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Chemosensors, Volume 9, Issue 9 (September 2021) – 35 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Peptides can recognize and selectively bind to a wide variety of materials dependent on both their surface properties and the environment. Limitations with traditional peptide identification methods are addressed and overcome in this research in order to identify unique peptides specific to two types of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with varying diameter distribution and chirality. Both traditional and new unique methods of identifying peptide sequences are discussed and analyzed. Selected sequences from this study were characterized to confirm that this new method is able to uncover unique binding sequences that might have otherwise been lost during the traditional method. View this paper.
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Article
Label Free, Lateral Flow Prostaglandin E2 Electrochemical Immunosensor for Urinary Tract Infection Diagnosis
Chemosensors 2021, 9(9), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9090271 - 19 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1364
Abstract
A label-free, rapid, and easy-to-use lateral flow electrochemical biosensor was developed for urinary tract infection (UTI) diagnosis in resource challenged areas. The sensor operates in non-faradaic mode and utilizes Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy for quantification of Prostaglandin E2, a diagnostic and prognostic urinary biomarker [...] Read more.
A label-free, rapid, and easy-to-use lateral flow electrochemical biosensor was developed for urinary tract infection (UTI) diagnosis in resource challenged areas. The sensor operates in non-faradaic mode and utilizes Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy for quantification of Prostaglandin E2, a diagnostic and prognostic urinary biomarker for UTI and recurrent UTI. To achieve high sensitivity in low microliter volumes of neat, unprocessed urine, nanoconfinement of assay biomolecules was achieved by developing a three-electrode planar gold microelectrode system on top of a lateral flow nanoporous membrane. The sensor is capable of giving readouts within 5 min and has a wide dynamic range of 100–4000 pg/mL for urinary PGE2. The sensor is capable of discriminating between low and high levels of PGE2 and hence is capable of threshold classification of urine samples as UTI positive and UTI negative. The sensor through its immunological response (directly related to host immune response) is superior to the commercially available point-of-care UTI dipsticks which are qualitative, have poor specificity for UTI, and have high false-positive rates. The developed sensor shows promise for rapid, easy and cost-effective UTI diagnosis for both clinical and home-based settings. More accurate point-of-care UTI diagnosis will improve patient outcomes and allow for timely and appropriate prescription of antibiotics which can subsequently increase treatment success rates and reduce costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Immunosensor)
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Review
Atomistic Descriptions of Gas-Surface Interactions on Tin Dioxide
Chemosensors 2021, 9(9), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9090270 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1002
Abstract
Historically, in gas sensing literature, the focus on “mechanisms” has been on oxygen species chemisorbed (ionosorbed) from the ambient atmosphere, but what these species actually represent and the location of the adsorption site on the surface of the solid are typically not well [...] Read more.
Historically, in gas sensing literature, the focus on “mechanisms” has been on oxygen species chemisorbed (ionosorbed) from the ambient atmosphere, but what these species actually represent and the location of the adsorption site on the surface of the solid are typically not well described. Recent advances in computational modelling and experimental surface science provide insights on the likely mechanism by which oxygen and other species interact with the surface of SnO2, providing insight into future directions for materials design and optimisation. This article reviews the proposed models of adsorption and reaction of oxygen on SnO2, including a summary of conventional evidence for oxygen ionosorption and recent operando spectroscopy studies of the atomistic interactions on the surface. The analysis is extended to include common target and interfering reducing gases, such as CO and H2, cross-interactions with H2O vapour, and NO2 as an example of an oxidising gas. We emphasise the importance of the surface oxygen vacancies as both the preferred adsorption site of many gases and in the self-doping mechanism of SnO2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors: Simulation, Modeling, and Characterization)
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Article
A Preliminary Study for Tunable Optical Assessment of Exhaled Breath Ammonia Based on Ultrathin Tetrakis(4-sulfophenyl)porphine Nanoassembled Films
Chemosensors 2021, 9(9), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9090269 - 18 Sep 2021
Viewed by 697
Abstract
The detection of chemical substances excreted from the human body offers an attractive approach for non-invasive, early diagnostics of certain diseases. In this preliminary study, we proposed a susceptible optical sensor capable of quantitatively detecting ammonia from exhaled breath. The proposed sensor consists [...] Read more.
The detection of chemical substances excreted from the human body offers an attractive approach for non-invasive, early diagnostics of certain diseases. In this preliminary study, we proposed a susceptible optical sensor capable of quantitatively detecting ammonia from exhaled breath. The proposed sensor consists of nanoassembled ultrathin films composed of tetrakis(4-sulfophenyl)porphine (TSPP) and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) deposited on quartz substrates using a layer-by-layer method. Measurement principles are based on the ammonia-induced absorbance changes at 489 (Soret band) and 702 nm (Q band), associated with the deprotonation of the J-aggregated TSPPs inside the film. Before exposure to breath, the PDDA/TSPP thin film was calibrated using known concentrations of ammonia gases with a projected detection limit of 102 ± 12 parts per billion (ppb). Calibrated sensor films were then exposed to human breath and urine samples to determine the ammonia concentration. Concentrations of exhaled ammonia are influenced significantly by the consumption of food or the amount of urea. Sensor response and maximum sensitivity, obtained from the absorbance changes induced by ammonia, were achieved by initial sensor exposure to HCl vapor. Previously reported procedures for the Helicobacter pylori (HELIC Ammonia Breath) test based on urea reaction with urease were reproduced using the proposed sensor. The observed behavior corresponded very well with the kinetics of the interactions between urea and urease, i.e., ammonia reached a maximum concentration approximately 5 min after the start of the reaction. A large-scale study involving 41 healthy volunteers in their 20s to 60s was successfully conducted to test the capabilities of the sensor to determine the concentration of exhaled ammonia. The concentration of ammonia for the healthy volunteers ranged between 0.3 and 1.5 ppm, with a mean value of ca. 520 ppb in the morning (before eating) and ca. 420 ppb in the afternoon (immediately after eating). These real-test mean values are meaningful when considered against the projected LOD. Full article
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Article
Non-Local Patch Regression Algorithm-Enhanced Differential Photoacoustic Methodology for Highly Sensitive Trace Gas Detection
Chemosensors 2021, 9(9), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9090268 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 805
Abstract
A non-local patch regression (NLPR) denoising-enhanced differential broadband photoacoustic (PA) sensor was developed for the high-sensitive detection of multiple trace gases. Using the edge preservation index (EPI) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as a dual-criterion, the fluctuation was dramatically suppressed while the spectral absorption [...] Read more.
