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Biomolecules, Volume 9, Issue 11 (November 2019)
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Cover Story (view full-size image) Plaques consisting of amyloid-β (Aβ) are a major pathological hallmark of Alzheimer´s disease. Aβ [...] Read more. Plaques consisting of amyloid-β (Aβ) are a major pathological hallmark of Alzheimer´s disease. Aβ is derived by amyloidogenic APP processing and prevented by a non-amyloidogenic pathway. Methylxanthines like caffeine decrease Aβ levels by shifting APP processing to the non-amyloidogenic pathway by decreasing β- and increasing α-secretase activity. Other factors that are also in involved in neurodegenerative diseases, like cholesterol, reactive oxygen species, APP expression, and Aβ aggregation, were also positively affected. Similar mechanisms were observed for all analyzed methylxanthines. Although effect strengths were moderate, the integration of methylxanthines as part of a healthy diet should be considered, especially because of their cost effectiveness, availability, and modest side effects. View this paper.