Next Issue
Volume 10, April
Previous Issue
Volume 10, February

Metabolites, Volume 10, Issue 3 (March 2020) – 43 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): We used a systems biological approach combining gene expression and metabolomics across tissues and biofluids together with metagenomics of gut microbial diversity. Here, we present the multi-omics study on liver, muscle, adipose tissue, urine, plasma, and feces on mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The integration of metabolomics data across tissues and biofluids identified major differences in the liver TCA cycle supported by gene expression analysis of TCA-related enzymes. Investigations of the microbiome showed enrichment of specific species in the HFD group. Our findings help to elucidate how the whole organism metabolome and transcriptome are integrated and regulated during obesity. View this paper.
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Deriving Lipid Classification Based on Molecular Formulas
Metabolites 2020, 10(3), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10030122 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1370
Abstract
Despite instrument and algorithmic improvements, the untargeted and accurate assignment of metabolites remains an unsolved problem in metabolomics. New assignment methods such as our SMIRFE algorithm can assign elemental molecular formulas to observed spectral features in a highly untargeted manner without orthogonal information [...] Read more.
Despite instrument and algorithmic improvements, the untargeted and accurate assignment of metabolites remains an unsolved problem in metabolomics. New assignment methods such as our SMIRFE algorithm can assign elemental molecular formulas to observed spectral features in a highly untargeted manner without orthogonal information from tandem MS or chromatography. However, for many lipidomics applications, it is necessary to know at least the lipid category or class that is associated with a detected spectral feature to derive a biochemical interpretation. Our goal is to develop a method for robustly classifying elemental molecular formula assignments into lipid categories for an application to SMIRFE-generated assignments. Using a Random Forest machine learning approach, we developed a method that can predict lipid category and class from SMIRFE non-adducted molecular formula assignments. Our methods achieve high average predictive accuracy (>90%) and precision (>83%) across all eight of the lipid categories in the LIPIDMAPS database. Classification performance was evaluated using sets of theoretical, data-derived, and artifactual molecular formulas. Our methods enable the lipid classification of non-adducted molecular formula assignments generated by SMIRFE without orthogonal information, facilitating the biochemical interpretation of untargeted lipidomics experiments. This lipid classification appears insufficient for validating single-spectrum assignments, but could be useful in cross-spectrum assignment validation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Comparative Metabolomics and Molecular Phylogenetics of Melon (Cucumis melo, Cucurbitaceae) Biodiversity
Metabolites 2020, 10(3), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10030121 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2389
Abstract
The broad variability of Cucumis melo (melon, Cucurbitaceae) presents a challenge to conventional classification and organization within the species. To shed further light on the infraspecific relationships within C. melo, we compared genotypic and metabolomic similarities among 44 accessions representative of most [...] Read more.
The broad variability of Cucumis melo (melon, Cucurbitaceae) presents a challenge to conventional classification and organization within the species. To shed further light on the infraspecific relationships within C. melo, we compared genotypic and metabolomic similarities among 44 accessions representative of most of the cultivar-groups. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) provided over 20,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Metabolomics data of the mature fruit flesh and rind provided over 80,000 metabolomic and elemental features via an orchestra of six complementary metabolomic platforms. These technologies probed polar, semi-polar, and non-polar metabolite fractions as well as a set of mineral elements and included both flavor- and taste-relevant volatile and non-volatile metabolites. Together these results enabled an estimate of “metabolomic/elemental distance” and its correlation with the genetic GBS distance of melon accessions. This study indicates that extensive and non-targeted metabolomics/elemental characterization produced classifications that strongly, but not completely, reflect the current and extensive genetic classification. Certain melon Groups, such as Inodorous, clustered in parallel with the genetic classifications while other genome to metabolome/element associations proved less clear. We suggest that the combined genomic, metabolic, and element data reflect the extensive sexual compatibility among melon accessions and the breeding history that has, for example, targeted metabolic quality traits, such as taste and flavor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Metabolism and Metabolomics)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
The Application of Metabolomics to Probiotic and Prebiotic Interventions in Human Clinical Studies
Metabolites 2020, 10(3), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10030120 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1784
Abstract
There is an ever-increasing appreciation for our gut microbiota that plays a crucial role in the maintenance of health, as well as the development of disease. Probiotics are live bacteria that are consumed to increase the population of beneficial bacteria and prebiotics are [...] Read more.
There is an ever-increasing appreciation for our gut microbiota that plays a crucial role in the maintenance of health, as well as the development of disease. Probiotics are live bacteria that are consumed to increase the population of beneficial bacteria and prebiotics are dietary substrates intended to promote the propagation of beneficial bacteria. In order to optimize the use of probiotics and prebiotics, a more complete biochemical understanding of the impact that these treatments have on the community and functioning of the gut microbiota is required. Nucleic acid sequencing methods can provide highly detailed information on the composition of the microbial communities but provide less information on the actual function. As bacteria impart much of their influence on the host through the production of metabolites, there is much to be learned by the application of metabolomics. The focus of this review is on the use of metabolomics in the study of probiotic and prebiotic treatments in the context of human clinical trials. Assessment of the current state of this research will help guide the design of future studies to further elucidate the biochemical mechanism by which probiotics and prebiotics function and pave the way toward more personalized applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics in Human Tissues and Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Extensive Profiling of Polyphenols from Two Trollius Species Using a Combination of Untargeted and Targeted Approaches
Metabolites 2020, 10(3), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10030119 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1170
Abstract
Various species of globeflowers, belonging to the genus Trollius, have been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine due to their anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antiviral properties, which are mainly attributed to their high polyphenol content. Differences in polyphenol composition, and abundances, will lead [...] Read more.
