Next Issue
Volume 9, September
Previous Issue
Volume 9, July

Plants, Volume 9, Issue 8 (August 2020) – 129 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Understanding the behavior of pollen during pollination is important for future food security. Rice has desiccation-sensitive pollen and relatively high water content at shedding. The short longevity of rice pollen significantly hampers hybrid seed production. Although “omics” data for mature rice pollen have been accumulated, few of the genes that control pollination and pollen hydration have been identified. Therefore, to facilitate future studies, it is necessary to summarize pollen biology during pollination and to understand the underlying mechanisms discovered in previous studies. In this review, we compared the pollen hydration processes of rice and Arabidopsis and introduce their gametophytic mutants. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Yield and Nutritional Response of Greenhouse Grown Tomato Cultivars to Sustainable Fertilization and Irrigation Management
Plants 2020, 9(8), 1053; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9081053 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 903
Abstract
Tomato is considered one of the most important crops worldwide from nutritional and economic standpoints, and, in this respect, sustainable production should be a prime objective, particularly in terms of fertilization and irrigation management. The aim of this study was to compare the [...] Read more.
Tomato is considered one of the most important crops worldwide from nutritional and economic standpoints, and, in this respect, sustainable production should be a prime objective, particularly in terms of fertilization and irrigation management. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two fertilization types (chemical or organic) and two irrigation regimes (67% or 100% of evapotranspiration replenishment) on biometrical, biochemical, and yield parameters of three indeterminate cultivars of tomato grown in a greenhouse. The results showed that the effect of organic fertilization was better compared to chemical fertilization for lycopene accumulation and antioxidant activity, as well as for the lower concentrations of any of the macroelements in the tomato fruits; therefore, organic fertilization can be used as an alternative to chemical fertilization in sustainable horticulture. In each cultivar under the same fertilization type, the effect of irrigation was significant on yield and the number of fruits, but the 100% evapotranspiration restoration did not enhance the fruit concentration of all the macroelements and microelements compared to 67% irrigation regime. Higher concentrations of macro- and microelements in the chemically fertilized fruits compared to the organic ones, regardless of the cultivar and the irrigation regime, suggest that the inorganic substances are more easily absorbed by plants under a protected environment. Organic fertilization positively affected the lycopene and antioxidant activities of tomato fruits, thus proving to be a valuable alternative to chemical fertilization in sustainable agriculture, although the product premium quality also depends on the cultivar used. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Comparative Microbiome Study of Mummified Peach Fruits by Metagenomics and Metatranscriptomics
Plants 2020, 9(8), 1052; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9081052 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1110
Abstract
The dried peach fruits clinging to peach trees or lying on the ground nearby are known as mummified peach fruits. Here, we examined the microbiome communities of three different mummified peach fruits from the nectarine cultivar “Hahong” by DNA- and RNA-sequencing. We found [...] Read more.
The dried peach fruits clinging to peach trees or lying on the ground nearby are known as mummified peach fruits. Here, we examined the microbiome communities of three different mummified peach fruits from the nectarine cultivar “Hahong” by DNA- and RNA-sequencing. We found the dominance of Monilinia fructigena followed by Sclerotinia borealis, S. sclerotiorum, and Botrytis cinerea in the mummified peach fruits. Moreover, we found a high number of Proteobacteria, including Frateuria aurantia, Neoasaia chiangmaiensis, Robbsia andropogonis, and Ewingella Americana. Furthermore, we identified several viruses and viroids. Bacteriophages were identified by DNA- and RNA-sequencing, while viruses and viroids with RNA genomes were identified by only RNA-sequencing. Moreover, we identified a novel mycovirus referred to as Monilinia umbra-like virus 1 (MULV1) from M. fructigena. Our results revealed the co-inhabitance of fungi and bacteria in the mummified peach fruits, although dominant microorganisms were present. RNA-sequencing revealed that several fungal and bacterial genes were actively transcribed. Comparative analyses suggested that RNA-sequencing provides more detailed information on microbial communities; however, combining DNA- and RNA-sequencing results increased the diversity of microorganisms, suggesting the importance of databases and analysis tools for microbiome studies. Taken together, our study provides a comprehensive overview of microbial communities in mummified peach fruits by DNA shotgun sequencing and RNA-sequencing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Detection and Diagnostics of Fungal and Oomycete Plant Pathogens)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Constituents of Gastrodia elata and Their Neuroprotective Effects in HT22 Hippocampal Neuronal, R28 Retinal Cells, and BV2 Microglial Cells
Plants 2020, 9(8), 1051; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9081051 - 18 Aug 2020
Viewed by 810
Abstract
Gastrodia elata is widely used in traditional medicine and contains various types of metabolites with pharmacological activity. In the course of searching for neuroprotective molecules associated with the potential of G. elata in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, two new phenolic compounds ( [...] Read more.
Gastrodia elata is widely used in traditional medicine and contains various types of metabolites with pharmacological activity. In the course of searching for neuroprotective molecules associated with the potential of G. elata in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, two new phenolic compounds (1 and 2) and a new tripeptide (3), together with 16 known compounds (419), were isolated from the rhizomes of G. elata. The structures of the compounds were determined by the interpretation of spectroscopic data, including nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry data. All obtained compounds were assessed for their ability to protect neuronal cells against neurotoxicity and neuroinflammation. Of these, 4 and 5 were found to possess moderate activities in HT22 hippocampal neuronal cells, whereas 2, 6, and 7 showed weak activities in R28 retinal cells. Additionally, compound 9 showed moderate inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in BV2 microglial cells. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
Document or Lose It—On the Importance of Information Management for Genetic Resources Conservation in Genebanks
Plants 2020, 9(8), 1050; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9081050 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1650
Abstract
Genebanks play an important role in the long-term conservation of plant genetic resources and are complementary to the conservation of diversity in farmers’ fields and in nature. In this context, documentation plays a critical role. Without well-structured documentation, it is not possible to [...] Read more.
