Special Issue "Fruit Metabolism and Metabolomics"

A special issue of Metabolites (ISSN 2218-1989). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 February 2020).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Annick Moing
Website
Guest Editor
INRA, UMR 1332 Fruit Biology and Pathology, Centre INRA de Nouvelle Aquitaine Bordeaux, Villenave d’Ornon, France
Interests: Plant metabolomics; fruit metabolism; biomarker metabolites; proton NMR metabolomic profiling; metabolomic data combination
Dr. Sonia Osorio
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Instituto de Hortofruticultura Subtropical y Mediterránea “La Mayora”, University of Málaga – Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IHSM-UMA-CSIC), Campus de Teatinos, 29071, Málaga, Spain
Interests: Fruit quality; post-harvest; biotechnology; genomics; metabolomics
Dr. Pierre Pétriacq
Website1 Website2 SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Univ. Bordeaux, UMR 1332 Fruit Biology and Pathology, Centre INRA de Nouvelle Aquitaine Bordeaux, Villenave d’Ornon, France
Interests: Plant biochemistry; redox metabolism; mass spectrometry
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fruit development and ripening are complex and highly coordinated developmental processes that yields flavorful tissues for organisms that consume and disperse the associated seeds. Fruits are economically important and crucial for human nutrition and health due to their content in sugars, organic acids, pigments, volatiles and nutraceutical compounds.

In recent years, there have been dramatic improvements in the knowledge of different aspects of fruit metabolism. Specifically, high-throughput metabolomics technologies have provided the quantitation of metabolite levels across various biological processes allowing the identification of the genes underpinning fruit development and ripening. A collection of papers is required to review the current understanding of temperate and tropical fruit metabolism using metabolomics for basic research or practical applications.

This Special Issue will include, but not be limited to, articles and reviews about different aspects of fruit metabolism, including primary and specialized metabolisms, and postharvest. The effect of genotype, biotic or abiotic environment and their interaction on metabolomic profiles and metabolism are within the scope of the present topic. Studies of fruit lipidomics or a combination of genomics or other omics with metabolomics are also welcomed.

Dr. Annick Moing
Dr. Sonia Osorio
Dr. Pierre Pétriacq
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metabolites is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Fruit metabolomics
  • Developmental metabolomics
  • Spatial metabolomics
  • Lipidomics
  • Fruit metabolomic profiling
  • Central metabolism
  • Specialized metabolism
  • Mass spectrometry
  • Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
  • Omics data integration

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue on “Fruit Metabolism and Metabolomics”
Metabolites 2020, 10(6), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10060230 - 03 Jun 2020
Abstract
Over the past 10 years, knowledge about several aspects of fruit metabolism has been greatly improved. Notably, high-throughput metabolomic technologies have allowed quantifying metabolite levels across various biological processes, and identifying the genes that underly fruit development and ripening. This Special Issue is [...] Read more.
Over the past 10 years, knowledge about several aspects of fruit metabolism has been greatly improved. Notably, high-throughput metabolomic technologies have allowed quantifying metabolite levels across various biological processes, and identifying the genes that underly fruit development and ripening. This Special Issue is designed to exemplify the current use of metabolomics studies of temperate and tropical fruit for basic research as well as practical applications. It includes articles about different aspects of fruit biochemical phenotyping, fruit metabolism before and after harvest, including primary and specialized metabolisms, and bioactive compounds involved in growth and environmental responses. The effect of genotype, stages of development or fruit tissue on metabolomic profiles and corresponding metabolism regulations are addressed, as well as the combination of other omics with metabolomics for fruit metabolism studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Metabolism and Metabolomics) Printed Edition available
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Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle
Non-Targeted Metabolite Profiles and Sensory Properties Elucidate Commonalities and Differences of Wines Made with the Same Variety but Different Cultivar Clones
Metabolites 2020, 10(6), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10060220 - 28 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Grapes, one of the oldest agricultural crops, are cultivated to produce table fruits, dried fruits, juice, and wine. Grapevine variety is composed of clones that share common morphological traits. However, they can differ in minor genetic mutations which often result in not only [...] Read more.