Various species of globeflowers, belonging to the genus Trollius, have been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine due to their anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antiviral properties, which are mainly attributed to their high polyphenol content. Differences in polyphenol composition, and abundances, will lead to varying treatment efficacies of globeflowers. Herein, we employ a combination of targeted and untargeted mass spectrometry (MS) approaches to characterize and quantify a comprehensive array of polyphenols, mainly including flavonoids and phenolic acids in two globeflower species commonly used in Chinese medicine, Trollius chinensis Bunge and Trollius ledebouri Reichb. In addition, free radical scavenging activity was investigated to evaluate the association between polyphenol composition and antioxidation capacity. Liquid chromatography (LC)-based separation and multiple-reaction-monitoring (MRM) transitions were optimized using a library of 78 polyphenol reference compounds to achieve absolute quantification on triple quadrupoles MS (QqQ). The analytical method was further expanded via high-resolution MS to provide relative quantitation of an additional 104 endogenous polyphenols in globeflowers not included in our reference library. Our results revealed stark differences in polyphenol content between T. chinensis and T. ledebouri, emphasizing the need for systematic characterization of polyphenol composition to ensure treatment efficacy and consistency in standardizing the use of globeflowers in Chinese medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Metabolomics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Robust Moiety Model Selection Using Mass Spectrometry Measured Isotopologues
Metabolites 2020, 10(3), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10030118 - 21 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 977
Abstract
Stable isotope resolved metabolomics (SIRM) experiments use stable isotope tracers to provide superior metabolomics datasets for metabolic flux analysis and metabolic modeling. Since assumptions of model correctness can seriously compromise interpretation of metabolic flux results, we have developed a metabolic modeling software package [...] Read more.
Stable isotope resolved metabolomics (SIRM) experiments use stable isotope tracers to provide superior metabolomics datasets for metabolic flux analysis and metabolic modeling. Since assumptions of model correctness can seriously compromise interpretation of metabolic flux results, we have developed a metabolic modeling software package specifically designed for moiety model comparison and selection based on the metabolomics data provided. Here, we tested the effectiveness of model selection with two time-series mass spectrometry (MS) isotopologue datasets for uridine diphosphate N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) generated from different platforms utilizing direct infusion nanoelectrospray and liquid chromatography. Analysis results demonstrate the robustness of our model selection methods by the successful selection of the optimal model from over 40 models provided. Moreover, the effects of specific optimization methods, degree of optimization, selection criteria, and specific objective functions on model selection are illustrated. Overall, these results indicate that over-optimization can lead to model selection failure, but combining multiple datasets can help control this overfitting effect. The implication is that SIRM datasets in public repositories of reasonable quality can be combined with newly acquired datasets to improve model selection. Furthermore, curation efforts of public metabolomics repositories to maintain high data quality could have a huge impact on future metabolic modeling efforts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stable Isotope Guided Metabolomics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Nematode-Trapping Fungi Produce Diverse Metabolites during Predator–Prey Interaction
Metabolites 2020, 10(3), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10030117 - 20 Mar 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1815
Abstract
Nematode-trapping fungi are natural antagonists of nematodes. These predatory fungi are capable of switching their lifestyle from a saprophytic to predatory stage in the presence of nematodes by developing specialized trapping devices to capture and consume nematodes. The biochemical mechanisms of such predator–prey [...] Read more.
Nematode-trapping fungi are natural antagonists of nematodes. These predatory fungi are capable of switching their lifestyle from a saprophytic to predatory stage in the presence of nematodes by developing specialized trapping devices to capture and consume nematodes. The biochemical mechanisms of such predator–prey interaction have become increasingly studied given the potential application of nematode-trapping fungi as biocontrol agents, but the involved fungal metabolites remain underexplored. Here, we report a comprehensive liquid–chromatography mass spectrometry (LC–MS) metabolomics study on one hundred wild isolates of nematode-trapping fungi in three different species, Arthrobotrys oligospora, Arthrobotrys thaumasia, and Arthrobotrys musiformis. Molecular networking analysis revealed that the fungi were capable of producing thousands of metabolites, and such chemical diversity of metabolites was notably increased as the fungi switched lifestyle to the predatory stage. Structural annotations by tandem mass spectrometry revealed that those fungal metabolites belonged to various structural families, such as peptide, siderophore, fatty alcohol, and fatty acid amide, and their production exhibited species specificity. Several small peptides (<1.5 kDa) produced by A. musiformis in the predatory stage were found, with their partial amino acid sequences resolved by the tandem mass spectra. Four fungal metabolites (desferriferrichrome, linoleyl alcohol, nonadecanamide, and citicoline) that were significantly enriched in the predatory stage were identified and validated by chemical standards, and their bioactivities against nematode prey were assessed. The availability of the metabolomics datasets will facilitate comparative studies on the metabolites of nematode-trapping fungi in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics and Microbiota Metabolism)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Communication
Estrogen Receptor beta (ERβ) Regulation of Lipid Homeostasis—Does Sex Matter?
Metabolites 2020, 10(3), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10030116 - 20 Mar 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 926
Abstract
In this communication, we aim to summarize the role of estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) in lipid metabolism in the main metabolic organs with a special focus on sex differences. The action of ERβ is tissue-specific and acts in a sex-dependent manner, emphasizing the [...] Read more.
In this communication, we aim to summarize the role of estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) in lipid metabolism in the main metabolic organs with a special focus on sex differences. The action of ERβ is tissue-specific and acts in a sex-dependent manner, emphasizing the necessity of developing sex- and tissue-selective targeting drugs in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Disease: Mitochondria and Beyond)
Review
Protective Role of Vitamin D in Renal Tubulopathies
Metabolites 2020, 10(3), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10030115 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1876
Abstract
Vitamin D is tightly linked with renal tubular homeostasis: the mitochondria of proximal convoluted tubule cells are the production site of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Patients with renal impairment or tubular injury often suffer from chronic inflammation. This alteration comes from oxidative stress, acidosis, decreased [...] Read more.
