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Educ. Sci., Volume 10, Issue 8 (August 2020) – 24 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Beginning teachers have many needs as they enter the profession, including the need to develop teaching competencies and strengthen pedagogical approaches. Traditional forms of professional development have been criticized for failing to effect classroom practice and inadequately supporting new teachers. Design-based professional learning involves continuous cycles of designing learning tasks and analyzing evidence-based work with peers during and between sessions, supported by a collaboration with researcher–practitioners. This study uses quantitative and qualitative methods to examine how new teachers were supported in their work towards improving student learning outcomes while strengthening their own teaching capabilities. School–university partnerships offer a promising and sustainable architecture for developing networks of support as new teachers become designers of learning. [...] Read more.
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Article
Student Engagement and Disengagement as a Collective Action Problem
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10080212 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1254
Abstract
Isolated teachers in stand-alone American schools are expected to engage diverse students in the quest to facilitate their academic learning and achievement. This strategy assumes that all students will come to school ready and able to learn, and educators in stand-alone schools can [...] Read more.
Isolated teachers in stand-alone American schools are expected to engage diverse students in the quest to facilitate their academic learning and achievement. This strategy assumes that all students will come to school ready and able to learn, and educators in stand-alone schools can meet the needs of all students. Student disengagement gets short shrift in this framework, and so does teacher disengagement. A growing body of research emphasizes needs for nuanced engagement frameworks, better data systems, customized interventions facilitated by intervention registries, and bridge building between schools and community health, mental health, and social service agencies. Here, engagement and disengagement challenges are reframed as opportunities for collective action, including interprofessional teams, community agency–school partnerships, cross-sector collective impact formations, cradle-to-career system building, and community development initiatives. Together these collective action forms signal new institutional designs which are fit for purpose when child/family poverty, social exclusion, and social isolation conspire against student engagement and school success. Full article
Article
Including the Dark Side of Entrepreneurship in the Entrepreneurship Education
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10080211 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1205
Abstract
Pursuing an entrepreneurial career is often rewarding in terms of both economic and psychological outcomes. However, becoming an entrepreneur also has its darker side that affects professional and personal life. Meanwhile, the positivity bias is prevalent in entrepreneurial education and research. It is [...] Read more.
Pursuing an entrepreneurial career is often rewarding in terms of both economic and psychological outcomes. However, becoming an entrepreneur also has its darker side that affects professional and personal life. Meanwhile, the positivity bias is prevalent in entrepreneurial education and research. It is recognized as emphasizing the advantages of becoming an entrepreneur and giving considerably less attention to potential downsides. Based on the theoretical model of met expectations, it is proposed that building an accurate and balanced image of the entrepreneurial career is crucial to help students prepare to pursue it successfully. Using data from SEAS (Survey on Entrepreneurial Attitudes of Students) Project, authors quantitatively test the perception of the severity of negative aspects of entrepreneurship among 513 business students from northern Poland. Further, the results of 16 semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with mature and experienced entrepreneurs from the same region are presented. They are focused on the entrepreneurs’ perspective on the experienced dark sides and reveal employed coping strategies. A call is made to include these findings in designing university entrepreneurship programs by eliciting the awareness of the existence of the dark sides and indicating the means of their attenuation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entrepreneurship Education)
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Article
Cross-Sectional Study of Self-Concept and Gender in Relation to Physical Activity and Martial Arts in Spanish Adolescents during the COVID-19 Lockdown
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10080210 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1635
Abstract
The COVID-19 lockdown has negatively affected individuals’ welfare. However, there has been no research published heretofore about the levels of self-concept (SC) in adolescents, nor how having practised martial arts (MA) or any physical activity (PA) before the lockdown may have influenced the [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 lockdown has negatively affected individuals’ welfare. However, there has been no research published heretofore about the levels of self-concept (SC) in adolescents, nor how having practised martial arts (MA) or any physical activity (PA) before the lockdown may have influenced the SC in that time. Hence, this study aimed to analyze some demographic, physical, and psychosocial parameters in Spanish adolescents throughout the COVID-19 quarantine through a cross-sectional investigation, establishing correlations among these factors. Methods: The present study had a descriptive, comparative, and cross-sectional design. The sample comprised of 54 (39.7%) male and 82 (60.3%) female Spanish adolescents aged 12–18 (M = 14.49; SD = 1.80). An ad-hoc questionnaire collected sociodemographic data; the self-concept Form 5 (AF5) questionnaire obtained data on SC dimensions. Results: There were some differences among the SC dimensions, with family and academic dimensions having higher values than the physical and emotional ones. Females’ academic SC was higher than that of males (p = 0.019). The practice of PA before the lockdown was positively associated with physical (p < 0.001) and social (p = 0.012) SC, yet there was no significant association between the previous practice of MA and SC (p > 0.050). Conclusions: the findings suggest that the COVID-19 lockdown negatively affected Spanish adolescents by decreasing their total SC and some dimensions of it, although PA may buffer psychological harmfulness in adolescents. Full article