Grapes, one of the oldest agricultural crops, are cultivated to produce table fruits, dried fruits, juice, and wine. Grapevine variety is composed of clones that share common morphological traits. However, they can differ in minor genetic mutations which often result in not only notorious morphological changes but also in other non-visible sensorial distinctive attributes. In the present work, we identified three Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot noir clones grown under identical field conditions that showed different grape cluster types. Here, sensorial analysis together with non-targeted metabolite profiles by Ultra High performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) couples to Ultra High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) of wines elaborated from the three different grape cluster types was studied with the aim of (i) finding sensorial differences among these three types of wines, and, if there were, (ii) determining the molecular features (metabolites) associated with these sensorial attributes by a multivariate statistical approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Metabolism and Metabolomics) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Cross-Species Comparison of Fruit-Metabolomics to Elucidate Metabolic Regulation of Fruit Polyphenolics Among Solanaceous Crops
Metabolites 2020, 10(5), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10050209 - 19 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Many solanaceous crops are an important part of the human daily diet. Fruit polyphenolics are plant specialized metabolites that are recognized for their human health benefits and their defensive role against plant abiotic and biotic stressors. Flavonoids and chlorogenates are the major polyphenolic [...] Read more.
Many solanaceous crops are an important part of the human daily diet. Fruit polyphenolics are plant specialized metabolites that are recognized for their human health benefits and their defensive role against plant abiotic and biotic stressors. Flavonoids and chlorogenates are the major polyphenolic compounds found in solanaceous fruits that vary in quantity, physiological function, and structural diversity among and within plant species. Despite their biological significance, the elucidation of metabolic shifts of polyphenols during fruit ripening in different fruit tissues, has not yet been well-characterized in solanaceous crops, especially at a cross-species and cross-cultivar level. Here, we performed a cross-species comparison of fruit-metabolomics to elucidate the metabolic regulation of fruit polyphenolics from three representative crops of Solanaceae (tomato, eggplant, and pepper), and a cross-cultivar comparison among different pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum cv.) using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). We observed a metabolic trade-off between hydroxycinnamates and flavonoids in pungent pepper and anthocyanin-type pepper cultivars and identified metabolic signatures of fruit polyphenolics in each species from each different tissue-type and fruit ripening stage. Our results provide additional information for metabolomics-assisted crop improvement of solanaceous fruits towards their improved nutritive properties and enhanced stress tolerance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Metabolism and Metabolomics) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Network Analysis Provides Insight into Tomato Lipid Metabolism
Metabolites 2020, 10(4), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10040152 - 14 Apr 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Metabolic correlation networks have been used in several instances to obtain a deeper insight into the complexity of plant metabolism as a whole. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), metabolites have a major influence on taste and overall fruit quality traits. Previously a [...] Read more.
Metabolic correlation networks have been used in several instances to obtain a deeper insight into the complexity of plant metabolism as a whole. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), metabolites have a major influence on taste and overall fruit quality traits. Previously a broad spectrum of metabolic and phenotypic traits has been described using a Solanum pennellii introgression-lines (ILs) population. To obtain insights into tomato fruit metabolism, we performed metabolic network analysis from existing data, covering a wide range of metabolic traits, including lipophilic and volatile compounds, for the first time. We provide a comprehensive fruit correlation network and show how primary, secondary, lipophilic, and volatile compounds connect to each other and how the individual metabolic classes are linked to yield-related phenotypic traits. Results revealed a high connectivity within and between different classes of lipophilic compounds, as well as between lipophilic and secondary metabolites. We focused on lipid metabolism and generated a gene-expression network with lipophilic metabolites to identify new putative lipid-related genes. Metabolite–transcript correlation analysis revealed key putative genes involved in lipid biosynthesis pathways. The overall results will help to deepen our understanding of tomato metabolism and provide candidate genes for transgenic approaches toward improving nutritional qualities in tomato. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Metabolism and Metabolomics) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
GC-MS Based Metabolite Profiling to Monitor Ripening-Specific Metabolites in Pineapple (Ananas comosus)
Metabolites 2020, 10(4), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10040134 - 31 Mar 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Pineapple is one of the most cultivated tropical, non-climacteric fruits in the world due to its high market value and production volume. Since non-climacteric fruits do not ripen after harvest, the ripening stage at the time of harvest is an important factor that [...] Read more.