Vitamin D is tightly linked with renal tubular homeostasis: the mitochondria of proximal convoluted tubule cells are the production site of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Patients with renal impairment or tubular injury often suffer from chronic inflammation. This alteration comes from oxidative stress, acidosis, decreased clearance of inflammatory cytokines and stimulation of inflammatory factors. The challenge is to find the right formula for each patient to correctly modulate the landscape of treatment and preserve the essential functions of the organism without perturbating its homeostasis. The complexity of the counter-regulation mechanisms and the different axis involved in the Vitamin D equilibrium pose a major issue on Vitamin D as a potential effective anti-inflammatory drug. The therapeutic use of this compound should be able to inhibit the development of inflammation without interfering with normal homeostasis. Megalin-Cubilin-Amnionless and the FGF23-Klotho axis represent two Vitamin D-linked mechanisms that could modulate and ameliorate the damage response at the renal tubular level, balancing Vitamin D therapy with an effect potent enough to contrast the inflammatory cascades, but which avoids potential severe side effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Bone Metabolism)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Untargeted and Targeted Metabolomic Profiling of Australian Indigenous Fruits
Metabolites 2020, 10(3), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10030114 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1613
Abstract
Selected Australian native fruits such as Davidson’s plum, finger lime and native pepperberry have been reported to demonstrate potent antioxidant activity. However, comprehensive metabolite profiling of these fruits is limited, therefore the compounds responsible are unknown, and further, the compounds of nutritional value [...] Read more.
Selected Australian native fruits such as Davidson’s plum, finger lime and native pepperberry have been reported to demonstrate potent antioxidant activity. However, comprehensive metabolite profiling of these fruits is limited, therefore the compounds responsible are unknown, and further, the compounds of nutritional value in these native fruits are yet to be described. In this study, untargeted and targeted metabolomics were conducted using the three fruits, together with assays to determine their antioxidant activities. The results demonstrate that targeted free and hydrolysed protein amino acids exhibited high amounts of essential amino acids. Similarly, important minerals like potassium were detected in the fruit samples. In antioxidant activity, Davidson’s plum reported the highest activity in ferric reducing power (FRAP), finger lime in antioxidant capacity (ABTS), and native pepperberry in free radical scavenging (DPPH) and phosphomolybdenum assay. The compounds responsible for the antioxidant activity were tentatively identified using untargeted GC×GC-TOFMS and UHPLC-QqQ-TOF-MS/MS metabolomics. A clear discrimination into three clusters of fruits was observed using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) analysis. The correlation study identified a number of compounds that provide the antioxidant activities. GC×GC-TOFMS detected potent aroma compounds of limonene, furfural, and 1-R-α-pinene. Based on the untargeted and targeted metabolomics, and antioxidant assays, the nutritional potential of these Australian bush fruits is considerable and supports these indigenous fruits in the nutraceutical industry as well as functional ingredients for the food industry, with such outcomes benefiting Indigenous Australian communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Metabolism and Metabolomics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
16HBE Cell Lipid Mediator Responses to Mono and Co-Infections with Respiratory Pathogens
Metabolites 2020, 10(3), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10030113 - 18 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1187
Abstract
Respiratory tract infections are a global health problem. The main causative agents of these infections are influenza A virus (IAV), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae). Major research focuses on genetics and immune responses in these [...] Read more.
Respiratory tract infections are a global health problem. The main causative agents of these infections are influenza A virus (IAV), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae). Major research focuses on genetics and immune responses in these infections. Eicosanoids and other oxylipins are host-derived lipid mediators that play an important role in the activation and resolution of inflammation. In this study, we assess, for the first time, the different intracellular profiles of these bioactive lipid mediators during S. aureus LUG2012, S. pneumoniae TIGR4, IAV, and corresponding viral and bacterial co-infections of 16HBE cells. We observed a multitude of altered lipid mediators. Changes in the amount of 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) were prominent for all bacterial infections. The infection with S. pneumoniae showed the strongest impact on bioactive lipid production and led to alterations in the amount of PPARγ ligands and precursors of pro-resolving lipid mediators. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Discrimination of Adzuki Bean (Vigna angularis) Geographical Origin by Targeted and Non-Targeted Metabolite Profiling with Gas Chromatography Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry
Metabolites 2020, 10(3), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10030112 - 17 Mar 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1441
Abstract
As international food trade increases, consumers are becoming increasingly interested in food safety and authenticity, which are linked to geographical origin. Adzuki beans (Vigna angularis) are cultivated worldwide, but there are no tools for accurately discriminating their geographical origin. Thus, our [...] Read more.
As international food trade increases, consumers are becoming increasingly interested in food safety and authenticity, which are linked to geographical origin. Adzuki beans (Vigna angularis) are cultivated worldwide, but there are no tools for accurately discriminating their geographical origin. Thus, our study aims to develop a method for discriminating the geographical origin of adzuki beans through targeted and non-targeted metabolite profiling with gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with multivariate analysis. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis showed clear discrimination between adzuki beans cultivated in Korea and China. Non-targeted metabolite profiling showed better separation than targeted profiling. Furthermore, citric acid and malic acid were the most notable metabolites for discriminating adzuki beans cultivated in Korea and China. The geographical discrimination method combining non-targeted metabolite profiling and pareto-scaling showed excellent predictability (Q2 = 0.812). Therefore, it is a suitable prediction tool for the discrimination of geographical origin and is expected to be applicable to the geographical authentication of adzuki beans. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Compound Characterization and Metabolic Profile Elucidation after In Vitro Gastrointestinal and Hepatic Biotransformation of an Herniaria hirsuta Extract Using Unbiased Dynamic Metabolomic Data Analysis
Metabolites 2020, 10(3), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10030111 - 16 Mar 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1375
Abstract
Herniaria hirsuta L. (Caryophyllaceae) is used for treatment of urinary stones and as a diuretic. Little is known about the active compounds and the mechanism of action. The phytochemical composition of H. hirsuta was comprehensively characterized using UHPLC-UV-HRMS (Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Ultraviolet-High Resolution Mass [...] Read more.