Article
Effects of Block vs. Traditional Scheduling on High School Science Success—Lessons from Biology Classes
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10080209 - 13 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1422
Abstract
Many studies investigate the effects of block vs. traditional class scheduling on the students’ success in high-school science classes. However, it is rare for studies to investigate the interactive effect of class scheduling and students’ average performance on the students’ success. We investigated [...] Read more.
Many studies investigate the effects of block vs. traditional class scheduling on the students’ success in high-school science classes. However, it is rare for studies to investigate the interactive effect of class scheduling and students’ average performance on the students’ success. We investigated how block (B) vs. single (S) class scheduling, students’ average performance and their interaction affect students’ success in high school biology course. The study included 281 high school students (1st to 4th grade; 124 students from S-, 157 from B-scheduled classes) participating in: (1) first written exam conducted to evaluate students’ initial knowledge; (2) teaching in block- vs. single-scheduled classes; (3) second written exam conducted to assess students’ achievement after block- vs. single-scheduled classes. Block-scheduled classes improved students’ performance in 3rd grade only. In 1st and 2nd grade, students from single-scheduled classes achieved better results. In 4th grade, there was no significant difference in success among block- vs. single-scheduled classes. Block-scheduled classes did not affect students’ success equally across all student performance categories. When estimating the effects of class scheduling on students’ success, students’ age, prior knowledge, overall performance and complexity of educational topics should be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section STEM Education)
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Article
Emotional Self-Regulation through Introjective Practices in Physical Education
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10080208 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1628
Abstract
This study analyzed emotional self-regulation in relation to K-9 and K-10 school children’s emotional intelligence defined on three dimensions: Emotional attention, clarity of feelings, and emotional repair. The objective was to analyze the students’ perceptions of skills and capacities that promoted the awareness [...] Read more.
This study analyzed emotional self-regulation in relation to K-9 and K-10 school children’s emotional intelligence defined on three dimensions: Emotional attention, clarity of feelings, and emotional repair. The objective was to analyze the students’ perceptions of skills and capacities that promoted the awareness of emotions when performing introjective motor practices, i.e., motor skill exercises in which the inner logic provokes a process of sensorial self-awareness and psychosomatic balance. A total of 90 fourth-year primary school students from four different schools participated in the study and a reduced version of the Trait-Meta Mood Scale (TMMS) questionnaire was used to measure students’ individual self-regulation. First, pre- and post-test results showed significant differences with a 20.1% improvement in the three dimensions of intrapersonal emotional attention (emotional attention, clarity of feeling, and emotional repair) after having performed a set of in-class introjective practices. Second, while there were no significant differences between the boys and girls during the pre-test, significant changes—an 8.1% difference—were found in the post-test results for girls. Full article
Article
Supporting New Teachers as Designers of Learning
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10080207 - 13 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1977
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine a professional learning intervention designed to support new teachers with implementing professional practice competencies. Partners from a school authority joined researcher-practitioners from a university to engage in designing a professional learning series for new teachers. [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to examine a professional learning intervention designed to support new teachers with implementing professional practice competencies. Partners from a school authority joined researcher-practitioners from a university to engage in designing a professional learning series for new teachers. A design-based research approach using quantitative (pre- and post-surveys) and qualitative data (artifacts of learning, field notes, classroom observations) were analyzed over one year. There were over 450 participants involved in the professional learning series. The findings indicated the professional learning intervention positioned new teachers as designers of learning engaging in continuous cycles of design–enactment–reflection and strengthened their pedagogical capacity to interconnect professional practice competencies with support from a community of learners. The findings from this study have implications for supporting new teachers during a period of induction and demonstrate one way to provide new teachers with the foundation for continual growth throughout their career. Full article
Article
Ethical Data Collection and Recognizing the Impact of Semi-Structured Interviews on Research Respondents
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10080206 - 11 Aug 2020
Viewed by 2211
Abstract
This article explores the complex relationship between researcher and respondent through shared experience and interaction in the interview processes. Ethical considerations related to the balance of power and potential for change in respondents’ professional actions and decisions post-interview are discussed whilst problematizing the [...] Read more.