A non-local patch regression (NLPR) denoising-enhanced differential broadband photoacoustic (PA) sensor was developed for the high-sensitive detection of multiple trace gases. Using the edge preservation index (EPI) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as a dual-criterion, the fluctuation was dramatically suppressed while the spectral absorption peaks were maintained by the introduction of a NLPR algorithm. The feasibility of the broadband framework was verified by measuring the C2H2 in the background of ambient air. A normalized noise equivalent absorption (NNEA) coefficient of 6.13 × 10−11 cm−1·W·Hz−1/2 was obtained with a 30-mW globar source and a SNR improvement factor of 23. Furthermore, the simultaneous multiple-trace-gas detection capability was determined by measuring C2H2, H2O, and CO2. Following the guidance of single-component processing, the NLPR processed results showed higher EPI and SNR compared to the spectra denoised by the wavelet method and the non-local means algorithm. The experimentally determined SNRs of the C2H2, H2O, and CO2 spectra were improved by a factor of 20. The NNEA coefficient reached a value of 7.02 × 10−11 cm−1·W·Hz−1/2 for C2H2. The NLPR algorithm presented good performance in noise suppression and absorption peak fidelity, which offered a higher dynamic range and was demonstrated to be an effective approach for trace gas analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gas Sensors)
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Review
New Organic Materials Based on Multitask 2H-benzo[d]1,2,3-triazole Moiety
Chemosensors 2021, 9(9), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9090267 - 17 Sep 2021
Viewed by 719
Abstract
Multifunctionality is a desirable aspect in materials science. Indeed, the development of multifunctional compounds is crucial for sustainable chemistry by saving resources and time. In this sense, 2H-benzo[d]1,2,3-triazole (BTz) is an excellent candidate with promising characteristics, including its ability [...] Read more.
Multifunctionality is a desirable aspect in materials science. Indeed, the development of multifunctional compounds is crucial for sustainable chemistry by saving resources and time. In this sense, 2H-benzo[d]1,2,3-triazole (BTz) is an excellent candidate with promising characteristics, including its ability to self-assemble; its acceptor character, which enables the synthesis of donor-acceptor structures; and its facile modulation using standard chemical methods. Thus, due to its interesting properties, it is possible to produce different derivatives with applications in different fields, as summarized in this article, with the correct substitution at the BTz cores. Optoelectronic or biomedical applications, amongst others, are highlighted. Full article
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Article
Optimization of Electronic Nose Sensor Array for Tea Aroma Detecting Based on Correlation Coefficient and Cluster Analysis
Chemosensors 2021, 9(9), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9090266 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 770
Abstract
The electronic nose system is widely used in tea aroma detecting, and the sensor array plays a fundamental role for obtaining good results. Here, a sensor array optimization (SAO) method based on correlation coefficient and cluster analysis (CA) is proposed. First, correlation coefficient [...] Read more.
The electronic nose system is widely used in tea aroma detecting, and the sensor array plays a fundamental role for obtaining good results. Here, a sensor array optimization (SAO) method based on correlation coefficient and cluster analysis (CA) is proposed. First, correlation coefficient and distinguishing performance value (DPV) are calculated to eliminate redundant sensors. Then, the sensor independence is obtained through cluster analysis and the number of sensors is confirmed. Finally, the optimized sensor array is constructed. According to the results of the proposed method, sensor array for green tea (LG), fried green tea (LF) and baked green tea (LB) are constructed, and validation experiments are carried out. The classification accuracy using methods of linear discriminant analysis (LDA) based on the average value (LDA-ave) combined with nearest-neighbor classifier (NNC) can almost reach 94.44~100%. When the proposed method is used to discriminate between various grades of West Lake Longjing tea, LF can show comparable performance to that of the German PEN2 electronic nose. The electronic nose SAO method proposed in this paper can effectively eliminate redundant sensors and improve the quality of original tea aroma data. With fewer sensors, the optimized sensor array contributes to the miniaturization and cost reduction of the electronic nose system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Analytical Methods, Instrumentation and Miniaturization)
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Article
Methodology of Selecting the Optimal Receptor to Create an Electrochemical Immunosensor for Equine Arteritis Virus Protein Detection
Chemosensors 2021, 9(9), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9090265 - 16 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 773
Abstract
The study reports a methodology of selecting the optimal receptor to create an electrochemical immunosensor for equine arteritis virus (EAV) protein detection. The detection was based on antigen recognition by antibodies immobilized on gold electrodes. Modification steps were controlled by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy [...] Read more.
The study reports a methodology of selecting the optimal receptor to create an electrochemical immunosensor for equine arteritis virus (EAV) protein detection. The detection was based on antigen recognition by antibodies immobilized on gold electrodes. Modification steps were controlled by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry measurements. In order to obtain the impedance immunosensor with the best parameters, seven different receptors complementary to equine arteritis virus protein were used. In order to make the selection, a rapid screening test was carried out to check the sensor’s response to blank, extremely low and high concentrations of target EAV protein, and negative sample: M protein from Streptococcus equi and glycoprotein G from Equid alphaherpesvirus 1. F6 10G receptor showed the best performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Electrochemical Biosensors for Medical Diagnosis)
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Article
Optimization of a Handwriting Method by an Automated Ink Pen for Cost-Effective and Sustainable Sensors
Chemosensors 2021, 9(9), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9090264 - 16 Sep 2021
Viewed by 637
Abstract
In this work, we present a do-it-yourself (DIY) approach for the environmental-friendly fabrication of printed electronic devices and sensors. The setup consists only of an automated handwriting robot and pens filled with silver conductive inks. Here, we thoroughly studied the fabrication technique and [...] Read more.