Pineapple is one of the most cultivated tropical, non-climacteric fruits in the world due to its high market value and production volume. Since non-climacteric fruits do not ripen after harvest, the ripening stage at the time of harvest is an important factor that determines sensory quality and shelf life. The objective of this research was to investigate metabolite changes in the pineapple ripening process by metabolite profiling approach. Pineapple (Queen variety) samples from Indonesia were subjected to GC-MS analysis. A total of 56, 47, and 54 metabolites were annotated from the crown, flesh, and peel parts, respectively. From the principal component analysis (PCA) plot, separation of samples based on ripening stages from C0–C2 (early ripening stages) and C3–C4 (late ripening stages) was observed for flesh and peel parts, whereas no clear separation was seen for the crown part. Furthermore, orthogonal projection to latent structures (OPLS) analysis suggested metabolites that were associated with the ripening stages in flesh and peel parts of pineapple. This study indicated potentially important metabolites that are correlated to the ripening of pineapple that would provide a basis for further study on pineapple ripening process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Metabolism and Metabolomics) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Metabolomics and Molecular Phylogenetics of Melon (Cucumis melo, Cucurbitaceae) Biodiversity
Metabolites 2020, 10(3), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10030121 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
The broad variability of Cucumis melo (melon, Cucurbitaceae) presents a challenge to conventional classification and organization within the species. To shed further light on the infraspecific relationships within C. melo, we compared genotypic and metabolomic similarities among 44 accessions representative of most [...] Read more.
The broad variability of Cucumis melo (melon, Cucurbitaceae) presents a challenge to conventional classification and organization within the species. To shed further light on the infraspecific relationships within C. melo, we compared genotypic and metabolomic similarities among 44 accessions representative of most of the cultivar-groups. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) provided over 20,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Metabolomics data of the mature fruit flesh and rind provided over 80,000 metabolomic and elemental features via an orchestra of six complementary metabolomic platforms. These technologies probed polar, semi-polar, and non-polar metabolite fractions as well as a set of mineral elements and included both flavor- and taste-relevant volatile and non-volatile metabolites. Together these results enabled an estimate of “metabolomic/elemental distance” and its correlation with the genetic GBS distance of melon accessions. This study indicates that extensive and non-targeted metabolomics/elemental characterization produced classifications that strongly, but not completely, reflect the current and extensive genetic classification. Certain melon Groups, such as Inodorous, clustered in parallel with the genetic classifications while other genome to metabolome/element associations proved less clear. We suggest that the combined genomic, metabolic, and element data reflect the extensive sexual compatibility among melon accessions and the breeding history that has, for example, targeted metabolic quality traits, such as taste and flavor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Metabolism and Metabolomics) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Untargeted and Targeted Metabolomic Profiling of Australian Indigenous Fruits
Metabolites 2020, 10(3), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10030114 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Selected Australian native fruits such as Davidson’s plum, finger lime and native pepperberry have been reported to demonstrate potent antioxidant activity. However, comprehensive metabolite profiling of these fruits is limited, therefore the compounds responsible are unknown, and further, the compounds of nutritional value [...] Read more.
Selected Australian native fruits such as Davidson’s plum, finger lime and native pepperberry have been reported to demonstrate potent antioxidant activity. However, comprehensive metabolite profiling of these fruits is limited, therefore the compounds responsible are unknown, and further, the compounds of nutritional value in these native fruits are yet to be described. In this study, untargeted and targeted metabolomics were conducted using the three fruits, together with assays to determine their antioxidant activities. The results demonstrate that targeted free and hydrolysed protein amino acids exhibited high amounts of essential amino acids. Similarly, important minerals like potassium were detected in the fruit samples. In antioxidant activity, Davidson’s plum reported the highest activity in ferric reducing power (FRAP), finger lime in antioxidant capacity (ABTS), and native pepperberry in free radical scavenging (DPPH) and phosphomolybdenum assay. The compounds responsible for the antioxidant activity were tentatively identified using untargeted GC×GC-TOFMS and UHPLC-QqQ-TOF-MS/MS metabolomics. A clear discrimination into three clusters of fruits was observed using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) analysis. The correlation study identified a number of compounds that provide the antioxidant activities. GC×GC-TOFMS detected potent aroma compounds of limonene, furfural, and 1-R-α-pinene. Based on the untargeted and targeted metabolomics, and antioxidant assays, the nutritional potential of these Australian bush fruits is considerable and supports these indigenous fruits in the nutraceutical industry as well as functional ingredients for the food industry, with such outcomes benefiting Indigenous Australian communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Metabolism and Metabolomics) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Color Mutations Alter the Biochemical Composition in the San Marzano Tomato Fruit
Metabolites 2020, 10(3), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10030110 - 15 Mar 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
San Marzano (SM) is a traditional Italian landrace characterized by red elongated fruits, originating in the province of Naples (Italy) and cultivated worldwide. Three mutations, yellow flesh (r), green flesh (gf) and colorless fruit epidermis (y) were [...] Read more.
San Marzano (SM) is a traditional Italian landrace characterized by red elongated fruits, originating in the province of Naples (Italy) and cultivated worldwide. Three mutations, yellow flesh (r), green flesh (gf) and colorless fruit epidermis (y) were introduced into SM by backcross and the resulting introgression lines (ILs) produced the expected yellow, brown and pink fruit variants. In addition, ILs carrying double combinations of those mutations were obtained. The six ILs plus the SM reference were analyzed for volatile (VOC), non-polar (NP) and polar (P) metabolites. Sixty-eight VOCs were identified, and several differences evidenced in the ILs; overall gf showed epistasis over r and y and r over y. Analysis of the NP component identified 54 metabolites; variation in early carotenoids (up to lycopene) and chlorophylls characterized respectively the ILs containing r and gf. In addition, compounds belonging to the quinone and xanthophyll classes were present in genotypes carrying the r mutation at levels higher than SM. Finally, the analysis of 129 P metabolites evidenced different levels of vitamins, amino acids, lipids and phenylpropanoids in the ILs. A correlation network approach was used to investigate metabolite–metabolite relationships in the mutant lines. Altogether these differences potentially modified the hedonistic and nutritional value of the berry. In summary, single and combined mutations in gf, r and y generated interesting visual and compositional diversity in the SM landrace, while maintaining its original typology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Metabolism and Metabolomics) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Metabolomics to Exploit the Primed Immune System of Tomato Fruit
Metabolites 2020, 10(3), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10030096 - 06 Mar 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Tomato is a major crop suffering substantial yield losses from diseases, as fruit decay at a postharvest level can claim up to 50% of the total production worldwide. Due to the environmental risks of fungicides, there is an increasing interest in exploiting plant [...] Read more.
Tomato is a major crop suffering substantial yield losses from diseases, as fruit decay at a postharvest level can claim up to 50% of the total production worldwide. Due to the environmental risks of fungicides, there is an increasing interest in exploiting plant immunity through priming, which is an adaptive strategy that improves plant defensive capacity by stimulating induced mechanisms. Broad-spectrum defence priming can be triggered by the compound ß-aminobutyric acid (BABA). In tomato plants, BABA induces resistance against various fungal and bacterial pathogens and different methods of application result in durable protection. Here, we demonstrate that the treatment of tomato plants with BABA resulted in a durable induced resistance in tomato fruit against Botrytis cinerea, Phytophthora infestans and Pseudomonas syringae. Targeted and untargeted metabolomics were used to investigate the metabolic regulations that underpin the priming of tomato fruit against pathogenic microbes that present different infection strategies. Metabolomic analyses revealed major changes after BABA treatment and after inoculation. Remarkably, primed responses seemed specific to the type of infection, rather than showing a common fingerprint of BABA-induced priming. Furthermore, top-down modelling from the detected metabolic markers allowed for the accurate prediction of the measured resistance to fruit pathogens and demonstrated that soluble sugars are essential to predict resistance to fruit pathogens. Altogether, our results demonstrate that metabolomics is particularly insightful for a better understanding of defence priming in fruit. Further experiments are underway in order to identify key metabolites that mediate broad-spectrum BABA-induced priming in tomato fruit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Metabolism and Metabolomics) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Phytohormone and Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Endogenous Cytokinins Affect Kiwifruit Growth under Restricted Carbon Supply
Metabolites 2020, 10(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10010023 - 04 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Following cell division, fruit growth is characterized by both expansion through increases in cell volume and biomass accumulation in cells. Fruit growth is limited by carbon starvation; however, the mechanism controlling fruit growth under restricted carbohydrate supply is poorly understood. In a previous [...] Read more.
Following cell division, fruit growth is characterized by both expansion through increases in cell volume and biomass accumulation in cells. Fruit growth is limited by carbon starvation; however, the mechanism controlling fruit growth under restricted carbohydrate supply is poorly understood. In a previous study using red-fleshed kiwifruit, we showed that long-term carbon starvation had detrimental effects on carbohydrate, anthocyanin metabolism, and fruit growth. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the reduction in fruit growth during kiwifruit development, we integrated phytohormone profiling with transcriptomic and developmental datasets for fruit under high or low carbohydrate supplies. Phytohormone profiling of the outer pericarp tissue of kiwifruit showed a 6-fold reduction in total cytokinin concentrations in carbon-starved fruit, whilst other hormones were less affected. Principal component analysis visualised that cytokinin composition was distinct between fruit at 16 weeks after mid bloom, based on their carbohydrate supply status. Cytokinin biosynthetic genes (IPT, CYP735A) were significantly downregulated under carbon starvation, in agreement with the metabolite data. Several genes that code for expansins, proteins involved in cell wall loosening, were also downregulated under carbon starvation. In contrast to other fleshy fruits, our results suggest that cytokinins not only promote cell division, but also drive fruit cell expansion and growth in kiwifruit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Metabolism and Metabolomics) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of Bioactive Phytochemicals in Mulberries
Metabolites 2020, 10(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10010007 - 20 Dec 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Mulberries are consumed either freshly or as processed fruits and are traditionally used to tackle several diseases, especially type II diabetes. Here, we investigated the metabolite compositions of ripe fruits of both white (Morus alba) and black (Morus nigra) [...] Read more.
Mulberries are consumed either freshly or as processed fruits and are traditionally used to tackle several diseases, especially type II diabetes. Here, we investigated the metabolite compositions of ripe fruits of both white (Morus alba) and black (Morus nigra) mulberries, using reversed-phase HPLC coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and related these to their in vitro antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Based on accurate masses, fragmentation data, UV/Vis light absorbance spectra and retention times, 35 metabolites, mainly comprising phenolic compounds and amino sugar acids, were identified. While the antioxidant activity was highest in M. nigra, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were similar between species. Both bioactivities were mostly resistant to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. To identify the bioactive compounds, we combined LC-MS with 96-well-format fractionation followed by testing the individual fractions for α-glucosidase inhibition, while compounds responsible for the antioxidant activity were identified using HPLC with an online antioxidant detection system. We thus determined iminosugars and phenolic compounds in both M. alba and M. nigra, and anthocyanins in M. nigra as being the key α-glucosidase inhibitors, while anthocyanins in M. nigra and both phenylpropanoids and flavonols in M. alba were identified as key antioxidants in their ripe berries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Metabolism and Metabolomics) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Placenta, Pericarp, and Seeds of Tabasco Chili Pepper Fruits Show a Contrasting Diversity of Bioactive Metabolites
Metabolites 2019, 9(10), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo9100206 - 28 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Chili pepper (Capsicum spp.) is one of the most important horticultural crops worldwide, and its unique organoleptic properties and health benefits have been established for centuries. However, there is little knowledge about how metabolites are distributed throughout fruit parts. This work focuses [...] Read more.
Chili pepper (Capsicum spp.) is one of the most important horticultural crops worldwide, and its unique organoleptic properties and health benefits have been established for centuries. However, there is little knowledge about how metabolites are distributed throughout fruit parts. This work focuses on the use of liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-HRMS) to estimate the global metabolite profiles of the pericarp, placenta, and seeds of Tabasco pepper fruits (Capsicum frutescens L.) at the red mature stage of ripening. Our main results putatively identified 60 differential compounds between these tissues and seeds. Firstly, we found that pericarp has a higher content of glycosides, showing on average a fold change of 5 and a fold change of 14 for terpenoids when compared with other parts of the fruit. While placenta was the richest tissue in capsaicinoid-related compounds, alkaloids, and tocopherols, with a 35, 3, and 7 fold change, respectively. However, the seeds were richer in fatty acids and saponins with fold changes of 86 and 224, respectively. Therefore, our study demonstrates that a non-targeted metabolomic approach may help to improve our understanding of unexplored areas of plant metabolism and also may be the starting point for a detailed analysis in complex plant parts, such as fruits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Metabolism and Metabolomics) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Metabolomic Variability of Different Genotypes of Cashew by LC-Ms and Correlation with Near-Infrared Spectroscopy as a Tool for Fast Phenotyping
Metabolites 2019, 9(6), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo9060121 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The objective of the present work was to develop an advanced fast phenotyping tool to explore the cashew apple compositions from different genotypes, based on a portable near-infrared (MicroNIR) spectroscopy. This will be in addition to associating the variability of the respective cashew [...] Read more.
The objective of the present work was to develop an advanced fast phenotyping tool to explore the cashew apple compositions from different genotypes, based on a portable near-infrared (MicroNIR) spectroscopy. This will be in addition to associating the variability of the respective cashew apple pulps with the genotypes by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The NIR analysis is a non-destructive, low-cost procedure that provides prompt results, while considering the morphology of different cashew apples (shape, size, and color). The UPLC-HRMS analysis is characterized by specific bioactive compounds, such as the derivatives of hydroxybutanoic acid, galloyl, and flavonoids. Furthermore, both techniques allowed the identification of a group of accessions, which presented similarities among the chemical profiling. However, to improve the understanding of cashew chemical and physical variability, further variables related to the cashew apple composition, such as edaphoclimatic conditions, should be considered for future studies. These approaches lead to the conclusion that these two tools are useful for the maintenance of BAG-Caju (Cashew Germplasm Bank) and for the cashew-breeding program. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Metabolism and Metabolomics) Printed Edition available
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Metabolite Changes during Postharvest Storage: Effects on Fruit Quality Traits
Metabolites 2020, 10(5), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10050187 - 08 May 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Metabolic changes occurring in ripe or senescent fruits during postharvest storage lead to a general deterioration in quality attributes, including decreased flavor and ‘off-aroma’ compound generation. As a consequence, measures to reduce economic losses have to be taken by the fruit industry and [...] Read more.
Metabolic changes occurring in ripe or senescent fruits during postharvest storage lead to a general deterioration in quality attributes, including decreased flavor and ‘off-aroma’ compound generation. As a consequence, measures to reduce economic losses have to be taken by the fruit industry and have mostly consisted of storage at cold temperatures and the use of controlled atmospheres or ripening inhibitors. However, the biochemical pathways and molecular mechanisms underlying fruit senescence in commercial storage conditions are still poorly understood. In this sense, metabolomic platforms, enabling the profiling of key metabolites responsible for organoleptic and health-promoting traits, such as volatiles, sugars, acids, polyphenols and carotenoids, can be a powerful tool for further understanding the biochemical basis of postharvest physiology and have the potential to play a critical role in the identification of the pathways affected by fruit senescence. Here, we provide an overview of the metabolic changes during postharvest storage, with special attention to key metabolites related to fruit quality. The potential use of metabolomic approaches to yield metabolic markers useful for chemical phenotyping or even storage and marketing decisions is highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Metabolism and Metabolomics) Printed Edition available
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