This article explores the complex relationship between researcher and respondent through shared experience and interaction in the interview processes. Ethical considerations related to the balance of power and potential for change in respondents’ professional actions and decisions post-interview are discussed whilst problematizing the concept of truly informed consent. Informed by critical incident analysis, the article draws on the researcher’s experience of undertaking a qualitative-based study founded in the principles of phenomenological hermeneutics. Concluded in 2016, the research investigates the impact of pedagogical training programs on respondents’ teaching practice and engagement with professional learning. Respondents, experienced lecturers working in the adult education sectors in Scotland and Wales, contacted the researcher to share their post-interview experiences. The research was not designed to elicit change in respondents, nor influence professional choice or practice. However, each communication received attributed participating in the research as the source for renewed interest and engagement in professional learning. Although research interviews becoming an enriching experience for respondents is a recorded phenomenon the ascribed effects were profound, potentially life-changing, and not fully anticipated. Ethical considerations for researchers designing and undertaking interview-based research are considered alongside the potential for engagement in research interviews as a catalyst for professional learning in practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Post-Compulsory Education)
Article
From Theory to Practice of Promoting Student Engagement in Business and Law-Related Disciplines: The Case of Undergraduate Economics Education
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10080205 - 10 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1410
Abstract
Higher education is experiencing a paradigm shift from passive learning towards active learning. The COVID-19 pandemic has further presented an opportunity for education providers to enhance teaching that includes non-campus modes. However, concerns regarding student engagement lie at the heart of the transition [...] Read more.
Higher education is experiencing a paradigm shift from passive learning towards active learning. The COVID-19 pandemic has further presented an opportunity for education providers to enhance teaching that includes non-campus modes. However, concerns regarding student engagement lie at the heart of the transition to active learning environments in the context of the increased demand for online education. Therefore, promoting student engagement has become an educational priority since greater student engagement translates into valued student experiences, higher academic performance, and increased retention rates. This paper semi-systematically reviews the literature on student engagement in undergraduate economics education. Close emphasis is also paid to the relationships between the direct measures of disengagement such as absenteeism on student performance in economics. The student engagement framework developed by Frederiks, Blumenfeld, and Paris (2004) is used to classify the dimensions of student engagement and the factors that influence the different dimensions of engagement. The literature reviewed is predominately occupied with behavioral aspects of engagement with little attention towards capturing the cognitive and emotional aspects of student engagement. Three key recommendations are noted from the study in order for business school educators and higher education policy makers to promote student engagement in economics education. Future research on student engagement in undergraduate business education should focus more on capturing the cognitive and emotional aspects of student engagement to inform policymaking in promoting student engagement. Full article
Article
‘Scientific Literacy’: An Exercise in Model Building
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10080204 - 07 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1567
Abstract
‘Literacy’ and ‘science’ are power words and the interaction between them is of potential interest to people working at other boundaries between text and content, such as that characterising wider disciplinary literacy. ‘Scientific literacy’ has a deep enough literature base to support an [...] Read more.
