly. As a result, a variety of honey products have entered the market, adding vitality to the food economy; however, the adulteration of honey products is on the rise in China. Previous attempts to control the adulteration of honey products mostly relied on technical, product-specific measures, and there was a lack of modeling research to guide the supervision of the honey product industry. In order to help local governments to better control the adulteration of honey products from a management perspective, this paper establishes an evolutionary game model composed of beekeeping cooperatives, honey product enterprises, and local governments. Through stability analysis and model simulation, we found that local government subsidies to cooperatives have little impact on the game system. Local government penalties to cooperatives and price adjustments of unadulterated raw honey by cooperatives are effective management tools to reduce the adulteration behavior of cooperatives. Local government penalties for enterprises are an effective management tool to reduce the adulteration behavior of enterprises. This research provides useful information for government agencies to design appropriate policies/business modes so as to promote sustainability and the healthy development of the honey product industry in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Security and Sustainability)
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Article
Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolics Profile of Portuguese Traditional Cultivars of Apples and Pears and Their By-Products: On the Way to Newer Applications
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1537; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071537 - 05 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 808
Abstract
Pears (Pyrus communis L.) and apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) are two of the most popular fruits worldwide. The phenolic compounds they offer are associated with human health benefits due to their antioxidant properties. Since these fruits’ by-products are not yet fully [...] Read more.
Pears (Pyrus communis L.) and apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) are two of the most popular fruits worldwide. The phenolic compounds they offer are associated with human health benefits due to their antioxidant properties. Since these fruits’ by-products are not yet fully exploited, it is important to characterize them, especially in terms of their antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant properties of old traditional cultivars, six regional pear cultivars and five regional apple cultivars grown in the Alcobaça region (Portugal). Antioxidant capacity assays were used to evaluate the antioxidant properties. Generally, the antioxidant capacity, total phenolics content (TPC), and total flavonoids content (TFC) of fruit byproducts (both seeds and peels) were higher than the corresponding mesocarp, indicating their potential as sources of beneficial antioxidant compounds. Moreover, a UHPLC-ToF-MS method was optimized and validated in order to quantify 21 distinct phenolics in these fruit samples. The analytical method’s suitability for quantifying phenolic compounds was demonstrated by an evaluation of linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, precision and accuracy. This method was used to determine the phenolic composition of samples of regional (local) cultivars. The phenolics in the fruit samples with the highest concentrations were phlorizin and chlorogenic acid. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to separate distinct fruit species while emphasizing their similarities and differences. Full article
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Article
Consumers’ Acceptance, Emotions, and Responsiveness to Informational Cues for Air-Fried Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) Skin Chips
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1536; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071536 - 05 Apr 2023
Viewed by 799
Abstract
Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) skins, as filleting byproduct, were developed into a crispy snack food via air-frying. Consumers rated catfish skin chips (CSC) across sensory modalities (9-point hedonic scales, a just-about-right scale, and “yes/no” for purchase intent, PI) for Plain-, Lemon & [...] Read more.
Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) skins, as filleting byproduct, were developed into a crispy snack food via air-frying. Consumers rated catfish skin chips (CSC) across sensory modalities (9-point hedonic scales, a just-about-right scale, and “yes/no” for purchase intent, PI) for Plain-, Lemon & Pepper-, and Barbecue-flavored samples during two consumer studies (N = 115 each). Paprika- flavored CSC were excluded from Study 2 due to inferior acceptance and emotional ratings. CSC-elicited emotions were evaluated using a 25-term lexicon with CATA (Check-All-That-Apply) scaling (Study 1) and refined with an abbreviated lexicon containing food-evoked sensation-seeking emotions (5-point intensity scale). The two consumer studies differed in delivery format of product benefit information (a health/protein message and a food waste/sustainability message). Presenting two separate cues (Study 1) significantly increased overall liking (by 0.5 units) and PI (by 15%) for CSC compared to a single integrated message (Study 2), perhaps due to consumers’ mode of information processing. Magnitude of increases was less for Barbeque CSC despite performing best overall (overall liking reaching 6.62 and PI reaching 61.7%). CSC generated mostly positive emotions, and informational cues increased sensation-seeking feelings, which can motivate trial of new foods. Accordingly, acceptance of CSC improved for 25 repeat-exposure consumers who participated in both Studies 1 and 2. In combination, sensory, cognitive, and emotional data showed favorable responses for flavored CSC as an appropriate application of this seafood byproduct. Full article
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Article
Effects of Message Framing and Information Source on Consumers’ Attitudes toward an Amino Acid-Based Alternative Meat Curing System
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1535; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071535 - 05 Apr 2023
Viewed by 814
Abstract
Recently, meat scientists have developed an innovative amino acid-based alternative meat curing system (AAACS). However, consumer skepticism toward novel foods presents challenges regarding the acceptance of food innovations like the AAACS. Effective communication about this and other food technologies is critical. Our study [...] Read more.