In this work, we present a do-it-yourself (DIY) approach for the environmental-friendly fabrication of printed electronic devices and sensors. The setup consists only of an automated handwriting robot and pens filled with silver conductive inks. Here, we thoroughly studied the fabrication technique and different optimized parameters. The best-achieved results were 300 mΩ/sq as sheet resistance with a printing resolution of 200 µm. The optimized parameters were used to manufacture fully functional electronics devices: a capacitive sensor and a RFID tag, essential for the remote reading of the measurements. This technique for printed electronics represents an alternative for fast-prototyping and ultra-low-cost fabrication because of both the cheap equipment required and the minimal waste of materials, which is especially interesting for the development of cost-effective sensors. Full article
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Article
Chemical Sensing Properties of BaF2-Modified hBN Flakes towards Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds
Chemosensors 2021, 9(9), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9090263 - 13 Sep 2021
Viewed by 715
Abstract
The application of BaF2-modified hBN flakes as rapid response and recovery as well as sensitive chemoresistive sensing device materials for detection of acetone and/or ethanol is presented in this study. Modification of the hBN flakes was achieved by using [...] Read more.
The application of BaF2-modified hBN flakes as rapid response and recovery as well as sensitive chemoresistive sensing device materials for detection of acetone and/or ethanol is presented in this study. Modification of the hBN flakes was achieved by using the modified polymer derived ceramics (PDCs) process through the use of 0–10 wt% BaF2 and 5 wt% Li3N. Upon exposure to individual acetone and ethanol vapours, room temperature sensing studies revealed high LoD values (−144–460 ppmacetone and −134–543 ppmethanol) with extremely compromised sensitivities of −0.042–0.72 × 10−2 ppm−1acetone and −0.045–0.19 × 10−2 ppm−1ethanol for the structurally improved 5–10 wt% BaF2-modified hBN flakes. Moreover, enhanced sensing for 0–2.5 wt% BaF2-modified hBN flakes, as shown by the low LoDs (−43–86 ppmacetone and −30–62 ppmethanol) and the high sensitivities (−1.8–2.1 × 10−2 ppm−1acetone and −1.5–1.6 × 10−2 ppm−1ethanol), was attributed to the presence of defects subsequently providing an abundance of adsorption sites. Overall, the study demonstrated the importance of structural properties of hBN flakes on their surface chemistry towards room temperature selective and sensitive detection of VOCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2D Materials for Gas Sensing)
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Review
A Comprehensive Review on Raman Spectroscopy Applications
Chemosensors 2021, 9(9), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9090262 - 13 Sep 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1769
Abstract
Raman spectroscopy is a very powerful tool for material analysis, allowing for exploring the properties of a wide range of different materials. Since its discovery, Raman spectroscopy has been used to investigate several features of materials such carbonaceous and inorganic properties, providing useful [...] Read more.
Raman spectroscopy is a very powerful tool for material analysis, allowing for exploring the properties of a wide range of different materials. Since its discovery, Raman spectroscopy has been used to investigate several features of materials such carbonaceous and inorganic properties, providing useful information on their phases, functions, and defects. Furthermore, techniques such as surface and tip enhanced Raman spectroscopy have extended the field of application of Raman analysis to biological and analytical fields. Additionally, the robustness and versatility of Raman instrumentations represent a promising solution for performing on-field analysis for a wide range of materials. Recognizing the many hot applications of Raman spectroscopy, we herein overview the main and more recent applications for the investigation of a wide range of materials, such as carbonaceous and biological materials. We also provide a brief but exhaustive theoretical background of Raman spectroscopy, also providing deep insight into the analytical achievements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Optical Chemical Sensors)
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Article
Odor Recognition of Thermal Decomposition Products of Electric Cables Using Odor Sensing Arrays
Chemosensors 2021, 9(9), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9090261 - 10 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 636
Abstract
An odor sensing system with chemosensitive resistors was used to identify the gases generated from overheated cables to prevent fire. Three different electric cables for a distribution cabinet were used. The cables had an insulation layer made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or cross-linked [...] Read more.
An odor sensing system with chemosensitive resistors was used to identify the gases generated from overheated cables to prevent fire. Three different electric cables for a distribution cabinet were used. The cables had an insulation layer made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE). The heat resistance of the cables was tested by differential thermal and thermogravimetric analyses. The thermal decomposition products of the cables were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). For the odor sensing system, two types of 16-channel array were used to detect the generated gases. One contains high-polarity GC stationary phase materials and the other contains GC stationary phase materials of high to low polarity. The system could distinguish among three cable samples at 270 °C with an accuracy of about 75% through both arrays trained with machine learning. Furthermore, the system could achieve a recall rate of 90% and a precision rate of 70% when the abnormal temperature was set above the cables’ allowable conductor temperature at 130 °C. The odor sensing system could effectively detect the abnormal heating of the cables before the occurrence of fire. Therefore, it is helpful for fire prediction and detection systems in factories and substations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioinspired Chemical Sensors and Micro-Nano Devices)
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Review
Recent Advances in Silicon FET Devices for Gas and Volatile Organic Compound Sensing
Chemosensors 2021, 9(9), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9090260 - 10 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1526
Abstract
Highly sensitive and selective gas and volatile organic compound (VOC) sensor platforms with fast response and recovery kinetics are in high demand for environmental health monitoring, industry, and medical diagnostics. Among the various categories of gas sensors studied to date, field effect transistors [...] Read more.