‘Literacy’ and ‘science’ are power words and the interaction between them is of potential interest to people working at other boundaries between text and content, such as that characterising wider disciplinary literacy. ‘Scientific literacy’ has a deep enough literature base to support an attempt to build a model of these interactions. If robust, such a model could synthesise existing literature and resolve differences within a narrower range of journals. This quantitative review suggests such a model based on a wide review of previous literature and then challenges it by comparing publication patterns in premium international journals dealing specifically with research in science education. The emergent model comprises interaction between Use of, Engagement with and Access to science and its application revealed changes in publication patterns both within and between the five science education research journals surveyed. The use of power words can obscure, rather than clarify, discussions that lead to curriculum and pedagogical decisions. Robust models can resolve multiple components of a complex field and make it easier to understand for newcomers, easier to explain when change seems necessary to those more deeply involved, and then expedite the prediction of fruitful areas for further work. Full article
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Article
“Making” Waves: How Young Learners Connect to Their Natural World through Third Space
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10080203 - 07 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1090
Abstract
In a world that grows increasingly aware of ecological problems such as global warming, rising sea levels, and pollution, we need to reconsider how we connect ourselves to the natural world around us. In this paper, we view makerspaces as ideal locations to [...] Read more.
In a world that grows increasingly aware of ecological problems such as global warming, rising sea levels, and pollution, we need to reconsider how we connect ourselves to the natural world around us. In this paper, we view makerspaces as ideal locations to shape children’s emotional, sociocultural, and educational consciousnesses about the environment and our multi-layered roles undertaken to live in, and conserve, it. We apply third space, makerspace, and relational value theories in the analysis of a research project conducted with children at an early childhood centre. This project invited children to discuss ocean conservation prompted by the picturebook Flotsam (2006) and create three-dimensional exhibits that express how they visualize ocean conservation. Our research shows that children develop strong emotional connections to tangible representations of conservation when they are given the time to invest in making them, and that these emotional connections are driving forces for relational values that create conservation-oriented mindsets. It also shows how important context is for shaping the ways children learn, and that providing opportunities to examine conservation through makerspaces as a third space encourages children to create empathetic and personal relationships with the natural world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Young Children, Maker Literacies and Social Change)
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Article
The Acquisition of Computational Thinking through Mentoring: An Exploratory Study
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10080202 - 07 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1367
Abstract
Educational robotics are commonly present in kindergarten and primary school classrooms, particularly Bee-bot. Its ease of use allows the introduction of computer programming to young children in educational contexts from a science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics (STEAM) perspective. Despite this rise, there [...] Read more.
Educational robotics are commonly present in kindergarten and primary school classrooms, particularly Bee-bot. Its ease of use allows the introduction of computer programming to young children in educational contexts from a science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics (STEAM) perspective. Despite this rise, there are still few investigations that collect evidence on the effectiveness of robotic interventions. Although mentoring experiences with robotics had been carried out in educational contexts, this work explores their effect on the acquisition of computational thinking skills through mentoring. Participants from the second grade, aged seven through eight years, were exposed to two sessions of robotics with Bee-bot in order to promote hands-on experimentation. The sessions were conducted by nine students of the fourth grade (the mentors), aged 10 to 11 years. A descriptive case-study methodology was employed for the analysis of the mentoring intervention. The effect of the mentoring experience was assessed in terms of motivation and computational thinking skills. Mixed quantitative and qualitative results show two important findings: (i) Mentoring is a powerful tool to be considered for improvement of the motivation and cooperation of students in their teaching–learning process, and (ii) computational thinking skills can be acquired by second-grade students through a mentoring process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in STEM Education)
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Article
The Feasibility of Attention Training for Reducing Mind-Wandering and Digital Multitasking in High Schools
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10080201 - 06 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1639
Abstract
During academic activities, adolescents must manage both the internal distraction of mind-wandering and the external distraction of digital media. Attention training has emerged as a promising strategy for minimizing these distractions, but scalable interventions that can deliver effective attention training in high schools [...] Read more.
