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Educ. Sci., Volume 10, Issue 7 (July 2020) – 19 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): There is broad consensus that flexible in-service training provision is an appropriate way of supplementing lifelong learning by teachers. Since most in-service training in the teaching profession takes place outside normal working hours, flexible and needs-oriented digital provision now has the scope to replace rigid curricula. This article analyses the perception and acceptance of digital learning formats of vocational school teachers in Poland, Italy and Germany. The innovative aspect of the study lies in its link between general perceptions of online learning and technology and findings in relation to a specific online teacher training tool. The study explores how vocational school teachers perceive online learning as a tool for their own in-service training. The findings show that vocational school teachers view online learning overwhelmingly positively as an in-service training format. View this [...] Read more.
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Article
Studying During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Qualitative Inductive Content Analysis of Nursing Students’ Perceptions and Experiences
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10070188 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 19021
Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the latest pandemic with a high rate of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Crises like these can harm the academic functioning and psychophysical health of nursing students. With this qualitative study, we aim to explore how students perceive the [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the latest pandemic with a high rate of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Crises like these can harm the academic functioning and psychophysical health of nursing students. With this qualitative study, we aim to explore how students perceive the COVID-19 crisis and what their personal experiences were while studying during the global pandemic. In the study, data saturation was achieved after analyzing the reports of 33 undergraduate nursing students, using the inductive thematic saturation method. Data were collected using an online form, which students filled out, describing their perceptions and experiences. Qualitative inductive content analysis of students’ reports resulted in 29 codes, indicating different student perceptions of the efficiency of state institutions in crises. All students described the spread of misinformation on social networks and the risky behavior of the population. Most are afraid of infection and worried about the well-being of their family, so they constantly apply protective measures. Students recognize their responsibility to the community and the importance and risks of the nursing profession. They also describe negative experiences with public transportation and residence in the student dorm. The fear of possible infection in the classroom is not significant, however, students are afraid of the clinical settings. Thirteen students reported difficulty in concentrating and learning, while all students praised teacher support and faculty work in this crisis. Full article
Article
Generation Z: Fitting Project Management Soft Skills Competencies—A Mixed-Method Approach
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10070187 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3934
Abstract
Generation Z is arriving in the workforce. Do these youngsters have the skills and traits to fit project teams? This study reviews the literature concerning project management competencies and the traits that are associated with Generation Z. To deepen the understanding of its [...] Read more.
Generation Z is arriving in the workforce. Do these youngsters have the skills and traits to fit project teams? This study reviews the literature concerning project management competencies and the traits that are associated with Generation Z. To deepen the understanding of its members (Gen Zers) traits, we explore the self-awareness of their profile, strengths and weaknesses with an empirical study. We used a mixed-method approach, implementing a survey on a sample of 211 college students about to enter the labor market. Comparing our survey results with the literature, we identified differences that reveal some of the lack of awareness of Gen Zers about their traits. Further analysis also revealed a significant correlation between the most highlighted Generation Z traits and essential project management soft skills, pointing to Generation Z as a promissory asset in the project management field. However, other essential project management (PM) soft skills were not grounded in personality traits. Our findings, namely the lack of awareness and association results, suggest the need for further research on educational approaches and re-thinking and targeting education and training policies that could strengthen Generation Z soft skills. Our results also suggest reflections about whether the Gen Zers traits fit the PM competencies sought by organizations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entrepreneurship Education)
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Article
Perceived Benefits of a Standardized Patient Simulation in Pre-Placement Dietetic Students
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10070186 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1475
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a simulation-based learning (SBL) experience on perceived confidence in monitoring and evaluation, as part of the delivery of nutrition care of pre-placement dietetic students, and to describe their perceived value of the [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a simulation-based learning (SBL) experience on perceived confidence in monitoring and evaluation, as part of the delivery of nutrition care of pre-placement dietetic students, and to describe their perceived value of the learning experience post-placement. A mixed method explanatory sequential study design was used. A confidence appraisal scale was developed and completed by students before (n = 37) and after (n = 33) a low fidelity simulation using a volunteer patient in an acute care setting. Two semi-structured focus group discussions with post-placement students (n = 17) were thematically analysed, grounded in phenomenology. Overall perceived confidence in monitoring and evaluating, as part of nutrition care, improved after the simulation [pre-SBL: 74 (62–83) vs. post-SBL: 89 (81–98.5), p = 0.00]. Two factors emerged to modulate confidence, namely (i) structure and (ii) authentic learning. Structure in turn was modulated by two key factors; safety and process. A low fidelity simulation using a standardised patient can improve students’ perceived confidence in monitoring and evaluation, and a well-structured authentic learning experience was valued and positively perceived by most dietetic students. Full article
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Article
Active Learning: Subtypes, Intra-Exam Comparison, and Student Survey in an Undergraduate Biology Course
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10070185 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2192
Abstract
Active learning improves undergraduate STEM course comprehension; however, student comprehension using different active learning methods and student perception of active learning have not been fully explored. We analyze ten semesters (six years) of an undergraduate biology course (honors and non-honors sections) to understand [...] Read more.