Recently, meat scientists have developed an innovative amino acid-based alternative meat curing system (AAACS). However, consumer skepticism toward novel foods presents challenges regarding the acceptance of food innovations like the AAACS. Effective communication about this and other food technologies is critical. Our study was a 2 × 4 randomized factorial between-groups experiment that investigated how two peripheral cues—message frame and information source—impact attitudes toward the AAACS. We used Qualtrics to randomly assign participants to one of eight treatment groups. Each group viewed a different video about the AAACS. Then, all participants were asked about their attitudes toward the alternative meat curing system. Data were analyzed using a two-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The two-way MANOVA determined concurrently the experimental effects of message frame and information source on information recall, trust, source expertise, source credibility, and anticipated consumption behavior. A significant MANOVA was followed up using Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA). A significant main effect was found for information source. The DFA revealed only one significant underlying function and that source expertise was the most powerful discriminating variable for information source. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Meat)
Article
NH2-MIL-125(Ti)/Reduced Graphene Oxide Enhanced Electrochemical Detection of Fenitrothion in Agricultural Products
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1534; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071534 - 04 Apr 2023
Viewed by 671
Abstract
The abuse of organophosphate pesticides causes serious threats to human health, which threatens approximately 3 million people and leads to more than 2000 deaths each year. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the residue of fenitrothion (FT) in environmental and food samples. Herein, [...] Read more.
The abuse of organophosphate pesticides causes serious threats to human health, which threatens approximately 3 million people and leads to more than 2000 deaths each year. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the residue of fenitrothion (FT) in environmental and food samples. Herein, we developed a non-enzymatic electrochemical sensor with differential pulse voltammetry signal output to determine FT in model solutions and spiked samples. Delicately, the sensor was designed based on the fabrication of hydrothermally synthesized titanium-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) material (NH2-MIL-125(Ti))/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) (NH2-MIL-125(Ti)/RGO) nanocomposites for better target enrichment and electron transfer. The peak response of differential pulse voltammetry for FT under optimized conditions was linear in the range of 0.072–18 μM with the logarithm of concentrations, and the detection limit was 0.0338 μM. The fabricated sensor also demonstrated high stability and reproducibility. Moreover, it exhibited excellent sensing performances for FT in spiked agricultural products. The convenient fabrication method of NH2-MIL-125(Ti)/RGO opens up a new approach for the rational design of non-enzymatic detection methods for pesticides. Full article
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Review
Spent Grain: A Functional Ingredient for Food Applications
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1533; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071533 - 04 Apr 2023
Viewed by 931
Abstract
Spent grain is the solid fraction remaining after wort removal. It is nutritionally rich, composed of fibers—mainly hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin—proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals, and must be managed properly. Spent grain is a by-product with high moisture, high protein and high fiber [...] Read more.
Spent grain is the solid fraction remaining after wort removal. It is nutritionally rich, composed of fibers—mainly hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin—proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals, and must be managed properly. Spent grain is a by-product with high moisture, high protein and high fiber content and is susceptible to microbial contamination; thus, a suitable, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly valorization method of processing it is required. This by-product is used as a raw material in the production of many other food products—bakery products, pasta, cookies, muffins, wafers, snacks, yogurt or plant-based yogurt alternatives, Frankfurter sausages or fruit beverages—due to its nutritional values. The circular economy is built on waste reduction and the reuse of by-products, which find opportunities in the regeneration and recycling of waste materials and energy that become inputs in other processes and food products. Waste disposal in the food industry has become a major issue in recent years when attempting to maintain hygiene standards and avoid soil, air and water contamination. Fortifying food products with spent grain follows the precepts of the circular bio-economy and industrial symbiosis of strengthening sustainable development. The purpose of this review is to update information on the addition of spent grain to various foods and the influence of spent grain on these foods. Full article
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Article
Valorisation of Wasted Immature Tomato to Innovative Fermented Functional Foods
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1532; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071532 - 04 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1554
Abstract
In this study, the lactic fermentation of immature tomatoes as a tool for food ingredient production was evaluated as a circular economy-oriented alternative for valorising industrial tomatoes that are unsuitable for processing and which have wasted away in large quantities in the field. [...] Read more.