Genebanks play an important role in the long-term conservation of plant genetic resources and are complementary to the conservation of diversity in farmers’ fields and in nature. In this context, documentation plays a critical role. Without well-structured documentation, it is not possible to make statements about the value of a resource, especially with regard to its potential for breeding and research. In particular, comprehensive information management is a prerequisite for the further development of genebank collections. This requires detailed information about the composition of a collection, thus allowing statements about which species and/or regions of origin are under-represented. This task is of strategic importance, especially due to the threats to crop plants and their wild relatives caused by advancing climate change. Both the actual conservation management and the fulfilment of legal obligations depend on information. Hence, documentation units have been established in almost all genebanks worldwide. They all face the challenge that knowledge about genebank accessions must be permanently managed and passed on across generations. International standards such as Multi-Crop Passport Descriptors (MCPD) have been established for the exchange of data between genebanks, and allow the operation of international information systems, such as the World Information and Early Warning System on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (WIEWS), the European Search Catalogue for Plant Genetic Resources (EURISCO) or Genesys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biodiversity and Genetic Resources)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Nutrient Diagnosis of Eucalyptus at the Factor-Specific Level Using Machine Learning and Compositional Methods
Plants 2020, 9(8), 1049; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9081049 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 838
Abstract
Brazil is home to 30% of the world’s Eucalyptus trees. The seedlings are fertilized at plantation to support biomass production until canopy closure. Thereafter, fertilization is guided by state standards that may not apply at the local scale where myriads of growth factors [...] Read more.
Brazil is home to 30% of the world’s Eucalyptus trees. The seedlings are fertilized at plantation to support biomass production until canopy closure. Thereafter, fertilization is guided by state standards that may not apply at the local scale where myriads of growth factors interact. Our objective was to customize the nutrient diagnosis of young Eucalyptus trees down to factor-specific levels. We collected 1861 observations across eight clones, 48 soil types, and 148 locations in southern Brazil. Cutoff diameter between low- and high-yielding specimens at breast height was set at 4.3 cm. The random forest classification model returned a relatively uninformative area under the curve (AUC) of 0.63 using tissue compositions only, and an informative AUC of 0.78 after adding local features. Compared to nutrient levels from quartile compatibility intervals of nutritionally balanced specimens at high-yield level, state guidelines appeared to be too high for Mg, B, Mn, and Fe and too low for Cu and Zn. Moreover, diagnosis using concentration ranges collapsed in the multivariate Euclidean hyper-space by denying nutrient interactions. Factor-specific diagnosis detected nutrient imbalance by computing the Euclidean distance between centered log-ratio transformed compositions of defective and successful neighbors at a local scale. Downscaling regional nutrient standards may thus fail to account for factor interactions at a local scale. Documenting factors at a local scale requires large datasets through close collaboration between stakeholders. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Development of High-Density Genetic Linkage Maps and Identification of Loci for Chestnut Gall Wasp Resistance in Castanea spp.
Plants 2020, 9(8), 1048; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9081048 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 805
Abstract
Castanea sativa is an important multipurpose species in Europe for nut and timber production as well as for its role in the landscape and in the forest ecosystem. This species has low tolerance to chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu), which is [...] Read more.
Castanea sativa is an important multipurpose species in Europe for nut and timber production as well as for its role in the landscape and in the forest ecosystem. This species has low tolerance to chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu), which is a pest that was accidentally introduced into Europe in early 2000 and devastated forest and orchard trees. Resistance to the gall wasp was found in the hybrid cultivar ‘Bouche de Bétizac’ (C. sativa × C. crenata) and studied by developing genetic linkage maps using a population derived from a cross between ‘Bouche de Bétizac’ and the susceptible cultivar ‘Madonna’ (C. sativa). The high-density genetic maps were constructed using double-digest restriction site-associated DNA-seq and simple sequence repeat markers. The map of ‘Bouche de Bétizac’ consisted of 1459 loci and spanned 809.6 cM; the map of ‘Madonna’ consisted of 1089 loci and spanned 753.3 cM. In both maps, 12 linkage groups were identified. A single major QTL was recognized on the ‘Bouche de Bétizac’ map, explaining up to 67–69% of the phenotypic variance of the resistance trait (Rdk1). The Rdk1 quantitative trait loci (QTL) region included 11 scaffolds and two candidate genes putatively involved in the resistance response were identified. This study will contribute to C. sativa breeding programs and to the study of Rdk1 genes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2019 Feature Papers by Plants’ Editorial Board Members)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Photochemical Efficiency and Oxidative Metabolism of Tree Species during Acclimation to High and Low Irradiance
Plants 2020, 9(8), 1047; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9081047 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 723
Abstract
The balance between efficiency of absorption and use of light energy is fundamental for plant metabolism and to avoid photoinhibition. Here, we investigated the effects of light environments on the photosynthetic apparatus of tropical tree species of three successional groups (pioneer, mid-, and [...] Read more.
The balance between efficiency of absorption and use of light energy is fundamental for plant metabolism and to avoid photoinhibition. Here, we investigated the effects of light environments on the photosynthetic apparatus of tropical tree species of three successional groups (pioneer, mid-, and late successional) subjected to different light conditions: full sunlight (FS), moderate shade (MS), and deep shade (DS). Twenty-nine ecophysiological parameters were correlated with each other. The pioneer species exhibited better photochemical performance and a more efficient antioxidant enzymatic system in comparison with the other successional groups. Plants in FS showed higher intensity of lipid peroxidation, with superoxide dismutase having a prominent role in the antioxidant system. At lower irradiance the enzymatic activity was reduced, and the photochemical efficiency was the preferred way to reduce oxidative damages. P was highly related to photochemical yield, and the N modulation amplified the light harvesting complex in DS to the detriment of the antioxidant system. Despite evidence of cell damage, most species exhibited the ability to adjust to high irradiance. Contrary to expectations, Hymenea courbaril (late-successional) exhibited higher plasticity to fluorescence, nutritional, and antioxidant parameters. Only Carapa guianensis (late-successional) displayed photoinhibitory damage in FS, and Ochroma pyramidale (pioneer) did not survive in DS, suggesting that acclimation to shade is more challenging than to high irradiance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Light Stresses in Photosynthetic Organisms)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Jasmonate Signalling Contributes to Primary Root Inhibition Upon Oxygen Deficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana
Plants 2020, 9(8), 1046; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9081046 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1385
Abstract
Plants, including most crops, are intolerant to waterlogging, a stressful condition that limits the oxygen available for roots, thereby inhibiting their growth and functionality. Whether root growth inhibition represents a preventive measure to save energy or is rather a consequence of reduced metabolic [...] Read more.