Highly sensitive and selective gas and volatile organic compound (VOC) sensor platforms with fast response and recovery kinetics are in high demand for environmental health monitoring, industry, and medical diagnostics. Among the various categories of gas sensors studied to date, field effect transistors (FETs) have proved to be an extremely efficient platform due to their miniaturized form factor, high sensitivity, and ultra-low power consumption. Despite the advent of various kinds of new materials, silicon (Si) still enjoys the advantages of excellent and reproducible electronic properties and compatibility with complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) technologies for integrated multiplexing and signal processing. This review gives an overview of the recent developments in Si FETs for gas and VOC sensing. We categorised the Si FETs into Si nanowire (NW) FETs; planar Si FETs, in which the Si channel is either a part of the silicon on insulator (SOI) or the bulk Si, as in conventional FETs; and electrostatically formed nanowire (EFN) FETs. The review begins with a brief introduction, followed by a description of the Si NW FET gas and VOC sensors. A brief description of the various fabrication strategies of Si NWs and the several functionalisation methods to improve the sensing performances of Si NWs are also provided. Although Si NW FETs have excellent sensing properties, they are far from practical realisation due to the extensive fabrication procedures involved, along with other issues that are critically assessed briefly. Then, we describe planar Si FET sensors, which are much closer to real-world implementation. Their simpler device architecture combined with excellent sensing properties enable them as an efficient platform for gas sensing. The third category, the EFN FET sensors, proved to be another potential platform for gas sensing due to their intriguing properties, which are elaborated in detail. Finally, the challenges and future opportunities for gas sensing are addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Chemo- and Bio-Sensors)
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Review
Estimation of Enantiomeric Excess Based on Rapid Host–Guest Exchange
Chemosensors 2021, 9(9), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9090259 - 09 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 919
Abstract
Chiral molecules possess enantiomers that have non-superimposable chemical structures but exhibit identical nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. This feature prevents the use of NMR spectroscopic methods for the determination of enantiomeric excesses (ee) of chiral molecules, using simple mixtures of their [...] Read more.
Chiral molecules possess enantiomers that have non-superimposable chemical structures but exhibit identical nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. This feature prevents the use of NMR spectroscopic methods for the determination of enantiomeric excesses (ee) of chiral molecules, using simple mixtures of their enantiomers. Recently, however, it was reported that the addition of a symmetrical prochiral molecule (a reporter or host) into a solution of chiral analyte can lead to estimation of ee through interactions involving rapid exchange of the chiral analyte (guest) in the formed host–guest complex. This is due to the ee-dependent splitting of NMR resonances of the prochiral host molecule based on averaging the chemical shift non-equivalency caused by the presence of a chiral guest. The mechanism is not dependent on diastereomer formation, and 1:1 host–guest complexes can also show ee-dependent NMR peak splitting. Prochiral molecules capable of ee sensing using the NMR technique are now referred to as so-called prochiral solvating agents (pro-CSAs). pro-CSAs represent a family of reagents distinct from the commonly used NMR chiral derivatizing reagents (where chiral auxiliaries are used to derivatize enantiomers to diastereomers) or chiral solvating agents (where chiral auxiliaries interact in an asymmetric manner with analyte enantiomers). pro-CSA methods are unique since neither pro-CSA nor NMR contains chiral factors, making the technique neutral with respect to chirality. Here, we review our recent work on this matter involving several different nominally achiral receptor molecules whose unique guest binding properties and solution characteristics (especially with regard to NMR spectroscopy) allow for the estimation of ee in the corresponding chiral guests. Full article
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Article
A Bio-Fluorometric Acetone Gas Imaging System for the Dynamic Analysis of Lipid Metabolism in Human Breath
Chemosensors 2021, 9(9), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9090258 - 09 Sep 2021
Viewed by 665
Abstract
We constructed an imaging system to measure the concentration of acetone gas by acetone reduction using secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (S-ADH). Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) was used as an electron donor, and acetone was imaged by fluorescence detection of the decrease in the [...] Read more.
We constructed an imaging system to measure the concentration of acetone gas by acetone reduction using secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (S-ADH). Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) was used as an electron donor, and acetone was imaged by fluorescence detection of the decrease in the autofluorescence of NADH. In this system, S-ADH–immobilized membranes wetted with buffer solution containing NADH were placed in a dark box, and UV-LED excitation sheets and a high-sensitivity camera were installed on both sides of the optical axis to enable loading of acetone gas. A hydrophilic polytetrafluoroethylene (H-PTFE) membrane with low autofluorescence was used as a substrate, and honeycomb-like through-hole structures were fabricated using a CO2 laser device. After loading the enzyme membrane with acetone gas standards, a decrease in fluorescence intensity was observed in accordance with the concentration of acetone gas. The degree of decrease in fluorescence intensity was calculated using image analysis software; it was possible to quantify acetone gas at concentrations of 50–2000 ppb, a range that includes the exhaled breath concentration of acetone in healthy subjects. We applied this imaging system to measure the acetone gas in the air exhaled by a healthy individual during fasting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gas Sensors)
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Article
Controlled Growth of WO3 Pyramidal Thin Film via Hot-Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition: Electrochemical Detection of Ethylenediamine
Chemosensors 2021, 9(9), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9090257 - 08 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 648
Abstract
In this work, the structural, optical, morphological, and sensing features of tungsten oxide (WO3) thin film deposited on a silicon substrate via hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) are described. The experimental characterization tools, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning [...] Read more.