In this study, the lactic fermentation of immature tomatoes as a tool for food ingredient production was evaluated as a circular economy-oriented alternative for valorising industrial tomatoes that are unsuitable for processing and which have wasted away in large quantities in the field. Two lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were assessed as starter cultures in an immature tomato pulp fermentation to produce functional food ingredients with probiotic potential. The first trial evaluated the probiotic character of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (LAB97, isolated from immature tomato microbiota) and Weissella paramesenteroides (C1090, from the INIAV collection) through in vitro gastrointestinal digestion simulation. The results showed that LAB97 and C1090 met the probiotic potential viability criterion by maintaining 6 log10 CFU/mL counts after in vitro simulation. The second trial assessed the LAB starters’ fermentative ability. Partially decontaminated (110 °C/2 min) immature tomato pulp was used to prepare the individually inoculated samples (Id: LAB97 and C1090). Non-inoculated samples, both with and without thermal treatment (Id: CTR-TT and CTR-NTT, respectively), were prepared as the controls. Fermentation was undertaken (25 °C, 100 rpm) for 14 days. Throughout storage (0, 24, 48, 72 h, 7, and 14 days), all the samples were tested for LAB and Y&M counts, titratable acidity (TA), solid soluble content (SSC), total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant capacity (AOx), as well as for organic acids and phenolic profiles, and CIELab colour and sensory evaluation (14th day). The LAB growth reached ca. 9 log10 CFU/mL for all samples after 72 h. The LAB97 samples had an earlier and higher acidification rate than the remaining ones, and they were highly correlated to lactic acid increments. The inoculated samples showed a faster and higher decrease rate in their SSC levels when compared to the controls. A nearly two-fold increase (p < 0.05) during the fermentation, over time, was observed in all samples’ AOx and TPC (p < 0.05, r = 0.93; similar pattern). The LAB97 samples obtained the best sensory acceptance for flavour and overall appreciation scores when compared to the others. In conclusion, the L. plantarum LAB97 starter culture was selected as a novel probiotic candidate to obtain a potential probiotic ingredient from immature tomato fruits. Full article
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Article
Role and Mechanism of Cold Plasma in Inactivating Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in Apple Juice
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1531; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071531 - 04 Apr 2023
Viewed by 694
Abstract
A. acidoterrestris has been identified as the target bacterium in fruit juice production due to its high resistance to standard heat treatment. Multiple studies have shown that cold plasma can effectively inactivate pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in juices. However, we are aware of [...] Read more.
A. acidoterrestris has been identified as the target bacterium in fruit juice production due to its high resistance to standard heat treatment. Multiple studies have shown that cold plasma can effectively inactivate pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in juices. However, we are aware of only a few studies that have used cold plasma to inactivate A. acidoterrestris. In this study, the inactivation efficacy of cold plasma was determined using the plate count method and described using a biphasic model. The effects of the food matrix, input power, gas flow rate, and treatment time on inactivation efficacy were also discovered. Scavenging experiments with reactive oxygen species (•OH, •O2, and 1O2), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectra, as well as an in vitro toxicology assay kit, were used to determine the inactivation mechanism. According to the plate count method, a maximum reduction of 4.14 log CFU/ mL could be achieved within 7 s, and complete inactivation could be achieved within 240 s. The scavenging experiments showed that directly cold plasma-produced singlet oxygen plays the most crucial role in inactivation, which was also confirmed by the fluorescence probe SOSG. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectra showed that the cold plasma treatment damaged the membrane integrity, DNA, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates of A. acidoterrestris. The plate count results and the apple juice quality evaluation showed that the cold plasma treatment (1.32 kV) could inactivate 99% of A. acidoterrestris within 60 s, with no significant changes happening in apple juice quality, except for slight changes in the polyphenol content and color value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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