Herniaria hirsuta L. (Caryophyllaceae) is used for treatment of urinary stones and as a diuretic. Little is known about the active compounds and the mechanism of action. The phytochemical composition of H. hirsuta was comprehensively characterized using UHPLC-UV-HRMS (Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Ultraviolet-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry) data. An in vitro gastrointestinal model was used to simulate biotransformation, which allowed the monitoring of the relative abundances of individual compounds over time. To analyze the longitudinal multiclass LC–MS data, XCMS, a platform that enables online metabolomics data processing and interpretation, and EDGE, a statistical method for time series data, were used to extract significant differential profiles from the raw data. An interactive Shiny app in R was used to rate the quality of the resulting features. These ratings were used to train a random forest model. The most abundant aglycone after gastrointestinal biotransformation was subjected to hepatic biotransformation using human S9 fractions. A diversity of compounds was detected, mainly saponins and flavonoids. Besides the known saponins, 15 new saponins were tentatively identified as glycosides of medicagenic acid, acetylated medicagenic acid and zanhic acid. It is suggested that metabolites of phytochemicals present in H. hirsuta, most likely saponins, are responsible for the pharmaceutical effects. It was observed that the relative abundance of saponin aglycones increased, indicating loss of sugar moieties during colonic biotransformation, with medicagenic acid as the most abundant aglycone. Hepatic biotransformation of this aglycone resulted in different metabolites formed by phase I and II reactions. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Color Mutations Alter the Biochemical Composition in the San Marzano Tomato Fruit
Metabolites 2020, 10(3), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10030110 - 15 Mar 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1644
Abstract
San Marzano (SM) is a traditional Italian landrace characterized by red elongated fruits, originating in the province of Naples (Italy) and cultivated worldwide. Three mutations, yellow flesh (r), green flesh (gf) and colorless fruit epidermis (y) were [...] Read more.
San Marzano (SM) is a traditional Italian landrace characterized by red elongated fruits, originating in the province of Naples (Italy) and cultivated worldwide. Three mutations, yellow flesh (r), green flesh (gf) and colorless fruit epidermis (y) were introduced into SM by backcross and the resulting introgression lines (ILs) produced the expected yellow, brown and pink fruit variants. In addition, ILs carrying double combinations of those mutations were obtained. The six ILs plus the SM reference were analyzed for volatile (VOC), non-polar (NP) and polar (P) metabolites. Sixty-eight VOCs were identified, and several differences evidenced in the ILs; overall gf showed epistasis over r and y and r over y. Analysis of the NP component identified 54 metabolites; variation in early carotenoids (up to lycopene) and chlorophylls characterized respectively the ILs containing r and gf. In addition, compounds belonging to the quinone and xanthophyll classes were present in genotypes carrying the r mutation at levels higher than SM. Finally, the analysis of 129 P metabolites evidenced different levels of vitamins, amino acids, lipids and phenylpropanoids in the ILs. A correlation network approach was used to investigate metabolite–metabolite relationships in the mutant lines. Altogether these differences potentially modified the hedonistic and nutritional value of the berry. In summary, single and combined mutations in gf, r and y generated interesting visual and compositional diversity in the SM landrace, while maintaining its original typology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Metabolism and Metabolomics)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Metabolic Phenotypes of Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy with Normal vs. Pathologic Magnetic Resonance Imaging Outcomes
Metabolites 2020, 10(3), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10030109 - 14 Mar 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1348
Abstract
Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) is one of the most relevant contributors to neurological disability in term infants. We hypothesized that clinical outcomes of newborns with (HIE) can be associated with changes at plasma metabolic level enabling the detection of brain injury. Plasma samples of [...] Read more.
Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) is one of the most relevant contributors to neurological disability in term infants. We hypothesized that clinical outcomes of newborns with (HIE) can be associated with changes at plasma metabolic level enabling the detection of brain injury. Plasma samples of a cohort of 55 asphyxiated infants who evolved to moderate/severe HIE were collected between birth and completion of therapeutic hypothermia (TH). Samples were analyzed employing a quantitative gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method for the determination of lactate and pyruvate and an untargeted liquid chromatography–time-of-flight mass spectrometry method for metabolic fingerprinting. Brain injury was assessed employing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A critical assessment of the usefulness of lactate, pyruvate, and pyruvate/lactate for outcome prediction was carried out. Besides, metabolic fingerprinting identified a dynamic perturbation of eleven metabolic pathways, including amino acid and purine metabolism, and the steroid hormone biosynthesis, in newborns with pathologic MRI outcomes. Although data suggest the usefulness of lactate and pyruvate monitoring during 72 h for discerning outcomes, only the steroid hormone biosynthesis pathway was significantly altered in early plasma samples (i.e., before the initiation of TH). This study highlights pathways that might potentially be targeted for biomarker discovery or adjuvant therapies to be combined with TH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Metabolomics in Maternal and Child Health)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Deciphering the Metabolic Pathways of Pitaya Peel after Postharvest Red Light Irradiation
Metabolites 2020, 10(3), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10030108 - 14 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1082
Abstract
Red light irradiation can effectively prolong the shelf-life of many fruit. However, little is known about red light-induced metabolite and enzyme activities. In this study, pitaya fruit was treated with 100 Lux red light for 24 h. Red light irradiation significantly attenuated the [...] Read more.
Red light irradiation can effectively prolong the shelf-life of many fruit. However, little is known about red light-induced metabolite and enzyme activities. In this study, pitaya fruit was treated with 100 Lux red light for 24 h. Red light irradiation significantly attenuated the variation trend of senescence traits, such as the decrease of total soluble solid (TSS) and TSS/acidity (titratable acidity, TA) ratio, the increase of TA, and respiratory rate. In addition, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) related characters, primary metabolites profiling, and volatile compounds profiling were determined. A total of 71 primary metabolites and 67 volatile compounds were detected and successfully identified by using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Red light irradiation enhanced glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, aldehydes metabolism, and antioxidant enzymes activities at early stage of postharvest storage, leading to the reduction of H2O2, soluble sugars, organic acids, and C-6 and C-7 aldehydes. At a later stage of postharvest storage, a larger number of resistance-related metabolites and enzyme activities were induced in red light-treated pitaya peel, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging, reducing power, fatty acids, and volatile aroma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Volatile Metabolites’ New Frontier for Metabolomics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
The Interrelations between Biological and Targeted Synthetic Agents Used in Inflammatory Joint Diseases, and Obesity or Body Composition
Metabolites 2020, 10(3), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10030107 - 13 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1197
Abstract
Obesity is a comorbidity that plays a role in the development and severity of inflammatory joint diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and axial spondyloarthritis. The relationships between obesity and adipose tissue and the treatments given for inflammatory joint diseases are bidirectional. In [...] Read more.