In this work, the structural, optical, morphological, and sensing features of tungsten oxide (WO3) thin film deposited on a silicon substrate via hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) are described. The experimental characterization tools, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis), and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopies, etc., were used to determine the properties of WO3 NPys thin films. The grown WO3 thin film illustrated closely packed porous pyramidal nanostructures (NPys) of improved grain size properties. The diffraction analysis revealed (100) and (200) of WO3 phases, suggesting the classic monoclinic crystal WO3 structure. HFCVD grown WO3 NPys thin film was employed as electro-active electrode for detecting ethylenediamine in 10 mL of 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS) by varying the ethylenediamine concentrations from 10 μM to 200 μM at room temperature. With a detection of limit (LOD) of ~9.56 μM, and a quick reaction time (10 s), the constructed chemical sensor achieved a high sensitivity of ~161.33 μA μM−1 cm−2. The durability test displayed an excellent stability of electrochemical sensor by maintaining over 90% sensitivity after 4 weeks of operation. This work provides a strategy for a facile preparation of WO3 NPys thin film electrode for sensor applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Sustainable Metal Oxide Materials for Sensing Applications)
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Systematic Review
Biosensors for Detection and Monitoring of Joint Infections
Chemosensors 2021, 9(9), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9090256 - 08 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 552
Abstract
The aim of this review is to assess the use of biosensors in the diagnosis and monitoring of joint infection (JI). JI is worldwide considered a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Due to the progressive ageing of the global [...] Read more.
The aim of this review is to assess the use of biosensors in the diagnosis and monitoring of joint infection (JI). JI is worldwide considered a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Due to the progressive ageing of the global population, the request for joint replacement increases, with a significant rise in the risk of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). Nowadays, the diagnosis of JI is based on clinical and radiological findings. Nuclear imaging studies are an option but are not cost-effective. Serum inflammatory markers and the analysis of the aspirated synovial fluid are required to confirm the diagnosis. However, a quick and accurate diagnosis of JI may remain elusive as no rapid and highly accurate diagnostic method was validated. A comprehensive search on Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, CINAH, CENTRAL, Google Scholar, and Web of Science was conducted from the inception to June 2021. The PRISMA guidelines were used to improve the reporting of the review. The MINORS was used for quality assessment. From a total of 155 studies identified, only four articles were eligible for this study. The main advantages of biosensors reported were accuracy and capability to detect bacteria also in negative culture cases. Otherwise, due to the few studies and the low level of evidence of the papers included, it was impossible to find significant results. Therefore, further high-quality studies are required. Full article
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Article
Dummy Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Using DNP as a Template Molecule for Explosive Sensing and Nitroaromatic Compound Discrimination
Chemosensors 2021, 9(9), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9090255 - 08 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 842
Abstract
This work reports a rapid, simple and low-cost voltammetric sensor based on a dummy molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) that uses 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) as a template for the quantification of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and DNP, and the identification of related substances. Once the polymer was [...] Read more.
This work reports a rapid, simple and low-cost voltammetric sensor based on a dummy molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) that uses 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) as a template for the quantification of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and DNP, and the identification of related substances. Once the polymer was synthesised by thermal precipitation polymerisation, it was integrated onto a graphite epoxy composite (GEC) electrode via sol–gel immobilisation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed in order to characterise the polymer and the sensor surface. Responses towards DNP and TNT were evaluated, displaying a linear response range of 1.5 to 8.0 µmol L−1 for DNP and 1.3 to 6.5 µmol L1 for TNT; the estimated limits of detection were 0.59 µmol L−1 and 0.29 µmol L−1, for DNP and TNT, respectively. Chemometric tools, in particular principal component analysis (PCA), demonstrated the possibilities of the MIP-modified electrodes in nitroaromatic and potential interfering species discrimination with multiple potential applications in the environmental field. Full article
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Review
Recent Advances in Electrochemical Chitosan-Based Chemosensors and Biosensors: Applications in Food Safety
Chemosensors 2021, 9(9), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9090254 - 08 Sep 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 898
Abstract
Chitosan is a biopolymer derived from chitin. It is a non-toxic, biocompatible, bioactive, and biodegradable polymer. Due to its properties, chitosan has found applications in several and different fields such as agriculture, food industry, medicine, paper fabrication, textile industry, and water treatment. In [...] Read more.
Chitosan is a biopolymer derived from chitin. It is a non-toxic, biocompatible, bioactive, and biodegradable polymer. Due to its properties, chitosan has found applications in several and different fields such as agriculture, food industry, medicine, paper fabrication, textile industry, and water treatment. In addition to these properties, chitosan has a good film-forming ability which allows it to be widely used for the development of sensors and biosensors. This review is focused on the use of chitosan for the formulation of electrochemical chemosensors. It also aims to provide an overview of the advantages of using chitosan as an immobilization platform for biomolecules by highlighting its applications in electrochemical biosensors. Finally, applications of chitosan-based electrochemical chemosensors and biosensors in food safety are illustrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan for Sensors and Electrochemical Applications)
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Article
Electrochemical Sensing and Removal of Cesium from Water Using Prussian Blue Nanoparticle-Modified Screen-Printed Electrodes
Chemosensors 2021, 9(9), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9090253 - 07 Sep 2021
Viewed by 774
Abstract
Selective screening followed by the sensing of cesium radionuclides from contaminated water is a challenging technical issue. In this study, the adsorption functionality of Prussian blue (PB) nanoparticles was utilized for the detection and efficient removal of cesium cations. An efficient PB nanoparticle-modified [...] Read more.