During academic activities, adolescents must manage both the internal distraction of mind-wandering and the external distraction of digital media. Attention training has emerged as a promising strategy for minimizing these distractions, but scalable interventions that can deliver effective attention training in high schools are still needed. The present investigation used a one-group pre-post design to examine the feasibility and outcomes of a digital attention training course at a public high school. The intervention was delivered with reasonably strong fidelity of implementation, with students completing 92% of the lessons and 79% of the daily exercises. At baseline, students reported mind-wandering more frequently during class than they multitasked, and mind-wandering was more negatively correlated with classroom focus. From pre-test to post-test (n = 229), students reported improved emotional regulation and reduced mind-wandering during daily life. Among the 76% of students who felt they paid attention in class less than they should, classroom focus improved significantly. During class, these students reported significantly less mind-wandering but slightly greater digital multitasking. During homework, they reported significantly less digital multitasking but only marginally reduced mind-wandering. Collectively, these results suggest that online interventions could be a scalable way of providing attention training in high schools, but that future work must consider the role of both mind-wandering and digital multitasking. Full article
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Article
Use of Twitter as an Educational Resource. Analysis of Concepts of Active and Trainee Teachers
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10080200 - 05 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1146
Abstract
The use of innovative tools is a key element in the improvement of the educational process, and consequently, the use of social networks as a means of training to improve not only the learning of students, but also to improve the expectations of [...] Read more.
The use of innovative tools is a key element in the improvement of the educational process, and consequently, the use of social networks as a means of training to improve not only the learning of students, but also to improve the expectations of the teacher. Therefore, in this research we tried to investigate the incidence of social networks as facilitators of resources and didactic/playful experiences. Starting from a qualitative methodology, a descriptive–interpretative study of the information from 31 interviews with both primary education teachers and future teachers who were in training and in their last year of initial training was approached. The results indicate that the interviewees confirmed the great usefulness of social networks as educational resources and for teacher communication. The possibilities of social networks within the educational field are overly broad. They become a way of interaction between teacher and student, encourage dialogue, share didactic resources, favor collaborative learning, and develop communication skills in all aspects. In short, these are results that have a special incidence and impact on the field and social development, since we are referring fundamentally to the improvements that are produced in interpersonal relations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Technology Enhanced Education)
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Article
Factors Affecting University Choice Behaviour in the UK Higher Education
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10080199 - 05 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1804
Abstract
Although regulations and established practices in academia have focused on a data-rich model of performance information, both to evidence operational capability and to support recruitment, it is considered that this approach has been largely ineffective in addressing student choice behaviour. Historical studies, business, [...] Read more.
Although regulations and established practices in academia have focused on a data-rich model of performance information, both to evidence operational capability and to support recruitment, it is considered that this approach has been largely ineffective in addressing student choice behaviour. Historical studies, business, psychology, and technology theories have pointed to the oversimplification that a data-led strategy can result in for mapping human behaviour. In this case, decision processes of students are understood to be nuanced by a vast range of factors with variable relevance for everyone. The effort of the study is to address how Systems Thinking, related policy development, and associated enabling techniques can be applied to the field to provide both a deeper understanding of the dictates of student behaviour and, by extension, the appropriate foci for data provision, enabling comparative business performance assessment of Higher Education Providers. This research has followed the Design Science Research (DSR) methodology; the developed model has been successfully evaluated against the understanding of education practitioners in an interview consultation process of the methodology. The analysis of interview feedback and the development and refinement of the proposed model generate the principle findings of the study. The model outlines the factors that might affect students’ choices in the UK Higher Education. Full article
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Case Report
Active Learning Augmented Reality for STEAM Education—A Case Study
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10080198 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2908
Abstract
Immersive technologies are rapidly transforming the field of education. Amongst them, Augmented Reality (AR) has shown promise as a resource, particularly for education in Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, and Mathematics (STEAM). There are, however, few teachers deploying this new medium in the classroom [...] Read more.