Active learning improves undergraduate STEM course comprehension; however, student comprehension using different active learning methods and student perception of active learning have not been fully explored. We analyze ten semesters (six years) of an undergraduate biology course (honors and non-honors sections) to understand student comprehension and student satisfaction using a variety of active learning methods. First, we describe and introduce active learning subtypes. Second, we explore the efficacy of active learning subtypes. Third, we compare student comprehension between course material taught with active learning or lecturing within a course. Finally, we determine student satisfaction with active learning using a survey. We divide active learning into five subtypes based on established learning taxonomies and student engagement. We explore subtype comprehension efficacy (median % correct) compared to lecture learning (median 92% correct): Recognition (100%), Reflective (100%), Exchanging (94.1%), Constructive (93.8%), and Analytical (93.3%). A bivariate random intercept model adjusted by honors shows improved exam performance in subsequent exams and better course material comprehension when taught using active learning compared to lecture learning (2.2% versus 1.2%). The student survey reveals a positive trend over six years of teaching in the Perceived Individual Utility component of active learning (tau = 0.21, p = 0.014), but not for the other components (General Theoretical Utility, and Team Situation). We apply our findings to the COVID-19 pandemic and suggest active learning adaptations for newly modified online courses. Overall, our results suggest active learning subtypes may be useful for differentiating student comprehension, provide additional evidence that active learning is more beneficial to student comprehension, and show that student perceptions of active learning are positively changing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Undergraduate Research as a High Impact Practice in Higher Education)
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Article
Learning to Teach: How a Simulated Learning Environment Can Connect Theory to Practice in General and Special Education Educator Preparation Programs
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10070184 - 18 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2649
Abstract
Educator preparation programs have moved away from offering interest-based courses that prepare a teacher candidate on a more surface level and have opted to integrate more authentic experiences with technology that are infused into coursework. This research study focused on redesigning key courses [...] Read more.
Educator preparation programs have moved away from offering interest-based courses that prepare a teacher candidate on a more surface level and have opted to integrate more authentic experiences with technology that are infused into coursework. This research study focused on redesigning key courses in both the general and special education graduate-level educator preparation programs (EPPs) to infuse learning experiences through a simulated learning environment (Mursion) to help bridge teacher candidates’ coursework and field experiences, offering them robust experience with high leverage practices and technology that increases their own competency. Data from this study demonstrated that preservice teacher candidate work within the Mursion simulated learning environment increased use of high leverage practices related to strategic teaching, collaboration, differentiation, and providing feedback. Implications for instructional coaching, microteaching, repeated practice, and closing the research to practice gap are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Using Technology in Higher Education—Series 1)
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Article
The Battle between the Correct and Mirror Writings of a Digit in Children’s Recognition Memory
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10070183 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1472
Abstract
Recent research into character reversals in writings produced by occidental children has shown that they mainly reverse the left-oriented digits (1, 2, 3, 7, and 9) and therefore appear to apply a right-orienting rule. But do they produce similar reversal errors when asked [...] Read more.