Selective screening followed by the sensing of cesium radionuclides from contaminated water is a challenging technical issue. In this study, the adsorption functionality of Prussian blue (PB) nanoparticles was utilized for the detection and efficient removal of cesium cations. An efficient PB nanoparticle-modified screen-printed electrode (SPE) in the three-electrode configuration was developed for the electrochemical sensing and removal of Cs+. PB nanoparticles inks were obtained using a facile two-step process that was previously described as suitable for dispensing over freshly prepared screen-printed electrodes. The PB nanoparticle-modified SPE induced a cesium adsorption-dependent chronoamperometric signal based on ion exchange as a function of cesium concentration. This ion exchange, which is reversible and rapid, is associated with electron transfer in the PB nanoparticle-modified SPE. Using this electrochemical adsorption system (EAS) based on chronoamperometry, the maximum adsorption capacity (Qmax) of Cs+ ions in the PB nanoparticle-modified SPE reached up to 325 ± 1 mg·g−1 in a 50 ± 0.5 μM Cs+ solution, with a distribution coefficient (Kd) of 580 ± 5 L·g−1 for Cs+ removal. The cesium concentration-dependent adsorption of PB nanoparticles was also demonstrated by fluorescence spectroscopy based on fluorescence quenching of PB nanoparticles as a function of cesium concentration using a standard fluorophore like fluorescein in a manner analogous to that previously reported for As(III). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology for Sensing, Medical and Environmental Application)
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Article
Additive Manufacturing as a Means of Gas Sensor Development for Battery Health Monitoring
Chemosensors 2021, 9(9), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9090252 - 06 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1270
Abstract
Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) still need continuous safety monitoring based on their intrinsic properties, as well as due to the increase in their sizes and device requirements. The main causes of fires and explosions in LIBs are heat leakage and the presence of highly [...] Read more.
Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) still need continuous safety monitoring based on their intrinsic properties, as well as due to the increase in their sizes and device requirements. The main causes of fires and explosions in LIBs are heat leakage and the presence of highly inflammable components. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the safety of the batteries by preventing the generation of these gases and/or their early detection with sensors. The improvement of such safety sensors requires new approaches in their manufacturing. There is a growing role for research of nanostructured sensor’s durability in the field of ionizing radiation that also can induce structural changes in the LIB’s component materials, thus contributing to the elucidation of fundamental physicochemical processes; catalytic reactions or inhibitions of the chemical reactions on which the work of the sensors is based. A current method widely used in various fields, Direct Ink Writing (DIW), has been used to manufacture heterostructures of Al2O3/CuO and CuO:Fe2O3, followed by an additional ALD and thermal annealing step. The detection properties of these 3D-DIW printed heterostructures showed responses to 1,3-dioxolan (DOL), 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) vapors, as well as to typically used LIB electrolytes containing LiTFSI and LiNO3 salts in a mixture of DOL:DME, as well also to LiPF6 salts in a mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) at operating temperatures of 200 °C–350 °C with relatively high responses. The combination of the possibility to detect electrolyte vapors used in LIBs and size control by the 3D-DIW printing method makes these heterostructures extremely attractive in controlling the safety of batteries. Full article
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Article
Design and Calibration of Moisture Sensor Based on Electromagnetic Field Measurement for Irrigation Monitoring
Chemosensors 2021, 9(9), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9090251 - 06 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 672
Abstract
Soil moisture control is crucial to assess irrigation efficiency in green areas and agriculture. In this paper, we propose the design and calibration of a sensor based on inductive coils and electromagnetic fields. The proposed prototypes should meet a series of requirements such [...] Read more.
Soil moisture control is crucial to assess irrigation efficiency in green areas and agriculture. In this paper, we propose the design and calibration of a sensor based on inductive coils and electromagnetic fields. The proposed prototypes should meet a series of requirements such as low power consumption, low relative error, and a high voltage difference between the minimum and maximum moisture. We tested different prototypes based on two copper coils divided into two different sets (P1–P15 and NP1–NP4). The prototypes have different characteristics: variations in the number and distribution of spires, existence or absence of casing, and copper wires with a diameter of 0.4 or 0.6 mm. In the first set of experiments carried out in commercial soil, the results showed that the best prototypes were P5, P8, and P9. These prototypes were used in different types of soils, and P8 was selected for the subsequent tests. We carried the second set of experiments using soil from an agricultural field. Based on the data gathered, mathematical models for the calibration of prototypes were obtained and verified. In some cases, two equations were used for different moisture intervals in a single prototype. According to the verification results, NP2 is the best prototype for monitoring the moisture in agricultural lands. It presented a difference in induced voltage of 1.8 V, at 500 kHz, between wet and dry soil with a maximum voltage of 5.12 V. The verification of the calibration determined that the calibration using two mathematical models offers better results, with an average absolute error of 2.1% of moisture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Magnetic Sensors with Nanocomponents)
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Article
Application of a Fluorescent Biosensor in Determining the Binding of 5-HT to Calmodulin
Chemosensors 2021, 9(9), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9090250 - 05 Sep 2021
Viewed by 836
Abstract
Here, we show the utility of the fluorescent biosensor hCaM-M124C-mBBr in detecting and determining the affinity of serotonin (5-HT). We obtained a Kd of 5-HT (0.71 μm) for the first time, the same order of magnitude as most anti-CaM drugs. [...] Read more.
Here, we show the utility of the fluorescent biosensor hCaM-M124C-mBBr in detecting and determining the affinity of serotonin (5-HT). We obtained a Kd of 5-HT (0.71 μm) for the first time, the same order of magnitude as most anti-CaM drugs. This data can contribute to understanding the direct and indirect modulation of CaM on its binding proteins when the 5-HT concentration varies in different tissues or explain some of the side effects of anti-CaM drugs. On the other hand, molecular modeling tools help the rational design of biosensors and adequately complement the experimental results. For example, the docking study indicates that 5-HT binds at the same site as chlorpromazine (site 1) with a theoretical Ki of 2.84 μM; while the molecular dynamics simulations indicate a stability of the CaM–5-HT complex with a theoretical ΔG of −4.85 kcal mol−1, where the enthalpy contribution is greater. Thus, the combination of biotechnology and bioinformatics helps in the design and construction of more robust biosensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical and Computational Systems in Biosensing)
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Article
Single Nanowire Gas Sensor Able to Distinguish Fish and Meat and Evaluate Their Degree of Freshness
Chemosensors 2021, 9(9), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9090249 - 03 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 791
Abstract
A non-invasive, small, and fast device is needed for food freshness monitoring, as current techniques do not meet these criteria. In this study, a resistive sensor composed of a single semiconductor nanowire was used at different temperatures, combining the responses and processing them [...] Read more.
