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Open AccessReview

Therapeutic Potential of α- and β-Pinene: A Miracle Gift of Nature

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Student Research Committee, School of Medicine, Bam University of Medical Sciences, Bam 44340847, Iran
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G. B. Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment and Sustainable Development, Kosi-Katarmal, Almora-263643, Uttarakhand, India
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Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gazi University, 06330 Ankara, Turkey
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G. B. Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment and Sustainable Development, Garhwal Regional Centre, Srinagar-246174, Uttarakhand, India
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School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, Discipline of Laboratory Medicine, RMIT University, P.O. Box 71, Bundoora, VIC 3083, Australia
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Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Avicenna Tajik State Medical University, Rudaki 139, 734003 Dushanbe, Tajikistan
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Phytochemistry Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1991953381, Iran
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Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
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Institute for Research and Innovation in Health (i3S), University of Porto, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
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Department of Clinical Oncology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, 30 Gascoigne Road, Hong Kong, China
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Zabol Medicinal Plants Research Center, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol 61615-585, Iran
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2019, 9(11), 738; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9110738
Received: 8 September 2019 / Revised: 6 November 2019 / Accepted: 8 November 2019 / Published: 14 November 2019
α- and β-pinene are well-known representatives of the monoterpenes group, and are found in many plants’ essential oils. A wide range of pharmacological activities have been reported, including antibiotic resistance modulation, anticoagulant, antitumor, antimicrobial, antimalarial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-Leishmania, and analgesic effects. This article aims to summarize the most prominent effects of α- and β-pinene, namely their cytogenetic, gastroprotective, anxiolytic, cytoprotective, anticonvulsant, and neuroprotective effects, as well as their effects against H2O2-stimulated oxidative stress, pancreatitis, stress-stimulated hyperthermia, and pulpal pain. Finally, we will also discuss the bioavailability, administration, as well as their biological activity and clinical applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: α-pinene, β-pinene; pharmacological activities; cytotoxicity; bioavailability; clinical studies α-pinene, β-pinene; pharmacological activities; cytotoxicity; bioavailability; clinical studies
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MDPI and ACS Style

Salehi, B.; Upadhyay, S.; Erdogan Orhan, I.; Kumar Jugran, A.; L.D. Jayaweera, S.; A. Dias, D.; Sharopov, F.; Taheri, Y.; Martins, N.; Baghalpour, N.; C. Cho, W.; Sharifi-Rad, J. Therapeutic Potential of α- and β-Pinene: A Miracle Gift of Nature. Biomolecules 2019, 9, 738.

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