Immersive technologies are rapidly transforming the field of education. Amongst them, Augmented Reality (AR) has shown promise as a resource, particularly for education in Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, and Mathematics (STEAM). There are, however, few teachers deploying this new medium in the classroom directly, and, consequently, only a few, elect students benefit from the AR-enriched offers. Curricula are already overloaded, and schools generally lack developmental resources, thus leaving no room for experimentation. This situation is further aggravated by the too few educational applications available with sufficient learning content. In this article, we investigate the method of Active Learning for the teaching of STEAM subjects, using a format where students are tasked with building an AR application as part of their learning. We evaluate the applicability of the Active Learning for STEAM subjects with a qualitative, case study approach, applying the workshop format as an extracurricular activity in our work with students from a range of secondary schools in Oxford. We discuss how the format works, so it can be embedded into regular curricula, not just as an extracurricular activity, also providing an overview on the involved teaching units and rationale. All teams in our preview audience of the case study succeeded in building working applications, several of impressive complexity. Students found that the lessons were enjoyable and AR technology can enhance their learning experience. The Active Learning method served as a catalyst for students’ skills development, with the case study providing evidence of learning to code, working with a physics simulation engine, ray-tracing, and geometry, learning how to manage teams and interact with other students/instructors, and engineering a working prototype of a game. We consequentially argue that combining the STEM subjects and the arts, using the proposed Active Learning format, is able to provide a more holistic and engaging education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Augmented and Mixed Reality in Education)
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Article
Postgraduate Studies on Lean Management—A Review of Initiatives
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10080197 - 31 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1413
Abstract
The article elaborates upon a successful model of postgraduate studies on lean manufacturing. The subject of the research was nine editions of the Kaizen Academy postgraduate studies organized by the Warsaw University of Technology and the Kaizen Institute in the years 2009–2018, that [...] Read more.
The article elaborates upon a successful model of postgraduate studies on lean manufacturing. The subject of the research was nine editions of the Kaizen Academy postgraduate studies organized by the Warsaw University of Technology and the Kaizen Institute in the years 2009–2018, that still enjoys interest in the market. A detailed qualitative analysis of this case, followed by a comparative analysis with other post-graduate programs of this type on the national, European, and global level should make it possible to find what is necessary to launch and actively operate for a long time in the (considerably competitive) market of qualification raising programs related to Lean Management (critical success factors). The study has also identified the differences between a successful program, analyzed in detail, and other available programs described in the literature and on the Internet. This has been achieved through a structured analysis of thirty-nine postgraduate programs identified by querying scientific databases and the Google Internet search engine. Best practices and models of postgraduate education on Lean Management have been discussed, and the thirty-nine programs comprising the identified sample have been compared. Considering the very general level of the data available in terms of the organization of postgraduate programs, it has also been assessed if they follow constructivism and experiential learning paradigms. This has been achieved by including the industrial days/visit indicator in the comparison. Given its high value, it has been identified as a success factor of the postgraduate curriculum on Lean Management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entrepreneurship Education)
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Article
Data Mining in Entrepreneurial Competencies Diagnosis
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10080196 - 28 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1340
Abstract
The aim of the paper is to diagnose the entrepreneurship competency levels among students to identify differences in competencies and their levels regarding gender, material status, and professional situation. In addition, the goal of the analysis is to indicate the competencies that need [...] Read more.
The aim of the paper is to diagnose the entrepreneurship competency levels among students to identify differences in competencies and their levels regarding gender, material status, and professional situation. In addition, the goal of the analysis is to indicate the competencies that need to be strengthened among individual groups of students. The research was conducted using a questionnaire by The European Entrepreneurship Competence (EntreComp) framework that was sent to students at the Pedagogical University of Cracow and the Rzeszow University. The rule induction method enabled us to discover dependencies that were not obvious among different competencies of respondents and their status. The research revealed that the surveyed women had completely different competencies than men. Good financial status has a positive impact on the self-assessment of competencies and worse-cause difficulties in assessing business ideas. Unemployed students need stimulation to take action, seek funding, share ideas, and protect them. Students running their businesses are able to identify market needs. The results revealed the following implications: It is important to verify the EntreComp methodology to examine how different groups are evaluating their entrepreneurial competencies; the data mining technique enables discover of new knowledge based on regularities hidden in data; and the results can be used to tailor special teaching programs for developing skills that individual subgroups lack. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entrepreneurship Education)
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Article
A Multidisciplinary Study of Eye Tracking Technology for Visual Intelligence
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10080195 - 28 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1366
Abstract
The ability to analyse aspects of visual culture—works of art, maps or plans, graphs, tables and X-rays—quickly and efficiently is critical in decision-making in a broad range of disciplines. Eye tracking is a technology that can record how long someone dwells on a [...] Read more.