Obesity is a comorbidity that plays a role in the development and severity of inflammatory joint diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and axial spondyloarthritis. The relationships between obesity and adipose tissue and the treatments given for inflammatory joint diseases are bidirectional. In fact, biological agents (bDMARDs) and targeted synthetic agents (tsDMARDs) may influence body weight and body composition of treated patients, while obesity in turn may influence clinical response to these agents. Obesity is a prevalent comorbidity mainly affecting patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) with specific phenotypes. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) inhibitors have been associated with changes in body composition by improving lean mass, but also by significantly increasing fat mass, which localized toward the abdominal/visceral region. The IL-6 inhibitor tocilizumab is associated with an increase in lean mass without change in fat mass. The clinical response to TNFα inhibitors is attenuated by obesity, an effect that is less pronounced with IL-6 inhibitors and the B-cell depletion agent rituximab. Conversely, body weight has no influence on the response to the costimulation inhibitor abatacept. These effects may be of help to the physician in personalized medicine, and may guide the therapeutic choice in obese/overweight patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Tissue and Metabolic Health)
Review
Antifungal Drugs
Metabolites 2020, 10(3), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10030106 - 12 Mar 2020
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 3773
Abstract
We reviewed the licensed antifungal drugs and summarized their mechanisms of action, pharmacological profiles, and susceptibility to specific fungi. Approved antimycotics inhibit 1,3-β-d-glucan synthase, lanosterol 14-α-demethylase, protein, and deoxyribonucleic acid biosynthesis, or sequestrate ergosterol. Their most severe side effects are hepatotoxicity, [...] Read more.
We reviewed the licensed antifungal drugs and summarized their mechanisms of action, pharmacological profiles, and susceptibility to specific fungi. Approved antimycotics inhibit 1,3-β-d-glucan synthase, lanosterol 14-α-demethylase, protein, and deoxyribonucleic acid biosynthesis, or sequestrate ergosterol. Their most severe side effects are hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and myelotoxicity. Whereas triazoles exhibit the most significant drug–drug interactions, echinocandins exhibit almost none. The antifungal resistance may be developed across most pathogens and includes drug target overexpression, efflux pump activation, and amino acid substitution. The experimental antifungal drugs in clinical trials are also reviewed. Siderophores in the Trojan horse approach or the application of siderophore biosynthesis enzyme inhibitors represent the most promising emerging antifungal therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbiology and Ecological Metabolomics)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Intracellular Metabolites in Marine Microorganisms during an Experiment Evaluating Microbial Mortality
Metabolites 2020, 10(3), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10030105 - 12 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1200
Abstract
Metabolomics is a tool with immense potential for providing insight into the impact of biological processes on the environment. Here, we used metabolomics methods to characterize intracellular metabolites within marine microorganisms during a manipulation experiment that was designed to test the impact of [...] Read more.
Metabolomics is a tool with immense potential for providing insight into the impact of biological processes on the environment. Here, we used metabolomics methods to characterize intracellular metabolites within marine microorganisms during a manipulation experiment that was designed to test the impact of two sources of microbial mortality, protozoan grazing and viral lysis. Intracellular metabolites were analyzed with targeted and untargeted mass spectrometry methods. The treatment with reduced viral mortality showed the largest changes in metabolite concentrations, although there were organic compounds that shifted when the impact of protozoan grazers was reduced. Intracellular concentrations of guanine, phenylalanine, glutamic acid, and ectoine presented significant responses to changes in the source of mortality. Unexpectedly, variability in metabolite concentrations were not accompanied by increases in microbial abundance which indicates that marine microorganisms altered their internal organic carbon stores without changes in biomass or microbial growth. We used Weighted Correlation Network Analysis (WGCNA) to identify correlations between the targeted and untargeted mass spectrometry data. This analysis revealed multiple unknown organic compounds were correlated with compatible solutes, also called osmolytes or chemical chaperones, which emphasizes the dominant role of compatible solutes in marine microorganisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecometabolomics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Important Considerations for Sample Collection in Metabolomics Studies with a Special Focus on Applications to Liver Functions
Metabolites 2020, 10(3), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10030104 - 12 Mar 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 1757
Abstract
Metabolomics has found numerous applications in the study of liver metabolism in health and disease. Metabolomics studies can be conducted in a variety of biological matrices ranging from easily accessible biofluids such as urine, blood or feces, to organs, tissues or even cells. [...] Read more.
Metabolomics has found numerous applications in the study of liver metabolism in health and disease. Metabolomics studies can be conducted in a variety of biological matrices ranging from easily accessible biofluids such as urine, blood or feces, to organs, tissues or even cells. Sample collection and storage are critical steps for which standard operating procedures must be followed. Inappropriate sample collection or storage can indeed result in high variability, interferences with instrumentation or degradation of metabolites. In this review, we will first highlight important general factors that should be considered when planning sample collection in the study design of metabolomic studies, such as nutritional status and circadian rhythm. Then, we will discuss in more detail the specific procedures that have been described for optimal pre-analytical handling of the most commonly used matrices (urine, blood, feces, tissues and cells). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolism and Metabolomics of Liver in Health and Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Simultaneous Measurement of Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Intermediates in Different Biological Matrices Using Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry; Quantitation and Comparison of TCA Cycle Intermediates in Human Serum, Plasma, Kasumi-1 Cell and Murine Liver Tissue
Metabolites 2020, 10(3), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10030103 - 12 Mar 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1747
Abstract
The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is a central part of carbon and energy metabolism, also connecting to glycolysis, amino acid, and lipid metabolism. The quantitation of the TCA cycle intermediate within one method is lucrative due to the interest in central carbon metabolism [...] Read more.