Recent research into character reversals in writings produced by occidental children has shown that they mainly reverse the left-oriented digits (1, 2, 3, 7, and 9) and therefore appear to apply a right-orienting rule. But do they produce similar reversal errors when asked to recognize the digits? In an experiment, based on eye-tracking observations of 50 children (Mage = 5.4 years), children had to point towards a target digit in a 2 × 2 matrix also containing three distractor digits, one of which was the mirror-reversed writing of the correctly written target digit. This recognition task led to a true “battle” in children’s memory between the two writings of the target digit. This battle is shown in the graphical abstract that represents a heat map from a sub-sample of children (on the left side) and the fixation points map from an individual child (on the right side). Rather than following the predicted right-orienting rule, the children’s responses appeared to be biased towards digits in the right-hand column of the 2 × 2 matrices (when the reversed target digit was not in the same column as the correctly written target digit). As a whole, these findings support the hypotheses that many 4- to 6-year-old’s representations of the digit writings are unoriented in their memory and that these children may adopt different solutions to overcome this lack of orientation depending on whether they write or read. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Early Childhood Education)
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Article
Using E-Learning to Deliver In-Service Teacher Training in the Vocational Education Sector: Perception and Acceptance in Poland, Italy and Germany
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10070182 - 13 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3886
Abstract
For teachers in vocational education and training (VET), lifelong learning and related further training is important to meet the growing demands of the teaching profession. This paper analyses the perception of technology and e-learning of teachers in Poland, Italy and Germany. The innovative [...] Read more.
For teachers in vocational education and training (VET), lifelong learning and related further training is important to meet the growing demands of the teaching profession. This paper analyses the perception of technology and e-learning of teachers in Poland, Italy and Germany. The innovative aspect of this study lies in its combination of general perceptions of online learning and technology on the one hand and findings in relation to a specific online Teacher Training Tool on the other hand. The aims of this study are to show the relevance of e-learning in teacher training and to measure the perception and acceptance of this form of further training by VET teachers. The results should provide support for the further design and development of online education formats for teachers. The evaluation was carried out using a quantitative cross-cutting study using a standardised questionnaire. The results of an online questionnaire show that the approach of online learning as a form of teacher training was met with great interest among VET teachers and that the perception of one’s own benefit from such a training option was positive. The quality of the online learning units is decisive for the acceptance of e-learning opportunities. One limitation of this study is that the diverse country-specific cultural aspects and systems of teacher training could only be taken into account to a limited extent. This paper enables international comparative research on teacher training to be integrated using e-learning formats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue International Vocational Education and Training)
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Article
Assessing the Effectiveness of Differentiated Instructional Approaches for Teaching Math to Preschoolers with Different Levels of Executive Functions
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10070181 - 10 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1973
Abstract
Previous studies have found that the development of mathematical abilities, along with the development of executive functions, predict students’ subsequent academic performance. The present study aimed to assess the effectiveness of teaching the concept of area to preschool children with different levels of [...] Read more.
Previous studies have found that the development of mathematical abilities, along with the development of executive functions, predict students’ subsequent academic performance. The present study aimed to assess the effectiveness of teaching the concept of area to preschool children with different levels of cognitive processes (CP) including executive functions and short-term memory. The experiment introduced the concept by using three different instructional approaches: traditional, contextual, and modeling. The sample included 100 children aged 6–7 years (M = 6.5 years), of whom 43% were boys. Each experimental condition included children with low, middle, and high levels of CP, as determined based on the NEPSY-II subtests. The children with low CP levels showed higher results in assimilating the notion of area after being taught using the contextual approach. In contrast, children with high CP levels showed a higher mastery of the concept of area following the use of the modeling approach. The results suggest the importance of CP development in building ways of mastering mathematical content. This contributes to choosing the optimal path of teaching mathematics for preschoolers, taking into account the development of their cognitive processes to improve their academic performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mathematics Education and Implications to Educational Psychology)
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Article
COVID-19 and the Digital Transformation of Education: What Are We Learning on 4IR in South Africa?
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10070180 - 09 Jul 2020
Cited by 74 | Viewed by 20940
Abstract
The study sought to assess the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic in motivating digital transformation in the education sector in South Africa. The study was premised on the fact that learning in South Africa and the rest of the world came to a [...] Read more.