The ability to analyse aspects of visual culture—works of art, maps or plans, graphs, tables and X-rays—quickly and efficiently is critical in decision-making in a broad range of disciplines. Eye tracking is a technology that can record how long someone dwells on a particular detail in an image, where the eye moves from one part of the image to the other, and the sequence the viewer uses to interpret visual information. These MP4 recordings can be played back and graphically enhanced with coloured dots and lines to point out this natural and fluent eye behaviour to learners. These recordings can form effective pedagogical tools for learning how to look at images through the eyes of experts by mimicking the patterns and rhythms of expert eye behaviour. This paper provides a meta-analysis of studies of this kind and also provides the results of a cross-disciplinary project which involved five different subject areas. The consensus arising from our meta-analysis reveals an emerging field with broad concerns in need of more integrated research. None of the studies cited in this article are interdisciplinary across the sciences and arts and, while some of them address higher education in medicine and computing, there are no interdisciplinary studies of how eye tracking is important for teaching in arts and science subjects at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. In addition, none of the studies address how learning practitioners find these eye recordings useful for their own understanding of learning processes. This establishes the unique contribution of this project. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Using Technology in Higher Education—Series 1)
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Article
Tutorials for Integrating 3D Printing in Engineering Curricula
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10080194 - 27 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1586
Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) printing can revolutionize the way products have been designed and manufactured. This necessitates engineering graduates equipped with the knowledge and skills of 3D printing. As a result, the educational aspects of 3D printing have earned a great deal of attention. Nevertheless, [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional (3D) printing can revolutionize the way products have been designed and manufactured. This necessitates engineering graduates equipped with the knowledge and skills of 3D printing. As a result, the educational aspects of 3D printing have earned a great deal of attention. Nevertheless, to teach 3D printing in an undergraduate engineering degree program, an outcomes-oriented approach integrating engineering design, object visualization/digitization, and 3D printing domains can be used. Accordingly, this study presents a tutorial development method to teach undergraduate engineering students the knowledge and skills of 3D printing. The method integrates the abovementioned domains maintaining a hierarchy among the seven ABET-prescribed outcomes. The hierarchy organizes the outcomes into three levels (primary, secondary, and tertiary). The presented method is implemented by introducing a tutorial where a spur gear-pinion pair is designed, visualized, digitized, and 3D printed systematically. E-learning tools can be developed to deliver the tutorial online. Full article
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Article
Closing the HIV and AIDS “Information Gap” Between Children and Parents: An Exploration of Makerspaces in a Ugandan Primary School
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10080193 - 23 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1256
Abstract
In this study, we address the research question: “How might child-created billboards about HIV and AIDS help facilitate more open discussions between parents and children?" The premise of our study is that there may be considerable potential for using multimodal forms of representation [...] Read more.
In this study, we address the research question: “How might child-created billboards about HIV and AIDS help facilitate more open discussions between parents and children?" The premise of our study is that there may be considerable potential for using multimodal forms of representation in makerspaces with young children to create more open dialogue with parents about culturally sensitive information. Drawing on multimodal literacies and visual methodologies, we designed a makerspace in a grade 5 classroom (with students aged 9–10) in a Ugandan residential primary school. Our makerspace included soliciting students’ knowledge about HIV and AIDS as part of a class discussion focused on billboards in the local community and providing art materials for students to explore their understandings of HIV and AIDS through the creation of billboards as public service announcements. Parents were engaged in the work as audience members during a public exhibition at the school. Data sources include the billboards as artifacts, observations within the makerspace, and interviews with parents and children following the public exhibition. The findings show that, for parents and children, the billboards enhanced communication; new understandings about HIV and AIDS were gained; and real-life concerns about HIV and AIDS were made more visible. Although these more open conversations may depend to some degree on family relationships more broadly, we see great potential for makerspaces to serve as a starting point for closing the HIV and AIDS information gap between children and parents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Young Children, Maker Literacies and Social Change)
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Article
Emotional Education for the Development of Primary and Secondary School Students Through Physical Education: Literature Review
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10080192 - 23 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1469
Abstract
Emotions are embedded in the everyday life of every individual. In the same way their emotions are immersed in their cultural legacy, they are conditioned by behaviors that cannot be separated from an educational context. In this sense, physical education (PE) has been [...] Read more.