The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is a central part of carbon and energy metabolism, also connecting to glycolysis, amino acid, and lipid metabolism. The quantitation of the TCA cycle intermediate within one method is lucrative due to the interest in central carbon metabolism profiling in cells and tissues. In addition, TCA cycle intermediates in serum have been discovered to correspond as biomarkers to various underlying pathological conditions. In this work, an Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry-based quantification method is developed and validated, which takes advantage of fast, specific, sensitive, and cost-efficient precipitation extraction. Chromatographic separation is achieved while using Atlantis dC18 2.1 mm × 100 mm, particle size 3-μm of Waters column with a gradient elution mobile phase while using formic acid in water (0.1% v/v) and acetonitrile. Linearity was clearly seen over a calibration range of: 6.25 to 6400 ng/mL (r2 > 0.980) for malic acid; 11.72 to 12,000 ng/mL (r2 > 0.980) for cis-aconitic acid and L-aspartic acid; 29.30 to 30,000 ng/mL (r2 > 0.980) for isocitric acid, l-serine, and l-glutamic acid; 122.07 to 125,000 ng/mL (r2 > 0.980) for citric acid, glycine, oxo-glutaric acid, l-alanine, and l-glutamine; 527.34 to 540,000 ng/mL (r2 > 0.980) for l-lactic acid; 976.56 to 1,000,000 ng/mL (r2 > 0.980) for d-glucose; 23.44 to 24,000 ng/mL (r2 > 0.980) for fumaric acid and succinic acid; and, 244.14 to 250,000 ng/mL (r2 > 0.980) for pyruvic acid. Validation was carried out, as per European Medicines Agency (EMA) “guidelines on bioanalytical method validation”, for linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LLOQ), recovery, matrix effect, and stability. The recoveries from serum and tissue were 79–119% and 77–223%, respectively. Using this method, we measured TCA intermediates in serum, plasma (NIST 1950 SRM), and in mouse liver samples. The concentration found in NIST SRM 1950 (n = 6) of glycine (246.4 µmol/L), l-alanine (302.4 µmol/L), and serine (92.9 µmol/L). Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Evaluation of the Potential Allergenicity of Strawberries in Response to Different Farming Practices
Metabolites 2020, 10(3), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10030102 - 12 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1351
Abstract
Fruit allergies are a large problem today. Many consumers suffer from food allergies or intolerances. The method of food production has a major impact on its quality. In fruit and vegetable production, three different farming systems are mainly found: conventional, integrated pest management [...] Read more.
Fruit allergies are a large problem today. Many consumers suffer from food allergies or intolerances. The method of food production has a major impact on its quality. In fruit and vegetable production, three different farming systems are mainly found: conventional, integrated pest management and organic production. The latter is considered the best in terms of fruits and vegetables safety and high quality. The present experiment was performed to demonstrate the effect of the strawberry production method on its allergenic properties and flavonoid content. The strawberry ‘Honeoye’ cv. was used for the study. Fruits from the three cultivation systems, organic, conventional and integrated, were tested for their content of biologically active compounds and their potential allergenicity. The results obtained indicate that the strawberries from the organic system were the safest because they contained the lowest levels of Bet v1 and profilin in comparison with the fruits from the integrated and conventional systems. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Lipid Annotator: Towards Accurate Annotation in Non-Targeted Liquid Chromatography High-Resolution Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS/MS) Lipidomics Using a Rapid and User-Friendly Software
Metabolites 2020, 10(3), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10030101 - 12 Mar 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2360
Abstract
Lipidomics has great promise in various applications; however, a major bottleneck in lipidomics is the accurate and comprehensive annotation of high-resolution tandem mass spectral data. While the number of available lipidomics software has drastically increased over the past five years, the reduction of [...] Read more.
Lipidomics has great promise in various applications; however, a major bottleneck in lipidomics is the accurate and comprehensive annotation of high-resolution tandem mass spectral data. While the number of available lipidomics software has drastically increased over the past five years, the reduction of false positives and the realization of obtaining structurally accurate annotations remains a significant challenge. We introduce Lipid Annotator, which is a user-friendly software for lipidomic analysis of data collected by liquid chromatography high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS/MS). We validate annotation accuracy against lipid standards and other lipidomics software. Lipid Annotator was integrated into a workflow applying an iterative exclusion MS/MS acquisition strategy to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) SRM 1950 Metabolites in Frozen Human Plasma using reverse phase LC-HRMS/MS. Lipid Annotator, LipidMatch, and MS-DIAL produced consensus annotations at the level of lipid class for 98% and 96% of features detected in positive and negative mode, respectively. Lipid Annotator provides percentages of fatty acyl constituent species and employs scoring algorithms based on probability theory, which is less subjective than the tolerance and weighted match scores commonly used by available software. Lipid Annotator enables analysis of large sample cohorts and improves data-processing throughput as compared to previous lipidomics software. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Compound Identification of Small Molecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
An Untargeted Metabolomics Approach to Investigate the Metabolic Effect of Beetroot Juice Supplementation in Fencers—A Preliminary Study
Metabolites 2020, 10(3), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10030100 - 11 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1167
Abstract
This study aimed at assessment of the long-term (4 weeks) metabolic effect of a diet with and without beetroot juice supplementation in fencers using the untargeted metabolomics method with the UPLC Q-TOF/MS system to carry out an analysis of urine samples. Ten women [...] Read more.