A non-invasive, small, and fast device is needed for food freshness monitoring, as current techniques do not meet these criteria. In this study, a resistive sensor composed of a single semiconductor nanowire was used at different temperatures, combining the responses and processing them with multivariate statistical analysis techniques. The sensor, very sensitive to ammonia and total volatile basic nitrogen, proved to be able to distinguish samples of fish (marble trout, Salmo trutta marmoratus) and meat (pork, Sus scrofa domesticus), both stored at room temperature and 4 °C in the refrigerator. Once separated, the fish and meat samples were classified by the degree of freshness/degradation with two different classifiers. The sensor classified the samples (trout and pork) correctly in 95.2% of cases. The degree of freshness was correctly assessed in 90.5% of cases. Considering only the errors with repercussions (when a fresh sample was evaluated as degraded, or a degraded sample was evaluated as edible) the accuracy increased to 95.2%. Considering the size (less than a square millimeter) and the speed (less than a minute), this type of sensor could be used to monitor food production and distribution chains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors: Simulation, Modeling, and Characterization)
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Review
Alveolus Lung-on-a-Chip Platform: A Proposal
Chemosensors 2021, 9(9), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9090248 - 03 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1119
Abstract
Respiratory diseases are top-ranked causes of deaths and disabilities around the world, making new approaches to the treatment necessary. In recent years, lung-on-a-chip platforms have emerged as a potential candidate to replace animal experiments because they can successfully simulate human physiology. In this [...] Read more.
Respiratory diseases are top-ranked causes of deaths and disabilities around the world, making new approaches to the treatment necessary. In recent years, lung-on-a-chip platforms have emerged as a potential candidate to replace animal experiments because they can successfully simulate human physiology. In this review, we discuss the main respiratory diseases and their pathophysiology, how to model a lung microenvironment, and how to translate it to clinical applications. Furthermore, we propose a novel alveolus lung-on-a-chip platform, based on all currently available methodologies. This review provides solutions and new ideas to improve the alveolar lung-on-a-chip platform. Finally, we provided evidence that approaches such as 3D printing, organ-a-chip devices and organoids can be used in combination, and some challenges could be overcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section (Bio)chemical Sensing)
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Article
Nickel-Oxide Based Thick-Film Gas Sensors for Volatile Organic Compound Detection
Chemosensors 2021, 9(9), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9090247 - 03 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 671
Abstract
In this paper, we report on the development of a highly sensitive and humidity-tolerant metal-oxide-based volatile organic compound (VOC) sensor, capable of rapidly detecting low concentrations of VOCs. For this, we successfully fabricated two different thicknesses of nickel oxide (NiO) sensors using a [...] Read more.
In this paper, we report on the development of a highly sensitive and humidity-tolerant metal-oxide-based volatile organic compound (VOC) sensor, capable of rapidly detecting low concentrations of VOCs. For this, we successfully fabricated two different thicknesses of nickel oxide (NiO) sensors using a spin-coating technique and tested them with seven different common VOCs at 40% r.h. The measured film thickness of the spin-coated NiO was ~5 μm (S-5) and ~10 μm (S-10). The fastest response and recovery times for all VOCs were less than 80 s and 120 s, respectively. The highest response (Rg/Ra = 1.5 for 5 ppm ethanol) was observed at 350 °C for both sensors. Sensors were also tested in two different humidity conditions (40% and 90% r.h.). The humidity did not significantly influence the observed sensitivity of the films. Furthermore, S-10 NiO showed only a 3% drift in the baseline resistance between the two humidity conditions, making our sensor humidity-tolerant compared to traditional n-type sensors. Thus, we propose thick-film NiO (10 μm) sensing material as an interesting alternative VOC sensor that is fast and humidity-tolerant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Sustainable Metal Oxide Materials for Sensing Applications)
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Article
Chemiresistors Based on Li-Doped CuO–TiO2 Films
Chemosensors 2021, 9(9), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9090246 - 02 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 850
Abstract
Chemiresistors based on thin films of the Li-doped CuO–TiO2 heterojunctions were synthesized by a 2-step method: (i) repeated ion beam sputtering of the building elements (on the Si substrates and multisensor platforms); and (ii) thermal annealing in flowing air. The structure and [...] Read more.
Chemiresistors based on thin films of the Li-doped CuO–TiO2 heterojunctions were synthesized by a 2-step method: (i) repeated ion beam sputtering of the building elements (on the Si substrates and multisensor platforms); and (ii) thermal annealing in flowing air. The structure and composition of the films were analyzed by several methods: Rutherford Backscattering (RBS), Neutron Depth Profiling (NDP), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and their sensitivity to gaseous analytes was evaluated using a specific lab-made device operating in a continuous gas flow mode. The obtained results showed that the Li doping significantly increased the sensitivity of the sensors to oxidizing gases, such as NO2, O3, and Cl2, but not to reducing H2. The sensing response of the CuO–TiO2–Li chemiresistors improved with increasing Li content. For the best sensors with about 15% Li atoms, the detection limits were as follows: NO2 → 0.5 ppm, O3 → 10 ppb, and Cl2 → 0.1 ppm. The Li-doped sensors showed excellent sensing performance at a lower operating temperature (200 °C); however, even though their response time was only a few minutes, their recovery was slow (up to a few hours) and incomplete. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anisotropic Nanomaterials for Sensing Applications)
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Article
Identification of Chiral-Specific Carbon Nanotube Binding Peptides Using a Modified Biopanning Method
Chemosensors 2021, 9(9), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9090245 - 01 Sep 2021
Viewed by 694
Abstract
Peptides can recognize and selectively bind to a wide variety of materials dependent on both their surface properties and the environment. Biopanning with phage or cell peptide display libraries can identify material-specific binding peptides. However, the limitations with sequence diversity of traditional bacteriophage [...] Read more.