Emotions are embedded in the everyday life of every individual. In the same way their emotions are immersed in their cultural legacy, they are conditioned by behaviors that cannot be separated from an educational context. In this sense, physical education (PE) has been reported as a school subject that facilitates the emotional expression of primary and secondary school students. Thus, it seems to be important to understand how applied methodologies that enhance emotional education in this context help to develop students’ skills regarding emotional management. In this context, 18 articles were selected from the Web of Science (WoS) under robust inclusion and exclusion criteria, which posteriorly were categorized and deeply analyzed. Results show that PE creates a favorable scenario for the expression of emotions. However, there is not sufficient evidence regarding emotional education methodologies that can be applied by PE teachers in their classes to improve primary and secondary students’ management of emotions. It has been concluded that more proposals based on scientific evidence in this field are required. Full article
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Article
Algorithm for Designing Professional Retraining Programs Based on a Competency Approach
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10080191 - 23 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1164
Abstract
A new methodology is proposed for designing professional retraining programs for aviation, rocket, and space industry employees, focused on the formation of the necessary competencies. The novelty of the proposed method is in the formalization of the design process and the use of [...] Read more.
A new methodology is proposed for designing professional retraining programs for aviation, rocket, and space industry employees, focused on the formation of the necessary competencies. The novelty of the proposed method is in the formalization of the design process and the use of digital technologies. The advantage is the use of a modular principle of program design, which provides the opportunity to implement individual training paths for workers in industrial enterprises. The methodology was successfully tested at the Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University) in the provision of educational services to enterprises in the aviation and aerospace industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Using Technology in Higher Education—Series 1)
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Review
Leveraging Communities of Practice as Professional Learning Communities in Science, Technology, Engineering, Math (STEM) Education
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10080190 - 23 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1461
Abstract
In the modern educational era, there is an increasing focus on Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) education. Innovation and workforce preparation play a large role in the push to increase scientific literacy, thinking skills and high-skilled personnel. However, there are ongoing issues [...] Read more.
In the modern educational era, there is an increasing focus on Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) education. Innovation and workforce preparation play a large role in the push to increase scientific literacy, thinking skills and high-skilled personnel. However, there are ongoing issues with reforming education to meet these goals as well as the recruitment and retention of students in these fields. STEM and the various other iterations in which it is found, represents a challenge in education, as there are often many intersecting cultures, epistemologies, practices and expectations that are unique to each of the represented fields. As a result, educators often struggle with creating STEM experiences and programs that truly integrate each of the disciplines in a meaningful way. This discussion explores the potential role of leveraging existing communities of practice into Professional Learning Communities in order to shift the attention toward student experiences while more clearly defining the goals, roles and expectations in STEM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section STEM Education)
Article
A Comparative Trend Analysis of Changes in Teacher Rate of Absenteeism in South Africa
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10080189 - 23 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1372
Abstract
The aim of this research was to analyze the changes in the rate of teacher absenteeism among South African provinces as a major in-class factor contributing to student performance and effective learning. Time series analysis of exponential smoothing, moving average, and seasonal autoregressive [...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to analyze the changes in the rate of teacher absenteeism among South African provinces as a major in-class factor contributing to student performance and effective learning. Time series analysis of exponential smoothing, moving average, and seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model (SARIMA) were applied to model and assess the designed hypothesis as a major factor for educational advancement using different provincial data input from the Department of Basic Education in South Africa. The performances of all the models were analyzed using statistical indexes: Mean Square Error (MSE) and Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE). The overall performance showed that the absence rate increased statistically significantly from 2011 to 2017. Thus, this opinion was held by more than half of the general populace depending on the province type. The findings of this research could assist the management of the basic education department in general, and in schools in particular, to understand the problem of absenteeism and thereby enabling the implementation of effective strategies that can be used to curb the practice. Full article
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