Plants, including most crops, are intolerant to waterlogging, a stressful condition that limits the oxygen available for roots, thereby inhibiting their growth and functionality. Whether root growth inhibition represents a preventive measure to save energy or is rather a consequence of reduced metabolic rates has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, we gathered evidence for hypoxic repression of root meristem regulators that leads to root growth inhibition. We also explored the contribution of the hormone jasmonic acid (JA) to this process in Arabidopsis thaliana. Analysis of transcriptomic profiles, visualisation of fluorescent reporters and direct hormone quantification confirmed the activation of JA signalling under hypoxia in the roots. Further, root growth assessment in JA-related mutants in aerobic and anaerobic conditions indicated that JA signalling components contribute to active root inhibition under hypoxia. Finally, we show that the oxygen-sensing transcription factor (TF) RAP2.12 can directly induce Jasmonate Zinc-finger proteins (JAZs), repressors of JA signalling, to establish feedback inhibition. In summary, our study sheds new light on active root growth restriction under hypoxic conditions and on the involvement of the JA hormone in this process and its cross talk with the oxygen sensing machinery of higher plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses to Hypoxia)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Evaluation of Anthocyanin Profile, Antioxidant, Cytoprotective, and Anti-Angiogenic Properties of Callistemon citrinus Flowers
Plants 2020, 9(8), 1045; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9081045 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 719
Abstract
Lemon bottlebrush (Callistemon citrinus (Curtis) Skeels) is one of the most common ornamental plants, diffused worldwide, and characterized by the presence of flowers with an intense red/purple coloration. There is increasing interest in the use and application of anthocyanins for their unique [...] Read more.
Lemon bottlebrush (Callistemon citrinus (Curtis) Skeels) is one of the most common ornamental plants, diffused worldwide, and characterized by the presence of flowers with an intense red/purple coloration. There is increasing interest in the use and application of anthocyanins for their unique structural/chemical features in both food and pharmaceutical applications. RP-HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS analysis of an enriched fraction of acidified methanolic extract of C. citrinus flowers allow the possibility of identifying, for the first time, the presence of four anthocyanins: cyanidin-3,5-O-diglucoside (cyanin), peonidin-3,5-O-diglucoside (peonin), cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, and cyanidin-coumaroylglucoside-pyruvic acid. Moreover, the evaluation of antioxidant and biological potential showed a remarkable activity of this fraction, able to actively scavenge DPPH, AAPH, and ABTS radicals, and to counteract the β-carotene-bleaching. In addition, it protects human mononuclear cells from oxidative injuries and prevents angiogenesis (acting in the range of few μg/ml); furthermore, it does not show significant iron-chelating ability (up to 200 µg/mL). The easy way of cultivation, robustness, and adaptability to different environments make the flowers of this plant a useful source of anthocyanins, with remarkable health promoting properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Plant Antioxidants Action)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Genomic Characterization and Expression Analysis of Basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) Family Genes in Traditional Chinese Herb Dendrobium officinale
Plants 2020, 9(8), 1044; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9081044 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 840
Abstract
Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo is of great importance as a traditional Chinese herb due to its abundant metabolites. The family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors widely exists in plants and plays an essential role in plant growth and development, secondary metabolism [...] Read more.
Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo is of great importance as a traditional Chinese herb due to its abundant metabolites. The family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors widely exists in plants and plays an essential role in plant growth and development, secondary metabolism as well as responses to environmental changes. However, there is limited information on bHLH genes in D. officinale. In the present study, a total of 98 putative DobHLH genes were identified at the genomic level, which could be classified into 18 clades. Gene structures and conserved motifs in DobHLH genes showed high conservation during their evolution. The conserved amino acids and DNA bindings of DobHLH proteins were predicted, both of which are pivotal for their function. Furthermore, gene expression from eight tissues showed that some DobHLH genes were ubiquitously expressed while other DobHLH genes were expressed in the specific tissues. Expressional changes of DobHLH genes under MeJA and ABA treatments were detected by qRT-PCR. The protein–protein interactions between DobHLHs were predicted and several interactions were confirmed by yeast two hybrid. Therefore, our results here contribute to the understanding of bHLH genes in D. officinale and lay a foundation for the further functional study of its biological processes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effect of Ultraviolet C Irradiation on Isoflavone Concentrations in Different Cultivars of Soybean (Glycine max)
Plants 2020, 9(8), 1043; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9081043 - 16 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1005
Abstract
Phytoestrogens are naturally occurring plant polyphenolic compounds present in high concentrations in soybean products. Phytoestrogens are divided into three classes: lignans, isoflavones, and coumestans. Nine types of glycoside isoflavones and three types of aglycoside isoflavones are reported in soybean. Soy isoflavones can reduce [...] Read more.
Phytoestrogens are naturally occurring plant polyphenolic compounds present in high concentrations in soybean products. Phytoestrogens are divided into three classes: lignans, isoflavones, and coumestans. Nine types of glycoside isoflavones and three types of aglycoside isoflavones are reported in soybean. Soy isoflavones can reduce the risk of a certain type of cancer, cardiovascular problems, osteoporosis, and menopausal symptoms. We irradiated the leaves of five cultivars of soybean with UV-C (260 nm) and determined the effect on concentrations of isoflavone compounds using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS). Isoflavone concentrations were significantly higher following irradiation, particularly in the cultivar Daepung, which was selected as the best cultivar for high isoflavone induction with UV-C irradiation. Further experimentation with the cultivar Daepung revealed that 20 min UV-C irradiation was the best treatment for the induction of aglycone compounds, and 5 min with the dorsal surface facing the UV-C irradiation source was the best treatment for the induction of glycoside isoflavone compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Physiology and Metabolism)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
The Role of Grafting in the Resistance of Tomato to Viruses
Plants 2020, 9(8), 1042; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9081042 - 16 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1222
Abstract
Grafting is routinely implemented in modern agriculture to manage soilborne pathogens such as fungi, oomycetes, bacteria, and viruses of solanaceous crops in a sustainable and environmentally friendly approach. Some rootstock/scion combinations use specific genetic resistance mechanisms to impact also some foliar and airborne [...] Read more.
