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Open AccessArticle

Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Content and Biological Activities of Extracts and Isolated Compounds of Cytisus villosus Pourr.

1
Department of BioMolecular Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677-1848, USA
2
Département de Chimie, Faculté des Sciences Exactes, Université des Frères Mentouri Constantine 1, Constantine, Route d’Aine El Bey, 25000 Constantine, Algeria
3
Department of Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
4
Laboratoire de Synthèse Organique, Modélisation et Optimisation des Procèdes (LOMOP), Université Badji Mokhtar, Faculté des Sciences, Département de Chimie, 23000 Annaba, Algeria
5
College of Pharmacy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2019, 9(11), 732; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9110732
Received: 19 October 2019 / Revised: 9 November 2019 / Accepted: 11 November 2019 / Published: 13 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Bio.Natural Meeting 2019)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the total phenolic and flavonoid content, and the in vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, cytotoxicity, and antiprotozoal activities of the Algerian plant Cytisus villosus Pourr. (Syn. Cytisus triflorus L’Hérit.). Additionally, the radioligand displacement affinity on opioid and cannabinoid receptors was assessed for the extracts and isolated pure compounds. The hydro alcoholic extract of the aerial part of C. villosus was partitioned with chloroform (CHCl3), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n-butanol (n-BuOH). The phenolic content of the C. villosus extracts was evaluated using a modified Folin–Ciocalteau method. The total flavonoid content was measured spectrometrically using the aluminum chloride colorimetric assay. The known flavonoids genistein (1), chrysin (2), chrysin-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3), and 2″-O-α-l-rhamnosylorientin (4) were isolated. The antioxidant activities of the extracts and isolated compounds were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DDPH) and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. The plant extracts showed moderate antioxidant activity. EtOAc and n-BuOH extracts showed moderate anti-inflammatory activity through the inhibition of induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) with IC50 values of 48 and 90 µg/mL, respectively. The isolated pure compounds 1 and 3 showed good inhibition of Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) with IC50 values of 9 and 20 µg/mL, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited lower inhibition of Nuclear Factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) with IC50 values of 28 and 38 µg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the extracts and isolated pure compounds have been shown to exhibit low affinity for cannabinoid and opioid receptors. Finally, n-BuOH extract was a potent inhibitor of Trypanosoma brucei with IC50 value of 7.99 µg/mL and IC90 value of 12.61 µg/mL. The extracts and isolated compounds showed no antimicrobial, antimalarial nor antileishmanial activities. No cytotoxic effect was observed on cancer cell lines. The results highlight this species as a promising source of anti-inflammatory and antitrypanosomal agents. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cytisus villosus; antioxidant; anti-inflammatory; antibacterial; antifungal; antimalarial; antileishmanial; antitrypanosomal; cytotoxicity; cannabinoid receptor; opioid receptor Cytisus villosus; antioxidant; anti-inflammatory; antibacterial; antifungal; antimalarial; antileishmanial; antitrypanosomal; cytotoxicity; cannabinoid receptor; opioid receptor
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Larit, F.; León, F.; Benyahia, S.; Cutler, S.J. Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Content and Biological Activities of Extracts and Isolated Compounds of Cytisus villosus Pourr.. Biomolecules 2019, 9, 732.

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