Peptides can recognize and selectively bind to a wide variety of materials dependent on both their surface properties and the environment. Biopanning with phage or cell peptide display libraries can identify material-specific binding peptides. However, the limitations with sequence diversity of traditional bacteriophage (phage) display libraries and loss of unique phage clones during the amplification cycles results in a smaller pool of peptide sequences identified. False positive sequences tend to emerge during the biopanning process due to highly proliferating, yet nonspecific, phages. In order to overcome this limitation of traditional biopanning methodology, a modified method using high-throughput next generation sequencing (HTS) was tested to select for unique peptides specific to two types of single wall carbon nanotube (SWNTs) sources with varying diameter distribution and chirality. Here, the process, analysis, and characterization of peptide sequences identified using the modified method is further described and compared to a peptide identified in literature using the traditional method. Selected sequences from this study were incorporated in a SWNT dispersion experiment to probe their selectivity to the nanotube diameter. We show that NHTS can uncover unique binding sequences that might have otherwise been lost during the traditional biopanning method. Full article
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Article
Insights about CO Gas-Sensing Mechanism with NiO-Based Gas Sensors—The Influence of Humidity
Chemosensors 2021, 9(9), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9090244 - 01 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 670
Abstract
Polycrystalline NiO thick film-based gas sensors have been exposed to different test gas atmospheres at 250 °C and measured via simultaneous electrical resistance and work function investigations. Accordingly, we decoupled different features manifested toward the potential changes, i.e., work function, band-bending, and electron [...] Read more.
Polycrystalline NiO thick film-based gas sensors have been exposed to different test gas atmospheres at 250 °C and measured via simultaneous electrical resistance and work function investigations. Accordingly, we decoupled different features manifested toward the potential changes, i.e., work function, band-bending, and electron affinity. The experimental results have shown that the presence of moisture induces an unusual behavior toward carbon monoxide (CO) detection by considering different surface adsorption sites. On this basis, we derived an appropriate detection mechanism capable of explaining the lack of moisture influence over the CO detection with NiO-sensitive materials. As such, CO might have both chemical and dipolar interactions with pre-adsorbed or lattice oxygen species, thus canceling out the effect of moisture. Additionally, morphology, structure, and surface chemistry were addressed, and the results have been linked to the sensing properties envisaging the role played by the porous quasispherical–hollow structures and surface hydration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Applications of Gas Sensors Based on Metal Oxides)
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Article
Performance Analysis of MAU-9 Electronic-Nose MOS Sensor Array Components and ANN Classification Methods for Discrimination of Herb and Fruit Essential Oils
Chemosensors 2021, 9(9), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9090243 - 31 Aug 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1062
Abstract
The recent development of MAU-9 electronic sensory methods, based on artificial olfaction detection of volatile emissions using an experimental metal oxide semiconductor (MOS)-type electronic-nose (e-nose) device, have provided novel means for the effective discovery of adulterated and counterfeit essential oil-based plant products sold [...] Read more.
The recent development of MAU-9 electronic sensory methods, based on artificial olfaction detection of volatile emissions using an experimental metal oxide semiconductor (MOS)-type electronic-nose (e-nose) device, have provided novel means for the effective discovery of adulterated and counterfeit essential oil-based plant products sold in worldwide commercial markets. These new methods have the potential of facilitating enforcement of regulatory quality assurance (QA) for authentication of plant product genuineness and quality through rapid evaluation by volatile (aroma) emissions. The MAU-9 e-nose system was further evaluated using performance-analysis methods to determine ways for improving on overall system operation and effectiveness in discriminating and classifying volatile essential oils derived from fruit and herbal edible plants. Individual MOS-sensor components in the e-nose sensor array were performance tested for their effectiveness in contributing to discriminations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analyzed in headspace from purified essential oils using artificial neural network (ANN) classification. Two additional statistical data-analysis methods, including principal regression (PR) and partial least squares (PLS), were also compared. All statistical methods tested effectively classified essential oils with high accuracy. Aroma classification with PLS method using 2 optimal MOS sensors yielded much higher accuracy than using all nine sensors. The accuracy of 2-group and 6-group classifications of essentials oils by ANN was 100% and 98.9%, respectively. Full article
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Article
Enantioselective Monitoring of Biodegradation of Ketamine and Its Metabolite Norketamine by Liquid Chromatography
Chemosensors 2021, 9(9), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9090242 - 30 Aug 2021
Viewed by 748
Abstract
Ketamine (K) and its main metabolite, norketamine (NK), are chiral compounds that have been found in effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and aquatic environments. Little is known about their enantioselective biodegradation during sewage treatment; however, this information is pivotal for risk assessment, [...] Read more.
Ketamine (K) and its main metabolite, norketamine (NK), are chiral compounds that have been found in effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and aquatic environments. Little is known about their enantioselective biodegradation during sewage treatment; however, this information is pivotal for risk assessment, the evaluation of WWTP performance and wastewater epidemiological studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the biodegradation pattern of the enantiomers of K by activated sludge (AS) from a WWTP. For that, an enantioselective liquid chromatography with diode array detection (LC-DAD) method was developed and validated to quantify the enantiomers of K and NK. Both K and NK enantiomers were separated, in the same chromatographic run, using a Lux® 3 µm cellulose-4 analytical column under isocratic elution mode. The method was demonstrated to be linear (r2 > 0.99) and precise (<11.3%). Accuracy ranged between 85.9 and 113.6% and recovery ranged between 50.1 and 86.9%. The limit of quantification was 1.25 µg/mL for the enantiomers of NK and 2.5 µg/mL for K. The method was applied to monitor the biodegradation assay of the enantiomers of K by AS for 14 days. K was poorly biodegraded, less than 15% for both enantiomers, and enantioselectivity in the biodegradation was not observed. The metabolite NK and other possible degradation products were not detected. This work reports, for the first time, the behavior of both enantiomers of K in biodegradation studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Recent Trend in Chromatography for Pharmaceutical Analysis)
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