Grafting is routinely implemented in modern agriculture to manage soilborne pathogens such as fungi, oomycetes, bacteria, and viruses of solanaceous crops in a sustainable and environmentally friendly approach. Some rootstock/scion combinations use specific genetic resistance mechanisms to impact also some foliar and airborne pathogens, including arthropod or contact-transmitted viruses. These approaches resulted in poor efficiency in the management of plant viruses with superior virulence such as the strains of tomato spotted wilt virus breaking the Sw5 resistance, strains of cucumber mosaic virus carrying necrogenic satellite RNAs, and necrogenic strains of potato virus Y. Three different studies from our lab documented that suitable levels of resistance/tolerance can be obtained by grafting commercial tomato varieties onto the tomato ecotype Manduria (Ma) rescued in the framework of an Apulian (southern Italy) regional program on biodiversity. Here we review the main approaches, methods, and results of the three case studies and propose some mechanisms leading to the tolerance/resistance observed in susceptible tomato varieties grafted onto Ma as well as in self-grafted plants. The proposed mechanisms include virus movement in plants, RNA interference, genes involved in graft wound response, resilience, and tolerance to virus infection. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Intraspecific Variations in Functional and Molecular Traits of Near-Endemic Onopordum alexandrinum Boiss. in Natural and Anthropogenic Habitats along the Western Mediterranean Coast of Egypt: Implications for Conservation
Plants 2020, 9(8), 1041; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9081041 - 16 Aug 2020
Viewed by 692
Abstract
Onopordum alexandrinum is a near-endemic to Egypt and neighboring countries. Its habitats are designated as priority sites for conservation in the south and east Mediterranean regions. We hypothesize that variation in morphological, reproductive, and molecular traits could provide a survival strategy that allows [...] Read more.
Onopordum alexandrinum is a near-endemic to Egypt and neighboring countries. Its habitats are designated as priority sites for conservation in the south and east Mediterranean regions. We hypothesize that variation in morphological, reproductive, and molecular traits could provide a survival strategy that allows the species to occupy landscapes including anthropogenic habitats (barley and abandoned fields) and natural habitats (sand dunes and desert plateau) with different soil resources along the western Mediterranean coast of Egypt. The results indicated that plant functional traits associated with high rates of resource acquisition and growth (e.g., high values of vegetative height and specific leaf area, and low values of leaf dry matter content) occurred in populations located in abandoned fields with high soil resources. The genetic diversity analyses indicated similarity in genetic diversity of the present populations of O. alexandrinum in barley and abandoned fields with those of sand dunes. However, the genetic structures of these populations were different from those of natural desert plateau, which suggests reduced rates of gene flow. In this framework, it is essential to monitor and reduce the anthropogenic activity which will not only support the conservation of genetic diversity within populations but will also help ensure the resilience of O. alexandrinum in the face of environmental and climatic changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Ecology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Chlorophyll a Fluorescence Transient and 2-Dimensional Electrophoresis Analyses Reveal Response Characteristics of Photosynthesis to Heat Stress in Malus. ‘Prairifire’
Plants 2020, 9(8), 1040; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9081040 - 15 Aug 2020
Viewed by 744
Abstract
Flowering crabapples are a series of precious ornamental woody plants. However, their growth and development are inhibited in the subtropical regions due to the weak photosynthesis under high-temperature environment in the summer. Chlorophyll a fluorescence transient and 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analyses were conducted [...] Read more.
Flowering crabapples are a series of precious ornamental woody plants. However, their growth and development are inhibited in the subtropical regions due to the weak photosynthesis under high-temperature environment in the summer. Chlorophyll a fluorescence transient and 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analyses were conducted to investigate the response characteristics of photosynthesis under simulated 38 °C heat stress in leaves of Malus. ‘Prairifire’, a spring-red leaf cultivar of flowering crabapple with strong thermal adaptability. In the present study, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) was significantly decreased during the heat shock process, which showed a similar trend to the stomatal conductance (Gs), indicating a sensitive stomatal behavior to heat stress. Moreover, an efficient reaction center in photosystem II (PSII), and a functionally intact oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) conferred strong photosynthetic adaptability under heat stress. The higher level of transketolase (TK) under 48-h heat shock treatment was considered a protective mechanism of photosynthetic apparatus. However, heat stress inhibited the functions of light harvesting complex II (LHCII), electron transport in PSII, and the levels of key enzymes in the Calvin cycle, which were considered as the reasons causing an increase in the proportion of non-stomatal restrictions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Responses of Plants to Environmental Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Canthaxanthin, a Red-Hot Carotenoid: Applications, Synthesis, and Biosynthetic Evolution
Plants 2020, 9(8), 1039; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9081039 - 15 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1092
Abstract
Carotenoids are a class of pigments with a biological role in light capture and antioxidant activities. High value ketocarotenoids, such as astaxanthin and canthaxanthin, are highly appealing for applications in human nutraceutical, cosmetic, and animal feed industries due to their color- and health-related [...] Read more.
Carotenoids are a class of pigments with a biological role in light capture and antioxidant activities. High value ketocarotenoids, such as astaxanthin and canthaxanthin, are highly appealing for applications in human nutraceutical, cosmetic, and animal feed industries due to their color- and health-related properties. In this review, recent advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology towards the production of ketocarotenoids, in particular the red-orange canthaxanthin, are highlighted. Also reviewed and discussed are the properties of canthaxanthin, its natural producers, and various strategies for its chemical synthesis. We review the de novo synthesis of canthaxanthin and the functional β-carotene ketolase enzyme across organisms, supported by a protein-sequence-based phylogenetic analysis. Various possible modifications of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway and the present sustainable cost-effective alternative platforms for ketocarotenoids biosynthesis are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Molecular Farming)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Autophagy Dances with Phytohormones upon Multiple Stresses
Plants 2020, 9(8), 1038; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9081038 - 15 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1044
Abstract
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process for turning over unwanted cellular components, thus promoting nutrient recycling and maintaining cellular homeostasis, which eventually enables plants to survive unfavorable growth conditions. In addition to plant growth and development, previous studies have demonstrated that autophagy is [...] Read more.
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process for turning over unwanted cellular components, thus promoting nutrient recycling and maintaining cellular homeostasis, which eventually enables plants to survive unfavorable growth conditions. In addition to plant growth and development, previous studies have demonstrated that autophagy is involved in the responses to various environmental challenges through interplaying with multiple phytohormones, including abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid (SA). In this review, we summarize the advances made in their synergistic interactions in response to multiple abiotic and biotic stresses; we also discuss the remaining issues and perspectives regarding their crosstalk. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Molecular Mechanisms Supporting Rice Germination and Coleoptile Elongation under Low Oxygen
Plants 2020, 9(8), 1037; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9081037 - 15 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2850
Abstract
Rice germinates under submergence by exploiting the starch available in the endosperm and translocating sugars from source to sink organs. The availability of fermentable sugar under water allows germination with the protrusion of the coleoptile, which elongates rapidly and functions as a snorkel [...] Read more.
Rice germinates under submergence by exploiting the starch available in the endosperm and translocating sugars from source to sink organs. The availability of fermentable sugar under water allows germination with the protrusion of the coleoptile, which elongates rapidly and functions as a snorkel toward the air above. Depending on the variety, rice can produce a short or a long coleoptile. Longer length entails the involvement of a functional transport of auxin along the coleoptile. This paper is an overview of rice coleoptiles and the studies undertaken to understand its functioning and role under submergence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses to Hypoxia)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A GATA Transcription Factor from Soybean (Glycine max) Regulates Chlorophyll Biosynthesis and Suppresses Growth in the Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana
Plants 2020, 9(8), 1036; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9081036 - 15 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 895
Abstract
Chlorophyll plays an essential role in photosynthetic light harvesting and energy transduction in green tissues of higher plants and is closely related to photosynthesis and crop yield. Identification of transcription factors (TFs) involved in regulating chlorophyll biosynthesis is still limited in soybean ( [...] Read more.
Chlorophyll plays an essential role in photosynthetic light harvesting and energy transduction in green tissues of higher plants and is closely related to photosynthesis and crop yield. Identification of transcription factors (TFs) involved in regulating chlorophyll biosynthesis is still limited in soybean (Glycine max), and the previously identified GmGATA58 is suggested to potentially modulate chlorophyll and nitrogen metabolisms, but its complete function is still unknown. In this study, subcellular localization assay showed that GmGATA58 was localized in the nucleus. Histochemical GUS assay and qPCR assay indicated that GmGATA58 was mainly expressed in leaves and responded to nitrogen, light and phytohormone treatments. Overexpression of GmGATA58 in the Arabidopsis thaliana ortholog AtGATA21 (gnc) mutant complemented the greening defect, while overexpression in Arabidopsis wild-type led to increasing chlorophyll content in leaves through up-regulating the expression levels of the large of chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway genes, but suppressing plant growth and yield, although the net photosynthetic rate was slightly improved. Dual-luciferase reporter assay also supported that GmGATA58 activated the transcription activities of three promoters of key chlorophyll biosynthetic genes of soybean in transformed protoplast of Arabidopsis. It is concluded that GmGATA58 played an important role in regulating chlorophyll biosynthesis, but suppressed plant growth and yield in transgenic Arabidopsis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Physiology and Metabolism)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Genetic Distinctiveness Highlights the Conservation Value of a Sicilian Manna Ash Germplasm Collection Assigned to Fraxinus angustifolia (Oleaceae)
Plants 2020, 9(8), 1035; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9081035 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 847
Abstract
The cosmopolitan genus Fraxinus comprises about 40 species occupying several habitats in the Northern Hemisphere. With some species hybridizing and sharing genetic variants, questions remain on the species assignment of germplasm within the genus Fraxinus despite numerous species-specific assessments. A multidisciplinary approach was [...] Read more.
The cosmopolitan genus Fraxinus comprises about 40 species occupying several habitats in the Northern Hemisphere. With some species hybridizing and sharing genetic variants, questions remain on the species assignment of germplasm within the genus Fraxinus despite numerous species-specific assessments. A multidisciplinary approach was employed to provide a definitive insight into the genetics of an endangered Fraxinus “manna ash” collection, located in a rich plant biodiversity hotspot of the Madonie Mountains (Sicily). Although the collection size was small, genetic diversity, assessed by chloroplast (cpSSR) and nuclear (nSSR) microsatellites (SSR—Simple Sequence Repeats), allowed identifying three different chloroplast haplotypes, with one (H5) dominant, and several polymorphic loci, able to discriminate most of the local accessions studied. Molecular data were linked to cytofluorimetric and phenotypic evaluations and, contrary to popular belief that manna ash is Fraxinus ornus L., the germplasm currently used for manna production belongs to Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. Interestingly, joint analysis of our genetic panel with a large European dataset of Fraxinus spp. suggested the presence of a possible glacial refuge in Sicily, confirming its importance as biodiversity source. Our results will be helpful for the design of long-term conservation programs for genetic resources, such as in situ and ex situ conservation, seed collection and tree reintroduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biodiversity and Genetic Resources)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Cypriot Indigenous Grapevine Germplasm Is a Multi-Clonal Varietal Mixture
Plants 2020, 9(8), 1034; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9081034 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1049
Abstract
Cypriot vineyards are considered as one among the earliest niches of viticulture and a pivotal hub for the domestication and dissemination of grapevine. The millennial presence of Vitis spp. in this Eastern Mediterranean island has given rise to a plethora of biotypes that [...] Read more.
Cypriot vineyards are considered as one among the earliest niches of viticulture and a pivotal hub for the domestication and dissemination of grapevine. The millennial presence of Vitis spp. in this Eastern Mediterranean island has given rise to a plethora of biotypes that have not been adequately characterized, despite their unique attributes and stress tolerance. This ancient germplasm also has an additional value since it survived the phylloxera outbreak; hence, it possesses a large amount of genetic diversity that has been unnoticed. In order to provide useful insights to the lineage of Cypriot vineyards, a two-year-spanning collection of centennial grapevine cultivars mostly regarded to belong to four indigenous variety clusters (“Mavro”, “Xynisteri”, “Maratheftiko”, and “Veriko”) was initiated. There were 164 accessions across the broader Commandaria wine zone sampled and characterized using a universal microsatellite primer set. Genetic analysis indicated that considered indigenous Cypriot germplasm has a polyclonal structure with a high level of heterozygosity. Moreover, several lineages or unexplored varieties may exist, since a larger than considered number of discrete genotypes was discovered. Furthermore, it was established that grapevine lineages in Cyprus were shaped across eras via clonal, as well as, sexual propagation. The special attributes of the Cypriot landscape are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biodiversity and Genetic Resources)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Communication
An AC-Rich Bean Element Serves as an Ethylene-Responsive Element in Arabidopsis
Plants 2020, 9(8), 1033; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9081033 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 624
Abstract
Ethylene-responsive elements (EREs), such as the GCC box, are critical for ethylene-regulated transcription in plants. Our previous work identified a 19-bp AC-rich element (ACE) in the promoter of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) metal response element-binding transcription factor 1 (PvMTF-1). Ethylene [...] Read more.
Ethylene-responsive elements (EREs), such as the GCC box, are critical for ethylene-regulated transcription in plants. Our previous work identified a 19-bp AC-rich element (ACE) in the promoter of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) metal response element-binding transcription factor 1 (PvMTF-1). Ethylene response factor 15 (PvERF15) directly binds ACE to enhance PvMTF-1 expression. As a novel ERF-binding element, ACE exhibits a significant difference from the GCC box. Here, we demonstrated that ACE serves as an ERE in Arabidopsis. It conferred the minimal promoter to respond to the ethylene stress and inhibition of ethylene. Moreover, the cis-acting element ACE could specifically bind the nuclear proteins in vitro. We further revealed that the first 9-bp sequence of ACE (ACEcore) is importantly required by the binding of nuclear proteins. In addition, PvERF15 and PvMTF-1 were strongly induced by ethylene in bean seedlings. Since PvERF15 activates PvMTF-1 via ACE, ACE is involved in ethylene-induced PvMTF-1 expression. Taken together, our findings provide genetic and biochemical evidence for a new ERE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Molecular Biology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Silicon Supply Improves Leaf Gas Exchange, Antioxidant Defense System and Growth in Saccharum officinarum Responsive to Water Limitation
Plants 2020, 9(8), 1032; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9081032 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 966
Abstract
Silicon (Si) is not categorized as a biologically essential element for plants, yet a great number of scientific reports have shown its significant effects in various crop plants and environmental variables. Plant Si plays biologically active role in plant life cycle, and the [...] Read more.
Silicon (Si) is not categorized as a biologically essential element for plants, yet a great number of scientific reports have shown its significant effects in various crop plants and environmental variables. Plant Si plays biologically active role in plant life cycle, and the significant impact depends on its bioaccumulation in plant tissues or parts. In particular, it has been investigated for its involvement in limited irrigation management. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to examine the effect of Si application in eco-physiological, enzymatic and non-enzymatic activities of sugarcane plants against water stress. Four irrigation levels, i.e., normal (100–95% of soil moisture), 80–75, 55–50, and 35–30% of soil moisture were treated for the sugarcane cultivar GT 42 plants supplied with 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mg Si L−1 and exposed for 60 days after Si application. Under stress, reduction in plant length (~26–67%), leaf area-expansion (~7–51%), relative water content (~18–57%), leaf greenness (~12–35%), photosynthetic pigments (~12–67%), physiological responses such as photosynthesis (22–63%), stomatal conductance (~25–61%), and transpiration rate (~32–63%), and biomass production were observed in the plants without Si application. The drought condition also inhibited the activities of antioxidant enzymes like catalase (~10–52%), peroxidase (ca. 4–35), superoxide dismutase (10–44%) and enhanced proline (~73–410%), and malondialdehyde content (ca. 15–158%), respectively. However, addition of Si ameliorated drought induced damage in sugarcane plants. The findings suggest that the active involvement of Si in sugarcane responsive to water stress ranges from plant performance and physiological processes, to antioxidant defense systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Stress and Desiccation Tolerance in Plants)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Jaceidin Flavonoid Isolated from Chiliadenus montanus Attenuates Tumor Progression in Mice via VEGF Inhibition: In Vivo and In Silico Studies
Plants 2020, 9(8), 1031; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9081031 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 822
Abstract
Phytochemical study of Chiliadenus montanus aerial parts afforded six compounds; Intermedeol (1), 5α-hydroperoxy-β-eudesmol (2), 5,7-dihydroxy-3,3’,4’-trimethoxyflavone (3), 5,7,4’-trihydroxy-3,6,3’-trimethoxyflavone (jaceidin) (4), eudesm-11,13-ene-1β,4β,7α-triol (5) and 1β,4β,7β,11-tetrahydroxyeudesmane (6). These compounds were identified based on their NMR spectral data. The isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against [...] Read more.
Phytochemical study of Chiliadenus montanus aerial parts afforded six compounds; Intermedeol (1), 5α-hydroperoxy-β-eudesmol (2), 5,7-dihydroxy-3,3’,4’-trimethoxyflavone (3), 5,7,4’-trihydroxy-3,6,3’-trimethoxyflavone (jaceidin) (4), eudesm-11,13-ene-1β,4β,7α-triol (5) and 1β,4β,7β,11-tetrahydroxyeudesmane (6). These compounds were identified based on their NMR spectral data. The isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against liver cancer cell line (HepG2) and breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). Jaceidin flavonoid (4) exhibited the highest cytotoxic effect in vitro. Therefore, both of jaceidin and C. montanus extract were evaluated for their in vivo anti-tumor activity against Ehrlich’s ascites carcinoma (EAC). Compared to control group, jaceidin and C. montanus extract decreased the tumor weight, improved the histological picture of tumor cells, lowered the levels of VEGF and ameliorate the oxidative stress. Molecular docking and in silico studies suggested that jaceidin was a selective inhibitor of VEGF-mediated angiogenesis with excellent membrane permeability and oral bioavailability. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
In Vitro Responses of Plant Growth Factors on Growth, Yield, Phenolics Content and Antioxidant Activities of Clinacanthus nutans (Sabah Snake Grass)
Plants 2020, 9(8), 1030; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9081030 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1084
Abstract
Clinacanthus nutans, commonly known as Sabah snake grass, is one of the more important medicinal plants in Malaysia’s herbal industry. C. nutans has gained the attention of medical practitioners due to its wide range of bioactive compounds responsible for various biological activities, [...] Read more.
Clinacanthus nutans, commonly known as Sabah snake grass, is one of the more important medicinal plants in Malaysia’s herbal industry. C. nutans has gained the attention of medical practitioners due to its wide range of bioactive compounds responsible for various biological activities, such as anti-cancer, anti-venom and anti-viral activities. Due to its high pharmacological properties, the species has been overexploited to meet the demands of the pharmaceutical industry. The present study was conducted to establish a suitable in vitro culture procedure for the mass propagation of C. nutans. Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium, supplemented with different types of cytokinins, auxins, basal medium strength and sucrose concentrations, were tested. Based on the results, a full-strength MS basal medium supplemented with 12 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 30 g/L sucrose was recorded as the best outcome for all the parameters measured including the regeneration percentage, number of shoots, length of shoots, number of leaves and fresh weight of leaves. In the analysis of the phenolics content and antioxidant activities, tissue-cultured leaf extracts assayed at 100 °C exhibited the highest phenolic content and antioxidant activities. The propagation of C. nutans via a plant tissue culture technique was recorded to be able to produce high phenolic contents as well as exhibit high antioxidant activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Tissue Culture)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Somatic Embryogenesis and Plant Regeneration from Sugi (Japanese Cedar, Cryptomeria japonica D. Don, Cupressaceae) Seed Families by Marker Assisted Selection for the Male Sterility Allele ms1
Plants 2020, 9(8), 1029; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9081029 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1135
Abstract
One of the possible countermeasures for pollinosis caused by sugi (Cryptomeria japonica), a serious public health problem in Japan, is the use of male sterile plants (MSPs; pollen-free plants). However, the production efficiencies of MSPs raised by conventional methods are extremely [...] Read more.
One of the possible countermeasures for pollinosis caused by sugi (Cryptomeria japonica), a serious public health problem in Japan, is the use of male sterile plants (MSPs; pollen-free plants). However, the production efficiencies of MSPs raised by conventional methods are extremely poor, time consuming, and resulting in a high seedling cost. Here, we report the development of a novel technique for efficient production of MSPs, which combines marker-assisted selection (MAS) and somatic embryogenesis (SE). SE from four full sib seed families of sugi, carrying the male sterility gene MS1, was initiated using megagametophyte explants that originated from four seed collections taken at one-week intervals during the month of July 2017. Embryogenic cell lines (ECLs) were achieved in all families, with initiation rates varying from 0.6% to 59%. Somatic embryos were produced from genetic marker-selected male sterile ECLs on medium containing maltose, abscisic acid (ABA), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and activated charcoal (AC). Subsequently, high frequencies of germination and plant conversion (≥76%) were obtained on plant growth regulator-free medium. Regenerated plantlets were acclimatized successfully, and the initial growth of male sterile somatic plants was monitored in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plant Regeneration)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Genome-Wide Identification of the ABA Receptors Genes and Their Response to Abiotic Stress in Apple
Plants 2020, 9(8), 1028; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9081028 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 822
Abstract
The pyrabactin resistance (PYR)/PYR1-like (PYL)/regulatory components of ABA receptor (RCAR) (known as PYLs for short) have been identified and characterized as the ABA receptors in some plants. However, little is known about the details regarding PYL family genes in the apple (Malus [...] Read more.
The pyrabactin resistance (PYR)/PYR1-like (PYL)/regulatory components of ABA receptor (RCAR) (known as PYLs for short) have been identified and characterized as the ABA receptors in some plants. However, little is known about the details regarding PYL family genes in the apple (Malusdomestica). In this study, we identified 13 apple PYLs, termed MdPYL1-13, which could be classified into four groups according to structural features of the amino acid sequence. The gene structures and conserved motifs analysis found that the majority of MdPYLs had a similar number of exons and similar conserved motif profile in the same group. In addition, 11 gene pairs were identified to exhibit synteny by synteny analysis between the apple and Arabidopsis. Furthermore, we investigated MdPYLs transcript level in various organs of the red-fleshed apple (Malussieversii f. Neidzwetzkyana (Dieck) Langenf) ‘Xinjiang No.1’. The results suggested all MdPYLs within group I were expressed at relatively higher levels in all of the organs tested. However, the genes of group IV had little or no variation. Additionally, we found various hormone and stress-related cis-elements in the promoters of MdPYLs by analyzing cis-elements. Therefore, the expression levels of all MdPYLs were further detected under ABA, PEG, salt, and cold stresses in ‘Xinjiang No.1’ seedlings. We found that all MdPYLs except for MdPYL11 were upregulated by ABA treatment, 10 genes were upregulated by PEG treatment, 12 genes were upregulated by NaCl treatment, and six genes were upregulated by cold treatment (4 °C) while seven genes were downregulated. Thus, these MdPYLs might be involved in the defense against abiotic stresses. In addition, the interaction between 13 MdPYLs and two 2C protein phosphatases in the apple (MdPP2C65 and MdPP2C72) was investigated in yeast two-hybrid assays. These results suggested that MdPYLs may bind to MdPP2C65 and MdPP2C72 in different manners and with different intensity. Our studies provide useful information for further investigating and researching the regulatory mechanisms of PYL family genes in response to abiotic stresses in the apple. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetics, Genomics and Biotechnology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Influence of the Maturity Stage on the Phytochemical Composition and the Antioxidant Activity of Four Andean Blackberry Cultivars (Rubus glaucus Benth) from Ecuador
Plants 2020, 9(8), 1027; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9081027 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 997
Abstract
Andean blackberries (Rubus glaucus Benth) are fruits rich in phytocomponents with high antioxidant activity. In this work, the changes in the total polyphenol content (TPC), the total flavonoid content (TFC), and the total anthocyanin content (TAC) of four blackberry varieties at three [...] Read more.
Andean blackberries (Rubus glaucus Benth) are fruits rich in phytocomponents with high antioxidant activity. In this work, the changes in the total polyphenol content (TPC), the total flavonoid content (TFC), and the total anthocyanin content (TAC) of four blackberry varieties at three maturity stages (E1-25%, E2-50%, and E3-100%) were measured. The antioxidant activity (AA) was evaluated using the 2,2’azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazolin 6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. TPC and TFC content decreased with the increase in the maturity stage. The blackberry Brazos cultivar presented TPC values of 51.26, 38.16, and 31.59 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dry weight (DW) at E1, E2, and E3, respectively. The TAC and soluble solids increased with the increase in the maturity stage of the fruits. The Andimora variety at E3 presented a high TPC content, and the Colombiana variety presented a high TFC content. The blackberry Colombiana cultivar presented TAC values of 1.40, 2.95, and 12.26 mg cy-3-glu/100g DW at E1, E2, and E3, respectively. The blackberry Colombiana cultivar presented a high AA value at 1278.63 µmol TE/g DW according to the ABTS method and 1284.55 µmol TE/g DW according to the FRAP method. The TPC and TFC showed a high correlation with the AA according to the ABTS and the FRAP methods. The Pearson correlation between the TFC and AA/ABTS has a value of r = 0.92. The TFC and AA/FRAP present a value of r = 0.94. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Plant Antioxidants Action)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Screening for Resistance in Farmer-Preferred Cassava Cultivars from Ghana to a Mixed Infection of CBSV and UCBSV
Plants 2020, 9(8), 1026; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9081026 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1075
Abstract
Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) caused by the Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) is a threat to cassava production in Africa. The potential spread of CBSD into West Africa is a cause for concern, therefore screening [...] Read more.
Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) caused by the Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) is a threat to cassava production in Africa. The potential spread of CBSD into West Africa is a cause for concern, therefore screening for resistance in farmer-preferred genotypes is crucial for effective control and management. We multiplied a selection of eleven cassava cultivars grown by farmers in Ghana to test their response to a mixed infection of CBSV (TAZ-DES-01) and UCBSV (TAZ-DES-02) isolates using a stringent top-cleft graft inoculation method. Virus titers were quantified in the inoculated scions and cuttings propagated from the inoculated scions to assess virus accumulation and recovery. All cultivars were susceptible to the mixed infection although their response and symptom development varied. In the propagated infected scions, CBSV accumulated at higher titers in leaves of eight of the eleven cultivars. Visual scoring of storage roots from six-month-old virus-inoculated plants revealed the absence of CBSD-associated necrosis symptoms and detectable titers of CBSVs in the cultivar, IFAD. Although all eleven cultivars supported the replication of CBSV and UCBSV in their leaves, the absence of virus replication and CBSD-associated symptoms in the roots of some cultivars could be used as criteria to rapidly advance durable CBSD tolerance using breeding and genetic engineering approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Plant Protection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Comparative Study of the Effects of Salinity on Growth, Gas Exchange, N Accumulation and Stable Isotope Signatures of Forage Oat (Avena sativa L.) Genotypes
Plants 2020, 9(8), 1025; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9081025 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 664
Abstract
Identifying suitable salt stress-tolerant phenotypes based on their agronomic and physiological traits remains a herculean task in forage-type oat (Avena sativa L.) breeding. This study examined the responses of six forage-type oat cultivars under four levels of saline stress over the vegetative [...] Read more.
Identifying suitable salt stress-tolerant phenotypes based on their agronomic and physiological traits remains a herculean task in forage-type oat (Avena sativa L.) breeding. This study examined the responses of six forage-type oat cultivars under four levels of saline stress over the vegetative growth cycle. Crop growth, water status-related traits and nitrogen status-related traits were analyzed in different plant parts to evaluate effective approaches for identifying salt tolerance. Plant biomass, height, tiller number and culm thickness changed substantially during salinity, but they were not precise enough for use in estimating genotypic salinity tolerance during long-term stress. Genotypes bearing larger numbers of tillers showed greater sensitivity to salinity due to its effects on biomass loss. Tolerant genotypes exhibited higher relative shoot biomass together with higher water use efficiency. The concentrations of Na+, K+ and their ratio, combined with the δ13C in shoots and roots were effective indicators for estimating tolerant genotypes through better water maintenance. N concentrations of shoots were the most efficient for evaluating genotypic tolerance. Low nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) activity might be key factors limiting N accumulation. Chlorophyll (Chl) content and net photosynthetic rate, as well as stomatal conductance and evaporation, were useful for identifying salinity tolerance physiological mechanisms, but the effectiveness was low for genotypic tolerance testing for forage type oats due to the interaction between genotypes and salinity levels. The selection of high salinity-tolerant genotypes should focus on genotypes with photosynthetic resilience to salt, followed by high N metabolism (higher NR and GS activities) to ensure accumulation of more N in the shoot dry matter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Response to Abiotic Stress and Climate Change)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Framework Phylogeny, Evolution and Complex Diversification of Chinese Oaks
Plants 2020, 9(8), 1024; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9081024 - 13 Aug 2020
Viewed by 686
Abstract
Oaks (Quercus L.) are ideal models to assess patterns of plant diversity. We integrated the sequence data of five chloroplast and two nuclear loci from 50 Chinese oaks to explore the phylogenetic framework, evolution and diversification patterns of the Chinese oak’s lineage. [...] Read more.
Oaks (Quercus L.) are ideal models to assess patterns of plant diversity. We integrated the sequence data of five chloroplast and two nuclear loci from 50 Chinese oaks to explore the phylogenetic framework, evolution and diversification patterns of the Chinese oak’s lineage. The framework phylogeny strongly supports two subgenera Quercus and Cerris comprising four infrageneric sections Quercus, Cerris, Ilex and Cyclobalanopsis for the Chinese oaks. An evolutionary analysis suggests that the two subgenera probably split during the mid-Eocene, followed by intergroup divergence within the subgenus Cerris around the late Eocene. The initial diversification of sections in the subgenus Cerris was dated between the mid-Oligocene and the Oligocene–Miocene boundary, while a rapid species radiation in section Quercus started in the late Miocene. Diversification simulations indicate a potential evolutionary shift on section Quercus, while several phenotypic shifts likely occur among all sections. We found significant negative correlations between rates of the lineage diversification and phenotypic turnover, suggesting a complex interaction between the species evolution and morphological divergence in Chinese oaks. Our infrageneric phylogeny of Chinese oaks accords with the recently proposed classification of the genus Quercus. The results point to tectonic activity and climatic change during the Tertiary as possible drivers of evolution and diversification in the Chinese oak’s lineage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolutionary Genomics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop