Special Issue "Mechanisms of Plant Antioxidants Action"

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Davide Barreca
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
Interests: plant biochemistry; isolation and identification of polyphenols; evaluation of biological potentials of polyphenols on isolate cells in culture; identification of molecular mechanisms of antioxidants action

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plants kingdom have always play a vital role for the isolation, identification and modification of compounds able to perform health promoting properties on live organisms.

Moreover, antioxidants are important components in the mechanism of signalling and defence of the same plant, where they are precursors of compounds of greater complexity, modulator of plant growth, as well as defensive system against pathogenic organisms and predators. The extraordinary variety of chemical structure and substitution present in the different plants antioxidant, make them an inestimable source of interesting compounds able to counteract reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and to stimulate the activation of signal cascade inside the cells. The mechanism by which they detoxify this dangerous compounds are complex and involved both direct or indirect interaction with radicals. Antioxidants inhibit or quench free radical reactions mainly based on their reducing capacity or hydrogen atom donating capacity, but also solubility and chelating properties have a remarkable importance in the process, as well as their ability to modulated key metabolic enzymes and activation/block of genes transcription. Taking into accounts the high interest in plant antioxidants as an emerging challenge for the  development of health promoting compounds and potential  biotechnological applications, this Special Issue will cover a wide variety of areas, aiming to contribute to the overall knowledge of molecular mechanism of antioxidants action by multiple point of view on both in the producers and in the consumers.

Prof. Davide Barreca
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Plants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • antioxidants
  • polyphenols
  • free radicals
  • carotenoids
  • vitamins
  • flavonoids
  • activation/block of signal cascade
  • antioxidant modulation of key metabolic enzymes
  • oxidative stress
  • hydrogen atom transfer, single electron transfer
  • antioxidant assays

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Melatonin Suppressed the Heat Stress-Induced Damage in Wheat Seedlings by Modulating the Antioxidant Machinery
Plants 2020, 9(7), 809; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9070809 - 28 Jun 2020
Abstract
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a pleiotropic signaling molecule that plays a crucial role in the regulation of various environmental stresses, including heat stress (HS). In this study, a 100 μM melatonin (MT) pretreatment followed by exposure to heat stress for different time [...] Read more.
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a pleiotropic signaling molecule that plays a crucial role in the regulation of various environmental stresses, including heat stress (HS). In this study, a 100 μM melatonin (MT) pretreatment followed by exposure to heat stress for different time periods was found to efficiently reduce oxidative stress by preventing the over-accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), lowering the lipid peroxidation content (malondialdehyde (MDA) content), and increasing proline (Pro) biosynthesis. Moreover, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD), were increased substantially in MT-pretreated wheat seedlings. The presence of MT significantly improved the heat tolerance of wheat seedlings by modulating their antioxidant defense system, activating the ascorbate–glutathione (AsA–GSH) cycle comprising ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and increasing glutathione reductase (GR) activities. It also held the photosynthetic machinery stable by increasing the chlorophyll content. Enhancement in the endogenous MT contents was also observed in the MT+HS-treated plants. Furthermore, the expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related genes TaSOD, TaPOD, and TaCAT, and anti-stress responsive genes, such as TaMYB80, TaWRKY26, and TaWRKY39, was also induced in MT-treated seedlings. Due to these notable changes, an improvement in stress resistance was observed in MT-treated seedlings compared with control. Taken together, our findings suggest that MT can play a key role in boosting the stress tolerance of plants by modulating the antioxidant defense system and regulating the transcription of stress-responsive genes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Plant Antioxidants Action)
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Open AccessArticle
Mechanisms Underlying the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Bergamot Essential Oil and Its Antinociceptive Effects
Plants 2020, 9(6), 704; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9060704 - 01 Jun 2020
Abstract
Renewed interest in natural products as potential source of drugs led us to investigate on both the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity of Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau (bergamot) essential oil (BEO). Carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats was used as an experimental model of [...] Read more.
Renewed interest in natural products as potential source of drugs led us to investigate on both the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity of Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau (bergamot) essential oil (BEO). Carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats was used as an experimental model of inflammation. Because of the toxicity of furocoumarins, we performed our study by using the BEO fraction deprived of these compounds (BEO-FF). Treatment with BEO-FF led to a significant inhibition of paw edema induced by a sub-plantar injection of carrageenan. Moreover, histological examination of BEO-FF-treated rat paw biopsies showed a reduction of pathological changes typical of edema. Pre-treatment with BEO-FF significantly reduced interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels in the paw homogenates, as well as nitrite/nitrate and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) content in exudates. In addition, BEO-FF possesses antioxidant properties, as determined by cell-free assays. Furthermore, results of the writhing test showed that BEO-FF elicited a pronounced analgesic response, as demonstrated by a significant inhibition of constrictions in mice receiving acetic acid, with respect to control animals, whereas the results of the hot plate test suggested that the supra-spinal analgesia participates in the anti-nociceptive effect of BEO-FF. Our study indicates that BEO-FF exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects, and suggests its potential role as an anti-edemigen and analgesic drug. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Plant Antioxidants Action)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Monoterpenes of Trachyspermum ammi on the Viability of Spermatogonia Stem Cells In Vitro
Plants 2020, 9(3), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9030343 - 09 Mar 2020
Abstract
Trachyspermum ammi (Apiaceae) plants have several medicinal and condimentary applications and are considered an aphrodisiac agent in Iranian Traditional Medicine. Thus, the present study aims to evaluate the effects of oil from Iranian T. ammi plants on the viability of spermatogonial stem cells [...] Read more.
Trachyspermum ammi (Apiaceae) plants have several medicinal and condimentary applications and are considered an aphrodisiac agent in Iranian Traditional Medicine. Thus, the present study aims to evaluate the effects of oil from Iranian T. ammi plants on the viability of spermatogonial stem cells in vitro. The essential oil of T. ammi fruits was extracted by hydrodistillation, and the amount of thymol was calculated by a gas-chromatography method. Spermatogonial stem cells were isolated from the testes of mice using enzyme digestion. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was applied to assess the gene expressions of promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein (Plzf), DNA-binding protein inhibitor (ID-4), tyrosine-protein kinase (c-Kit), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) and Bcl2-associated X protein (BAX). The number and diameter of colonies were also measured in the treated cells. The amount of thymol in the oil was 130.7 ± 7.6 µg/mL. Flow cytometry analysis showed that 92.8% of all cells expressed stimulated by retinoic acid 8 (Stra8), a spermatogonial stem cell marker. Expression of Plzf and ID-4 genes significantly increased in the treatment groups, while c-Kit and BAX decreased, and Bcl2 increased in the presence of essential oil. The numbers and diameters of cells were also improved by the application of the plant oil. These data indicated that monoterpenes from the oil of T. ammi improved the quality and viability of spermatogonia cells in the cell culture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Plant Antioxidants Action)
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Anti-HSV-1 Activity of Polyphenol-Rich Extracts and Pure Polyphenol Compounds Derived from Pistachios Kernels (Pistacia vera L.)
Plants 2020, 9(2), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9020267 - 18 Feb 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Natural compounds are a prominent source of novel antiviral drugs. Several reports have previously shown the antimicrobial activity of pistachio polyphenol extracts. Therefore, the aim of our research was to investigate the activity of polyphenol-rich extracts of natural shelled (NPRE) pistachios kernels ( [...] Read more.
Natural compounds are a prominent source of novel antiviral drugs. Several reports have previously shown the antimicrobial activity of pistachio polyphenol extracts. Therefore, the aim of our research was to investigate the activity of polyphenol-rich extracts of natural shelled (NPRE) pistachios kernels (Pistacia vera L.) on herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) replication. The Vero cell line was used to assess the cytotoxicity and antiviral activity. The cell viability was calculated by detection of cellular ATP after treatment with various concentrations of NPRE. For antiviral studies, five nontoxic-concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 mg/mL) were tested. Our study demonstrated that treatment with NPRE (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 mg/mL) reduced the expression of the viral proteins ICP8 (infected cell polypeptide 8), UL42 (unique long UL42 DNA polymerase processivity factor), and US11 (unique short US11 protein), and resulted in a decrease of viral DNA synthesis. The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50), 50% inhibitory concentration (EC50), and the selectivity index (SI) values for NPRE were 1.2 mg/mL, 0.4mg/mL, and 3, respectively. Furthermore, we assessed the anti-herpetic effect of a mix of pure polyphenol compounds (NS MIX) present in NPRE. In conclusion, our findings indicate that natural shelled pistachio kernels have remarkable inhibitory activity against HSV-1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Plant Antioxidants Action)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Melatonin: Awakening the Defense Mechanisms during Plant Oxidative Stress
Plants 2020, 9(4), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9040407 - 25 Mar 2020
Abstract
Melatonin is a multifunctional signaling molecule that is ubiquitously distributed in different parts of a plant and responsible for stimulating several physio-chemical responses to adverse environmental conditions. In this review, we show that, although plants are able to biosynthesize melatonin, the exogenous application [...] Read more.
Melatonin is a multifunctional signaling molecule that is ubiquitously distributed in different parts of a plant and responsible for stimulating several physio-chemical responses to adverse environmental conditions. In this review, we show that, although plants are able to biosynthesize melatonin, the exogenous application of melatonin to various crops can improve plant growth and development in response to various abiotic and biotic stresses (e.g., drought, unfavorable temperatures, high salinity, heavy metal contamination, acid rain, and combined stresses) by regulating antioxidant machinery of plants. Current knowledge suggests that exogenously applied melatonin can enhance the stress tolerance of plants by regulating both the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems. Enzymic antioxidants upregulated by exogenous melatonin include superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and enzymes involved in the ascorbate–glutathione cycle (ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione reductase), whereas levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants such as ascorbate, reduced glutathione, carotenoids, tocopherols, and phenolics are also higher under stress conditions. The enhanced antioxidant system consequently exhibits lower lipid peroxidation and greater plasma membrane integrity when under stress. However, these responses vary greatly from crop to crop and depend on the intensity and type of stress, and most studies to date have been conducted under controlled conditions. This means that a wider range of crop field trials and detailed transcriptomic analysis are required to reveal the gene regulatory networks involved in the between melatonin, antioxidants, and abiotic stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Plant Antioxidants Action)
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Open AccessReview
Isatis tinctoria L. (Woad): A Review of Its Botany, Ethnobotanical Uses, Phytochemistry, Biological Activities, and Biotechnological Studies
Plants 2020, 9(3), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9030298 - 01 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Isatis tinctoria L. (Brassicaceae), which is commonly known as woad, is a species with an ancient and well-documented history as an indigo dye and medicinal plant. Currently, I. tinctoria is utilized more often as medicinal remedy and also as a cosmetic ingredient. In [...] Read more.
Isatis tinctoria L. (Brassicaceae), which is commonly known as woad, is a species with an ancient and well-documented history as an indigo dye and medicinal plant. Currently, I. tinctoria is utilized more often as medicinal remedy and also as a cosmetic ingredient. In 2011, I. tinctoria root was accepted in the official European phytotherapy by introducing its monograph in the European Pharmacopoeia. The biological properties of raw material have been known from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Over recent decades, I. tinctoria has been investigated both from a phytochemical and a biological point of view. The modern in vitro and in vivo scientific studies proved anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour, antimicrobial, antiviral, analgesic, and antioxidant activities. The phytochemical composition of I. tinctoria has been thoroughly investigated and the plant was proven to contain many valuable biologically active compounds, including several alkaloids, among which tryptanthrin, indirubin, indolinone, phenolic compounds, and polysaccharides as well as glucosinolates, carotenoids, volatile constituents, and fatty acids. This article provides a general botanical and ethnobotanical overview that summarizes the up-to-date knowledge on the phytochemistry and biological properties of this valuable plant in order to support its therapeutic potential. Moreover, the biotechnological studies on I. tinctoria, which mainly focused on hairy root cultures for the enhanced production of flavonoids and alkaloids as well as on the establishment of shoot cultures and micropropagation protocols, were reviewed. They provide input for future research prospects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Plant Antioxidants Action)
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