The study sought to assess the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic in motivating digital transformation in the education sector in South Africa. The study was premised on the fact that learning in South Africa and the rest of the world came to a standstill due to the lockdown necessitated by COVID-19. To assess the impact, the study tracked the rate at which the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) tools were used by various institutions during the COVID-19 lockdown. Data were obtained from secondary sources. The findings are that, in South Africa, during the lockdown, a variety of 4IR tools were unleashed from primary education to higher and tertiary education where educational activities switched to remote (online) learning. These observations reflect that South Africa generally has some pockets of excellence to drive the education sector into the 4IR, which has the potential to increase access. Access to education, particularly at a higher education level, has always been a challenge due to a limited number of spaces available. Much as this pandemic has brought with it massive human suffering across the globe, it has presented an opportunity to assess successes and failures of deployed technologies, costs associated with them, and scaling these technologies to improve access. Full article
Article
The Nexus of Service Quality, Student Satisfaction and Student Retention in Small Private Colleges in South Africa
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10070179 - 06 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2019
Abstract
Small private colleges provide an important service to society while operating in a dynamic and competitive environment. The inability to operate in a manner that delivers desirable levels of satisfaction to students can prove fatal, more so given the relatively small size of [...] Read more.
Small private colleges provide an important service to society while operating in a dynamic and competitive environment. The inability to operate in a manner that delivers desirable levels of satisfaction to students can prove fatal, more so given the relatively small size of their student populations. So, for these colleges, student retention is a critical condiment of business success and so the pursuit of service quality becomes amplified. In acknowledgement of the subjective nature of service quality that makes service quality studies very context specific, this empirical study takes a quantitative research approach to investigate the extent of association, if any, between service quality dimensions, student satisfaction and student retention in the specific context of small private colleges in South Africa. Study findings indicate the existence of statistically-significant positive (though moderate) associations between dimensions of service quality and student satisfaction as well as between student satisfaction and student retention. Though results ought not to be generalized, the study’s findings nonetheless, bode useful lessons for small private colleges, if the quest for improved business performance, based on student retention, is to be realized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Higher Education)
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Article
Emotional and Spiritual Intelligence of Future Leaders: Challenges for Education
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10070178 - 03 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2759
Abstract
The study was focused on understanding emotional and spiritual intelligence, and leadership linkages. The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between emotional and spiritual intelligence and self-leadership skills of university students in the fields of management, as potential future leaders. [...] Read more.
The study was focused on understanding emotional and spiritual intelligence, and leadership linkages. The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between emotional and spiritual intelligence and self-leadership skills of university students in the fields of management, as potential future leaders. The data were collected using three scales: Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS), Spiritual Intelligence Inventory (SISRI-24), and Self-Leadership questionnaire. The study was conducted among 190 university students. The results obtained show that there are connections between emotional and spiritual intelligence and self-leadership. The study may be a good starting point for further research in this field and lead to reflection about spiritual knowledge on the leadership education program. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research and Trends in Higher Education)
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Article
Progression of Cognitive-Affective States During Learning in Kindergarteners: Bringing Together Physiological, Observational and Performance Data
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10070177 - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1524
Abstract
It has been shown that combining data from multiple sources, such as observations, self-reports, and performance with physiological markers offers better insights into cognitive-affective states during the learning process. Through a study with 12 kindergarteners, we explore the role of utilizing insights from [...] Read more.
It has been shown that combining data from multiple sources, such as observations, self-reports, and performance with physiological markers offers better insights into cognitive-affective states during the learning process. Through a study with 12 kindergarteners, we explore the role of utilizing insights from multiple data sources, as a potential arsenal to supplement and complement existing assessments methods in understanding cognitive-affective states across two main pedagogical approaches—constructionist and instructionist—as children explored learning a chosen Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) concept. We present the trends that emerged across pedagogies from different data sources and illustrate the potential value of additional data channels through case illustrations. We also offer several recommendations for such studies, particularly when collecting physiological data, and summarize key challenges that provide potential avenues for future work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Technology Enhanced Education)
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Article
Patrimonializarte: A Heritage Education Program Based on New Technologies and Local Heritage
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10070176 - 01 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1700
Abstract
This paper presents the design of the Patrimonializarte program, which has been implemented in six classes and three different educational levels in two schools in Galicia (Spain). It involves working with elements of heritage in proximity to the schools’ pupils by employing Information [...] Read more.
This paper presents the design of the Patrimonializarte program, which has been implemented in six classes and three different educational levels in two schools in Galicia (Spain). It involves working with elements of heritage in proximity to the schools’ pupils by employing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools. The objectives are (a) to find out if the design is coherent and relevant according to expert judgement and (b) to discover whether the activities related with new technologies are effective according to the evaluation of those involved in the program. This is evaluation research employing mixed methods in which a collective study of cases is carried out. The main results show (1) the evaluation of the design and the tools of the program achieve an optimal degree of agreement according to the panel of experts as far as the variables measured are concerned, and (2) the schoolchildren and teaching staff provide a positive evaluation of the use of ICT tools for working with heritage. E-learning and m-learning make it possible to motivate pupils in the learning and teaching process. Working with ICT tools acquires importance with regard to the possibilities they offer to disseminate the heritage. An integral evaluation of programs is considered relevant in order to understand their multi-dimensionality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Learning in Open and Flexible Environments)
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Article
Pedagogical Coordination in Secondary Schools from a Distributed Perspective. Adaptation of the Distributed Leadership Inventory (DLI) in the Spanish Context
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10070175 - 01 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1489
Abstract
Introduction: Leadership as the second factor in school improvement needs potential leaders to be effective. Method: The present study aimed to know the potential capacity of leaders in Spanish secondary schools through the adaptation of the DLI questionnaire to Spanish. To accurately adapt [...] Read more.
Introduction: Leadership as the second factor in school improvement needs potential leaders to be effective. Method: The present study aimed to know the potential capacity of leaders in Spanish secondary schools through the adaptation of the DLI questionnaire to Spanish. To accurately adapt this questionnaire, the present research group conducted content validity processes in 2017, using the Delphi Method, in which eight experts from the Spanish Network for Research into Leadership and Academic Improvement were invited to participate (RILME). As part of a pilot test, preliminary tools were administered to 547 participants from secondary schools in Granada and Jaén (Spain). Results: The present study reports on the adaptation of the DLI instrument within the Spanish context. Acceptably high values were obtained in the analysis of reliability and internal consistency, suggesting that this item can be reliably utilised for the exploration of the dynamics of internal functioning in secondary education and the evaluation of the distribution of leadership characteristics. Conclusions: The pilot study highlights how heads of studies and department heads are potential leaders, making it easier to set up and sustain educational projects in schools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ICT in Education Contexts of 21 Century)
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Article
Performance Appraisal in Universities—Assessing the Tension in Public Service Motivation (PSM)
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10070174 - 01 Jul 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2397
Abstract
Performance appraisal (PA) has become a prominent feature on the agenda of higher education institutions (HEIs). However, the traditional culture of the typical university is based on individual commitment, scientific teamwork, dedication to public service and intrinsic motivation of the academic staff, all [...] Read more.
Performance appraisal (PA) has become a prominent feature on the agenda of higher education institutions (HEIs). However, the traditional culture of the typical university is based on individual commitment, scientific teamwork, dedication to public service and intrinsic motivation of the academic staff, all of which are the essential components of public service motivation (PSM). By interviewing key informants from three public universities, the purpose of our research was to identify various tensions between PA and PSM, by asking what is the impact of PA on PSM of academics in public HEIs. Our findings have shown that the purposefulness of PA activities may not be fully understood by public HEI management and academics. The existing tensions between PA normative aims of motivation and fair evaluation and its descriptive effects of increasing bureaucracy and dissatisfaction might undermine PSM, an essential driving force that motivates academics to work in public HEIs. Full article
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Article
Study Approaches of Life Science Students Using the Revised Two-Factor Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F)
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10070173 - 30 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1680
Abstract
Students’ approaches to learning can vary between students of different ages, genders, years, degrees, or cultural contexts. The aim of this study was to assess the approaches to learning of different students of life science degrees. The Revised Two-Factor Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) [...] Read more.
Students’ approaches to learning can vary between students of different ages, genders, years, degrees, or cultural contexts. The aim of this study was to assess the approaches to learning of different students of life science degrees. The Revised Two-Factor Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) has been used to assess the approaches to learning of 505 students of thirteen different subjects of four different degrees at Universitat Politècnica de València in order to study the factors that influence their approaches. Results show a higher deep approach of the students. Differences were observed between subjects and gender, not related to level (bachelor or master) or year. The item reliability analysis showed a high consistency for the main scales, but not for the secondary scales of the R-SPQ-2F questionnaire. High correlation between the deep and surface scales were observed. These data can provide more information to the teachers, which may help them to develop strategies focused on promoting a deeper approach to learning for the students, more adapted to their subject, level, and year. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Higher Education)
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Case Report
The Design of Applying Gamification in an Immersive Virtual Reality Virtual Laboratory for Powder-Bed Binder Jetting 3DP Training
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10070172 - 29 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1852
Abstract
The integration of Virtual Reality (VR) and gamification techniques can be used to produce a fun virtual laboratory, including virtual spaces and educational content. This study developed a prototype for a virtual laboratory for powder-bed binder jetting three-dimensional printing (3DP) training in universities. [...] Read more.
The integration of Virtual Reality (VR) and gamification techniques can be used to produce a fun virtual laboratory, including virtual spaces and educational content. This study developed a prototype for a virtual laboratory for powder-bed binder jetting three-dimensional printing (3DP) training in universities. The 3DP virtual laboratory is expected to address problems encountered in teaching, training, and practicing with powder-bed binder jetting 3DP. The 3DP Training Virtual Laboratory was developed by using immersive VR technology to simulate two-handed operations. The user evaluation of the first version prototype revealed that the students lacked learning interest and motivation when using the prototype. Thus, gamification technology was integrated into the 3DP virtual laboratory prototype in the mid-implementation development phase. After refining and systematically developing the model to meet the modified requirements, user evaluations on the game elements showed positive feedback. This study concluded that elements of gamification design should be considered at the beginning of the educational or training system development in order to enhance students’ motivation or engagement. Full article
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Editorial
Silanes for Building Protection: A Case Study in Systems Thinking Approach to Materials Science Education
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10070171 - 29 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1547
Abstract
Silanes, and organically modified silanes in particular, are commercially used to protect the built environment from deterioration and, in indoor applications, to minimize water vapor condensation and microbiological contamination. Increasing their uptake, we argue in this study, includes the need to adopt a [...] Read more.
Silanes, and organically modified silanes in particular, are commercially used to protect the built environment from deterioration and, in indoor applications, to minimize water vapor condensation and microbiological contamination. Increasing their uptake, we argue in this study, includes the need to adopt a systems-thinking view of this green chemistry technology. After identifying the key advantages of these coatings, we highlight important educational consequences to undergraduate courses and doctoral programs in chemistry and materials science which are common in many research topics, well beyond nanocoating science and technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Systems Thinking Approach to Science Education)
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Article
The Development of Pedagogical Content Knowledge about Teaching Redox Reactions in German Chemistry Teacher Education
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10070170 - 28 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1821
Abstract
This paper presents a qualitative cross-level study with a focus on prospective and in-service teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of redox reactions in Germany. The objective was to investigate and analyze the differences in PCK between those in pre-service teacher education and those [...] Read more.
This paper presents a qualitative cross-level study with a focus on prospective and in-service teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of redox reactions in Germany. The objective was to investigate and analyze the differences in PCK between those in pre-service teacher education and those working as teachers. The sample included four different groups: bachelor’s students, master’s students, graduate teacher trainees, and in-service teachers. Data were collected by an online questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. The online questionnaire was developed based on misconceptions and learning difficulties regarding redox reactions. Sixty-two participants answered the questionnaire and the interviews were carried out with twelve participants. The results revealed that teaching experience makes a difference. Pre-service teachers described quite traditional and content-focused approaches while experienced teachers emphasized the application of the content. Experienced teachers showed a more developed repertoire of instructional strategies. Participants differed also in their knowledge about learners and the curriculum. Concerning assessment, practices were at a quite general pedagogical knowledge level and not domain-specific. Although teacher education in Germany includes several chances for internships, it is suggested that central aspects of teachers’ PCK start to develop and settle only when they begin to work as teachers. To avoid perpetuating traditional practices, investment in continuous professional development is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Curriculum and Instruction)
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