This study aimed at assessment of the long-term (4 weeks) metabolic effect of a diet with and without beetroot juice supplementation in fencers using the untargeted metabolomics method with the UPLC Q-TOF/MS system to carry out an analysis of urine samples. Ten women and 10 men underwent the cardiovascular fitness VO2max test at baseline—(B) and after two stages of implementation of the dietary recommendations—the first 4 weeks without beetroot juice (D) and the second with 26 g/d of freeze-dried beetroot juice supplementation (D&J). The urine samples were collected one hour after the VO2max test at B and after D and D&J. The meal before the VO2max test after D&J contained beetroot juice, whereas to the meal at B and after D maltodextrin was added. Changes in metabolites and VO2max were significant only for comparison of D versus D&J. During D and D&J, there were no significant changes in the physical activity level, body mass, and body composition. We observed significant changes in tyrosine and tryptophan metabolism, mainly associated with such neurotransmitter’s metabolism as: Serotonin, noradrenaline, and adrenaline. Changes in signal intensity of bile acid, AICAR, and 4-Hydroxynonenal (peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids product) were also observed. The obtained results indicate that long-term beetroot juice supplementation induces considerable changes in metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Metabonomics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Metabolomics Analysis of Adiposity and Advanced Prostate Cancer Risk in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study
Metabolites 2020, 10(3), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10030099 - 10 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1464
Abstract
Obesity is associated with a higher risk of advanced prostate cancer, but men with the same body mass index (BMI) may differ in their underlying metabolic health. Using metabolomics data from nested case-control studies in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, we calculated Pearson [...] Read more.
Obesity is associated with a higher risk of advanced prostate cancer, but men with the same body mass index (BMI) may differ in their underlying metabolic health. Using metabolomics data from nested case-control studies in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, we calculated Pearson correlations between 165 circulating metabolites and three adiposity measures (BMI, waist circumference, and derived fat mass from a validated prediction equation) to identify adiposity-associated metabolites. We used Lasso to further select metabolites for prediction models of adiposity measures, which we used to calculate metabolic scores representing metabolic obesity. In an independent set of 212 advanced prostate cancer cases (T3b/T4/N1/M1 or lethal during follow-up) and 212 controls, we used logistic regression to evaluate the associations between adiposity measures and metabolic scores with risk of advanced disease. All adiposity measures were associated with higher blood levels of carnitines (Pearson r range, 0.16 to 0.18) and lower levels of glutamine (r = −0.19) and glycine (r, −0.29 to −0.20), in addition to alterations in various lipids. No adiposity measure or metabolic score was associated with risk of advanced prostate cancer (e.g., odds ratio for a 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI 0.96 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.27) and BMI metabolic score 1.18 (95% CI: 0.57, 2.48)). BMI, waist circumference, and derived fat mass were associated with a broad range of metabolic alterations. Neither adiposity nor metabolic scores were associated with risk of advanced prostate cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrative-Metabolomics in Epidemiological Studies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Increased Expression of the Leptin Gene in Adipose Tissue of Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease–The Possible Role of an Abnormal Serum Fatty Acid Profile
Metabolites 2020, 10(3), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10030098 - 08 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 876
Abstract
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an increased level of leptin and an abnormal fatty acid (FA) profile in the serum. However, there are no data on the associations between them, and the reason for increased serum levels in patients with CKD [...] Read more.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an increased level of leptin and an abnormal fatty acid (FA) profile in the serum. However, there are no data on the associations between them, and the reason for increased serum levels in patients with CKD is not well elucidated. Recently, we found that a CKD-related abnormal FA profile caused significant changes in the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in hepatocytes. The aim of this study was to examine whether leptin gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of patients with CKD may contribute to increased serum levels of this adipokine and whether the abnormal serum FA profile observed in CKD patients has an impact on leptin gene expression in adipocytes. The FA profile was measured in serum samples from patients with CKD and controls by GC–MS. The relative mRNA levels of leptin were measured in SAT by Real-Time PCR. Moreover, the effect of the CKD-related abnormal FA profile on leptin gene expression was studied in in vitro cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Patients with CKD had higher concentrations of serum leptin than controls and higher expression level of the leptin gene in SAT. They also had increased serum monounsaturated FAs and decreased polyunsaturated FAs. The incubation of adipocytes with FAs isolated from CKD patients resulted in an increase of the levels of leptin mRNA. Increased leptin gene expression in SAT may contribute to elevated concentrations of these adipokine in patients with CKD. CKD-related alterations of the FA profile may contribute to elevated serum leptin concentrations in patients with CKD by increasing the gene expression of this adipokine in SAT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Lipidomics: Biomedicine, Nutrients and Methodology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Gut Microbial-Derived Metabolomics of Asthma
Metabolites 2020, 10(3), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10030097 - 06 Mar 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 1898
Abstract
In this review, we discuss gut microbial-derived metabolites involved with the origins and pathophysiology of asthma, a chronic respiratory disease that is influenced by the microbiome. Although both gut and airway microbiomes may be important in asthma development, we focus here on the [...] Read more.
In this review, we discuss gut microbial-derived metabolites involved with the origins and pathophysiology of asthma, a chronic respiratory disease that is influenced by the microbiome. Although both gut and airway microbiomes may be important in asthma development, we focus here on the gut microbiome and metabolomic pathways involved in immune system ontogeny. Metabolite classes with existing evidence that microbial-derived products influence asthma risk include short chain fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and bile acids. While tryptophan metabolites and sphingolipids have known associations with asthma, additional research is needed to clarify the extent to which the microbiome contributes to the effects of these metabolites on asthma. These metabolite classes can influence immune function in one of two ways: (i) promoting growth or maturity of certain immune cell populations or (ii) influencing antigenic load by enhancing the number or species of specific bacteria. A more comprehensive understanding of how gut microbes and metabolites interact to modify asthma risk and morbidity will pave the way for targeted diagnostics and treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics and Chronic Obstructive Lung Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Metabolomics to Exploit the Primed Immune System of Tomato Fruit
Metabolites 2020, 10(3), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10030096 - 06 Mar 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2332
Abstract
Tomato is a major crop suffering substantial yield losses from diseases, as fruit decay at a postharvest level can claim up to 50% of the total production worldwide. Due to the environmental risks of fungicides, there is an increasing interest in exploiting plant [...] Read more.
Tomato is a major crop suffering substantial yield losses from diseases, as fruit decay at a postharvest level can claim up to 50% of the total production worldwide. Due to the environmental risks of fungicides, there is an increasing interest in exploiting plant immunity through priming, which is an adaptive strategy that improves plant defensive capacity by stimulating induced mechanisms. Broad-spectrum defence priming can be triggered by the compound ß-aminobutyric acid (BABA). In tomato plants, BABA induces resistance against various fungal and bacterial pathogens and different methods of application result in durable protection. Here, we demonstrate that the treatment of tomato plants with BABA resulted in a durable induced resistance in tomato fruit against Botrytis cinerea, Phytophthora infestans and Pseudomonas syringae. Targeted and untargeted metabolomics were used to investigate the metabolic regulations that underpin the priming of tomato fruit against pathogenic microbes that present different infection strategies. Metabolomic analyses revealed major changes after BABA treatment and after inoculation. Remarkably, primed responses seemed specific to the type of infection, rather than showing a common fingerprint of BABA-induced priming. Furthermore, top-down modelling from the detected metabolic markers allowed for the accurate prediction of the measured resistance to fruit pathogens and demonstrated that soluble sugars are essential to predict resistance to fruit pathogens. Altogether, our results demonstrate that metabolomics is particularly insightful for a better understanding of defence priming in fruit. Further experiments are underway in order to identify key metabolites that mediate broad-spectrum BABA-induced priming in tomato fruit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Metabolism and Metabolomics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomic Analysis of Wagyu and Holstein Beef
Metabolites 2020, 10(3), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10030095 - 06 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1244
Abstract
Japanese Black cattle (Wagyu) beef is characterized by high intramuscular fat content and has a characteristic sweet taste. However, the chemical components for characterizing the sweet taste of Wagyu beef have been unclear. In this experiment, we conducted a metabolomic analysis of the [...] Read more.
Japanese Black cattle (Wagyu) beef is characterized by high intramuscular fat content and has a characteristic sweet taste. However, the chemical components for characterizing the sweet taste of Wagyu beef have been unclear. In this experiment, we conducted a metabolomic analysis of the longissimus muscle (sirloin) in Wagyu and Holstein cattle to determine the key components associated with beef taste using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Holstein sirloin beef was characterized by the abundance of components such as glutamine, ribose-5-phosphate, uric acid, inosine monophosphate, 5-oxoproline, and glycine. In contrast, Wagyu sirloin beef was characterized by the abundance of sugar components (maltose and xylitol). Dietary fat is known to increase the intensity of sweet taste. These results suggest that the sweet taste of Wagyu beef is due to the synergetic effects of higher sugar components and intramuscular fat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomic Applications in Animal Science)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
An Integrated Multi-Disciplinary Perspective for Addressing Challenges of the Human Gut Microbiome
Metabolites 2020, 10(3), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10030094 - 06 Mar 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1572
Abstract
Our understanding of the human gut microbiome has grown exponentially. Advances in genome sequencing technologies and metagenomics analysis have enabled researchers to study microbial communities and their potential function within the context of a range of human gut related diseases and disorders. However, [...] Read more.
Our understanding of the human gut microbiome has grown exponentially. Advances in genome sequencing technologies and metagenomics analysis have enabled researchers to study microbial communities and their potential function within the context of a range of human gut related diseases and disorders. However, up until recently, much of this research has focused on characterizing the gut microbiological community structure and understanding its potential through system wide (meta) genomic and transcriptomic-based studies. Thus far, the functional output of these microbiomes, in terms of protein and metabolite expression, and within the broader context of host-gut microbiome interactions, has been limited. Furthermore, these studies highlight our need to address the issues of individual variation, and of samples as proxies. Here we provide a perspective review of the recent literature that focuses on the challenges of exploring the human gut microbiome, with a strong focus on an integrated perspective applied to these themes. In doing so, we contextualize the experimental and technical challenges of undertaking such studies and provide a framework for capitalizing on the breadth of insight such approaches afford. An integrated perspective of the human gut microbiome and the linkages to human health will pave the way forward for delivering against the objectives of precision medicine, which is targeted to specific individuals and addresses the issues and mechanisms in situ. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Anion Inhibition Studies of the β-Class Carbonic Anhydrase CAS3 from the Filamentous Ascomycete Sordaria macrospora
Metabolites 2020, 10(3), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10030093 - 05 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 964
Abstract
CAS3 is a newly cloned cytosolic β-class carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) from the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. This enzyme has a high catalytic activity for the physiological CO2 hydration reaction and herein, we report the inhibition profile of CAS3 with [...] Read more.
CAS3 is a newly cloned cytosolic β-class carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) from the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. This enzyme has a high catalytic activity for the physiological CO2 hydration reaction and herein, we report the inhibition profile of CAS3 with anions and small molecules. The most effective CAS3 anions/small molecule inhibitors were diethyl-dithiocarbamate, sulfamide, sulfamate, phenyl boronic and phenyl arsonic acids, with KIs in the range of 0.89 mM–97 µM. Anions such as iodide, the pseudohalides, bicarbonate, carbonate, nitrate, nitrite, hydrogensulfide, stannate, selenate, tellurate, tetraborate, perrhenate, perruthenate, selenocyanide and trithiocarbonate were low millimolar CAS3 inhibitors. The light halides, sulfate, hydrogensulfite, peroxydisulfate, diphosphate, divanadate, perchlorate, tetrafluoroborate, fluorosulfonate and iminodisulfonate did not significantly inhibit this enzyme. These data may be useful for developing antifungals based on CA inhibition, considering the fact that many of the inhibitors reported here may be used as lead molecules and, by incorporating the appropriate organic scaffolds, potent nanomolar inhibitors could be developed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbonic Anhydrases and Metabolism Volume 2)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop