Plant Metabolomics

A special issue of Metabolites (ISSN 2218-1989). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2020) | Viewed by 60339

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Botany, University of Debrecen, 4032 Debrecen, Hungary
Interests: phytochemistry; metabolomics; endophytes; plant-fungal interactions; glucosinolates
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Metabolomics has become a widely recognized approach to studying biological phenomena in biological, environmental and other samples. This approach aims at gathering abundance data on several hundreds of compounds, and subsequent data-mining to find explanations to the phenomena of interest.

This Special Issue is devoted to publish research papers that use the metabolomics approach on plants or extracts thereof. Therefore we invite manuscripts on different aspects of plant biology and plant natural product chemistry that use the metabolomic approach, including but not limited to agricultural applications, plant–pathogen interactions, quality control and chemotaxonomy. Papers on plant-specific sample preparation, metabolite databases, or other technical improvements are also welcome. The main methods used should be GC-MS, LC-MS, NMR, or other suitable techniques, followed by data-mining for the phenomena of interest, and putative identification of the analytes of interest. Papers on medicinal plants, functional foods, spices and otherwise economically important plants are especially welcome.

Papers not utilizing the above techniques, those with no annotations (putative identification) of analytes, or those without proper identification of the plant material will not be considered.

The Special Issue is open for submission now. A proper extension may be granted. Please kindly let us know in advance if you plan to make a submission. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the Special Issue website.

Dr. Sandor Gonda
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • plant metabolomics
  • phytochemical analysis
  • phytochemistry
  • bioactive compounds
  • natural products
  • medicinal plants

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 214 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue: Plant Metabolomics
by Sándor Gonda
Metabolites 2020, 10(11), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10110467 - 16 Nov 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2508
Abstract
This Special Issue was initiated to collect a handful of studies on plant chemistry, utilizing metabolomics as the main technique, to show the diversity of possible applications of this approach [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Metabolomics)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

15 pages, 1294 KiB  
Article
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) of Endophytic Fungi Growing on Extracts of the Host, Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana)
by Tamás Plaszkó, Zsolt Szűcs, Zoltán Kállai, Hajnalka Csoma, Gábor Vasas and Sándor Gonda
Metabolites 2020, 10(11), 451; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10110451 - 8 Nov 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2912
Abstract
The interaction between plant defensive metabolites and different plant-associated fungal species is of high interest to many disciplines. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are natural products that are easily evaporated under ambient conditions. They play a very important role in inter-species communication of microbes [...] Read more.
The interaction between plant defensive metabolites and different plant-associated fungal species is of high interest to many disciplines. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are natural products that are easily evaporated under ambient conditions. They play a very important role in inter-species communication of microbes and their hosts. In this study, the VOCs produced by 43 different fungal isolates of endophytic and soil fungi during growth on horseradish root (Armoracia rusticana) extract or malt extract agar were examined, by using headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (headspace-GC-MS) and a high relative surface agar film as a medium. The proposed technique enabled sensitive detection of several typical VOCs (acetone, methyl acetate, methyl formate, ethyl acetate, methyl butanol isomers, styrene, beta-phellandrene), along with glucosinolate decomposition products, including allyl cyanide and allyl isothiocyanate and other sulfur-containing compounds—carbon disulfide, dimethyl sulfide. The VOC patterns of fungi belonging to Setophoma, Paraphoma, Plectosphaerella, Pyrenochaeta, Volutella, Cadophora, Notophoma, and Curvularia genera were described for the first time. The VOC pattern was significantly different among the isolates. The pattern was indicative of putative myrosinase activity for many tested isolates. On the other hand, endophytes and soil fungi as groups could not be separated by VOC pattern or intensity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Metabolomics)
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19 pages, 3266 KiB  
Article
Wood Metabolomic Responses of Wild and Cultivated Grapevine to Infection with Neofusicoccum parvum, a Trunk Disease Pathogen
by Clément Labois, Kim Wilhelm, Hélène Laloue, Céline Tarnus, Christophe Bertsch, Mary-Lorène Goddard and Julie Chong
Metabolites 2020, 10(6), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10060232 - 4 Jun 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3794
Abstract
Grapevine trunk diseases (GTDs), which are associated with complex of xylem-inhabiting fungi, represent one of the major threats to vineyard sustainability currently. Botryosphaeria dieback, one of the major GTDs, is associated with wood colonization by Botryosphaeriaceae fungi, especially Neofusicoccum parvum. We used [...] Read more.
Grapevine trunk diseases (GTDs), which are associated with complex of xylem-inhabiting fungi, represent one of the major threats to vineyard sustainability currently. Botryosphaeria dieback, one of the major GTDs, is associated with wood colonization by Botryosphaeriaceae fungi, especially Neofusicoccum parvum. We used GC-MS and HPLC-MS to compare the wood metabolomic responses of the susceptible Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera (V. v. subsp. vinifera) and the tolerant Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris (V. v. subsp. sylvestris) after artificial inoculation with Neofusicoccum parvum (N. parvum). N. parvum inoculation triggered major changes in both primary and specialized metabolites in the wood. In both subspecies, infection resulted in a strong decrease in sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose), whereas sugar alcohol content (mannitol and arabitol) was enhanced. Concerning amino acids, N. parvum early infection triggered a decrease in aspartic acid, serine, and asparagine, and a strong increase in alanine and β-alanine. A trend for more intense primary metabolism alteration was observed in V. v. subsp. sylvestris compared to V. v. subsp. vinifera. N. parvum infection also triggered major changes in stilbene and flavonoid compounds. The content in resveratrol and several resveratrol oligomers increased in the wood of both subspecies after infection. Interestingly, we found a higher induction of resveratrol oligomer (putative E-miyabenol C, vitisin C, hopeaphenol, ampelopsin C) contents after wood inoculation in V. v. subsp. sylvestris. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Metabolomics)
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13 pages, 1319 KiB  
Article
Yield and Metabolite Production of Pelargonium sidoides DC. in Response to Irrigation and Nitrogen Management
by Motiki M. Mofokeng, Gerhard Prinsloo, Hintsa T. Araya, Christian P. du Plooy, Ntshakga R. Sathekge, Stephen O. Amoo and J. Martin Steyn
Metabolites 2020, 10(6), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10060219 - 27 May 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2437
Abstract
Competition for water between agricultural and non-agricultural economic sectors hampers agricultural production, especially in water-scarce regions. Understanding crop responses in terms of yield and quality to irrigation is an important factor in designing appropriate irrigation management for optimal crop production and quality. Pelargonium [...] Read more.
Competition for water between agricultural and non-agricultural economic sectors hampers agricultural production, especially in water-scarce regions. Understanding crop responses in terms of yield and quality to irrigation is an important factor in designing appropriate irrigation management for optimal crop production and quality. Pelargonium sidoides DC., often harvested from the wild, is in high demand in the informal market and for commercial formulations. Agricultural production of high-quality materials through cultivation can help reduce pressure on its wild populations. This study aimed at determining the effects of water and nitrogen on P. sidoides yield and metabolite production. The irrigation treatments applied were 30%, 50%, and 70% of an allowable depletion level (ADL), while the nitrogen (N) levels were 0 (control), 50, 100, and 150 kg ha−1. The 30% ADL resulted in a significantly higher biomass and root yield. Nitrogen at 50 and 100 kg ha−1 resulted in a significantly higher biomass yield, compared to the N control. An increase in sugars and citrate cycle components was observed for the well-watered 30% ADL treatment, whereas water-stressed (50% and 70% ADL) treatments increased alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism, increasing levels of asparagine, 4-aminobutyrate, and arginine. The treatments had no significant effect on the root content of esculin, scopoletin, and umckalin. Water stress induced metabolite synthesis to mitigate the stress condition, whereas under no water stress primary metabolites were synthesized. Moreover, cultivation of P. sidoides as a conservation strategy can increase yield without affecting its bioactivity, while providing sustenance for the rural communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Metabolomics)
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19 pages, 9778 KiB  
Article
Age-Dependent Metabolic Profiles Unravel the Metabolic Relationships within and between Flax Leaves (Linum usitatissimum)
by Nicole Pontarin, Roland Molinié, David Mathiron, Job Tchoumtchoua, Solène Bassard, David Gagneul, Benjamin Thiombiano, Hervé Demailly, Jean-Xavier Fontaine, Xavier Guillot, Vivien Sarazin, Anthony Quéro and François Mesnard
Metabolites 2020, 10(6), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10060218 - 26 May 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2543
Abstract
Flax for oil seed is a crop of increasing popularity, but its cultivation needs technical improvement. Important agronomic traits such as productivity and resistance to stresses are to be regarded as the result of the combined responses of individual organs and their inter-communication. [...] Read more.
Flax for oil seed is a crop of increasing popularity, but its cultivation needs technical improvement. Important agronomic traits such as productivity and resistance to stresses are to be regarded as the result of the combined responses of individual organs and their inter-communication. Ultimately, these responses directly reflect the metabolic profile at the cellular level. Above ground, the complexity of the plant phenotype is governed by leaves at different developmental stages, and their ability to synthesise and exchange metabolites. In this study, the metabolic profile of differently-developed leaves was used firstly to discriminate flax leaf developmental stages, and secondly to analyse the allocation of the metabolites within and between leaves. For this purpose, the concentration of 52 metabolites, both primary and specialized, was followed by gas chromatography (GC-) and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in alternate pairs of flax leaves. On the basis of their metabolic content, three populations of leaves in different growth stages could be distinguished. Primary and specialized metabolites showed characteristic distribution patterns, and compounds similarly evolving with leaf age could be grouped by the aid of the Kohonen self-organising map (SOM) algorithm. Ultimately, visualisation of the correlations between metabolites via hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) allowed the assessment of the metabolic fluxes characterising different leaf developmental stages, and the investigation of the relationships between primary and specialized metabolites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Metabolomics)
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15 pages, 3104 KiB  
Article
Metabolomic Profiling of Nicotiana Spp. Nectars Indicate That Pollinator Feeding Preference Is a Stronger Determinant Than Plant Phylogenetics in Shaping Nectar Diversity
by Fredy A. Silva, Elizabeth C. Chatt, Siti-Nabilla Mahalim, Adel Guirgis, Xingche Guo, Daniel S. Nettleton, Basil J. Nikolau and Robert W. Thornburg
Metabolites 2020, 10(5), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10050214 - 22 May 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3295
Abstract
Floral nectar is a rich secretion produced by the nectary gland and is offered as reward to attract pollinators leading to improved seed set. Nectars are composed of a complex mixture of sugars, amino acids, proteins, vitamins, lipids, organic and inorganic acids. This [...] Read more.
Floral nectar is a rich secretion produced by the nectary gland and is offered as reward to attract pollinators leading to improved seed set. Nectars are composed of a complex mixture of sugars, amino acids, proteins, vitamins, lipids, organic and inorganic acids. This composition is influenced by several factors, including floral morphology, mechanism of nectar secretion, time of flowering, and visitation by pollinators. The objective of this study was to determine the contributions of flowering time, plant phylogeny, and pollinator selection on nectar composition in Nicotiana. The main classes of nectar metabolites (sugars and amino acids) were quantified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometric analytical platforms to identify differences among fifteen Nicotiana species representing day- and night-flowering plants from ten sections of the genus that are visited by five different primary pollinators. The nectar metabolomes of different Nicotiana species can predict the feeding preferences of the target pollinator(s) of each species, and the nectar sugars (i.e., glucose, fructose, and sucrose) are a distinguishing feature of Nicotiana species phylogeny. Moreover, comparative statistical analysis indicate that pollinators are a stronger determinant of nectar composition than plant phylogeny. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Metabolomics)
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24 pages, 2890 KiB  
Article
Metabolic Profiling of PGPR-Treated Tomato Plants Reveal Priming-Related Adaptations of Secondary Metabolites and Aromatic Amino Acids
by Msizi I. Mhlongo, Lizelle A. Piater, Paul A. Steenkamp, Nico Labuschagne and Ian A. Dubery
Metabolites 2020, 10(5), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10050210 - 20 May 2020
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 5440
Abstract
Plant growth–promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are beneficial microbes in the rhizosphere that can directly or indirectly stimulate plant growth. In addition, some can prime plants for enhanced defense against a broad range of pathogens and insect herbivores. In this study, four PGPR strains ( [...] Read more.
Plant growth–promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are beneficial microbes in the rhizosphere that can directly or indirectly stimulate plant growth. In addition, some can prime plants for enhanced defense against a broad range of pathogens and insect herbivores. In this study, four PGPR strains (Pseudomonas fluorescens N04, P. koreensis N19, Paenibacillus alvei T19, and Lysinibacillus sphaericus T22) were used to induce priming in Solanum lycopersicum (cv. Moneymaker) plants. Plants were inoculated with each of the four PGPRs, and plant tissues (roots, stems, and leaves) were harvested at 24 h and 48 h post-inoculation. Methanol-extracted metabolites were analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS). Chemometric methods were applied to mine the data and characterize the differential metabolic profiles induced by the PGPR. The results revealed that all four strains induced defense-related metabolic reprogramming in the plants, characterized by dynamic changes to the metabolomes involving hydroxycinnamates, benzoates, flavonoids, and glycoalkaloids. In addition, targeted analysis of aromatic amino acids indicated differential quantitative increases or decreases over a two-day period in response to the four PGPR strains. The metabolic alterations point to an altered or preconditioned state that renders the plants primed for enhanced defense responses. The results contribute to ongoing efforts in investigating and unraveling the biochemical processes that define the PGPR priming phenomenon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Metabolomics)
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12 pages, 2117 KiB  
Article
Extensive Profiling of Polyphenols from Two Trollius Species Using a Combination of Untargeted and Targeted Approaches
by He Tian, Zhiyang Zhou, Guanghou Shui and Sin Man Lam
Metabolites 2020, 10(3), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10030119 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3031
Abstract
Various species of globeflowers, belonging to the genus Trollius, have been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine due to their anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antiviral properties, which are mainly attributed to their high polyphenol content. Differences in polyphenol composition, and abundances, will lead [...] Read more.
Various species of globeflowers, belonging to the genus Trollius, have been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine due to their anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antiviral properties, which are mainly attributed to their high polyphenol content. Differences in polyphenol composition, and abundances, will lead to varying treatment efficacies of globeflowers. Herein, we employ a combination of targeted and untargeted mass spectrometry (MS) approaches to characterize and quantify a comprehensive array of polyphenols, mainly including flavonoids and phenolic acids in two globeflower species commonly used in Chinese medicine, Trollius chinensis Bunge and Trollius ledebouri Reichb. In addition, free radical scavenging activity was investigated to evaluate the association between polyphenol composition and antioxidation capacity. Liquid chromatography (LC)-based separation and multiple-reaction-monitoring (MRM) transitions were optimized using a library of 78 polyphenol reference compounds to achieve absolute quantification on triple quadrupoles MS (QqQ). The analytical method was further expanded via high-resolution MS to provide relative quantitation of an additional 104 endogenous polyphenols in globeflowers not included in our reference library. Our results revealed stark differences in polyphenol content between T. chinensis and T. ledebouri, emphasizing the need for systematic characterization of polyphenol composition to ensure treatment efficacy and consistency in standardizing the use of globeflowers in Chinese medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Metabolomics)
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20 pages, 3775 KiB  
Article
Metabolite and Phytohormone Profiling Illustrates Metabolic Reprogramming as an Escape Strategy of Deepwater Rice during Partially Submerged Stress
by Atsushi Fukushima, Takeshi Kuroha, Keisuke Nagai, Yoko Hattori, Makoto Kobayashi, Tomoko Nishizawa, Mikiko Kojima, Yoshinori Utsumi, Akira Oikawa, Motoaki Seki, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Kazuki Saito, Motoyuki Ashikari and Miyako Kusano
Metabolites 2020, 10(2), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10020068 - 14 Feb 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4400
Abstract
Rice varieties that can survive under submergence conditions respond to flooding either by enhancing internode elongation or by quiescence of shoot elongation. Despite extensive efforts to identify key metabolites triggered by complete submergence of rice possessing SUBMERGENCE 1 (SUB1) locus, metabolic [...] Read more.
Rice varieties that can survive under submergence conditions respond to flooding either by enhancing internode elongation or by quiescence of shoot elongation. Despite extensive efforts to identify key metabolites triggered by complete submergence of rice possessing SUBMERGENCE 1 (SUB1) locus, metabolic responses of internode elongation of deepwater rice governed by the SNORKEL 1 and 2 genes remain elusive. This study investigated specific metabolomic responses under partial submergence (PS) to deepwater- (C9285) and non-deepwater rice cultivars (Taichung 65 (T65)). In addition, we examined the response in a near-isogenic line (NIL-12) that has a C9285 genomic fragment on chromosome 12 introgressed into the genetic background of T65. Under short-term submergence (0–24 h), metabolite profiles of C9285, NIL-12, and T65 were compared to extract significantly changed metabolites in deepwater rice under PS conditions. Comprehensive metabolite and phytohormone profiling revealed increases in metabolite levels in the glycolysis pathway in NIL-12 plants. Under long-term submergence (0–288 h), we found decreased amino acid levels. These metabolomic changes were opposite when compared to those in flood-tolerant rice with SUB1 locus. Auxin conjugate levels related to stress response decreased in NIL-12 lines relative to T65. Our analysis helped clarify the complex metabolic reprogramming in deepwater rice as an escape strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Metabolomics)
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30 pages, 6559 KiB  
Article
Caucasian Gentiana Species: Untargeted LC-MS Metabolic Profiling, Antioxidant and Digestive Enzyme Inhibiting Activity of Six Plants
by Daniil N. Olennikov, Aydan I. Gadimli, Javanshir I. Isaev, Nina I. Kashchenko, Alexey S. Prokopyev, Tatyana N. Kataeva, Nadezhda K. Chirikova and Cecile Vennos
Metabolites 2019, 9(11), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo9110271 - 7 Nov 2019
Cited by 56 | Viewed by 5400
Abstract
The members of Gentiana genus are widely distributed in the Caucasus region where they are used as phytoremedies, but they still have not been studied for their chemical composition and bioactivity. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and electrospray triple quadrupole mass detection [...] Read more.
The members of Gentiana genus are widely distributed in the Caucasus region where they are used as phytoremedies, but they still have not been studied for their chemical composition and bioactivity. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and electrospray triple quadrupole mass detection (HPLC-DAD-ESI-QQQ-MS) was used to investigate metabolites of herb and roots of six gentians (Gentiana asclepiadea, G. cruciata, G. gelida, G. paradoxa, G. pneumonanthe, G. septemfida) grown in the Caucasus. In total, 137 compounds were found including three carbohydrates, 71 iridoid glycosides (mostly loganic acid), loganin, swertiamarin, gentiopicroside and sweroside derivatives, 40 flavones C-, O-, C,O-glycosides (such as luteolin, apigenin, chrysoeriol, and acacetin derivatives), two phenolic O-glycosides, five hydroxycinnamates, eight xanthones, and seven triterpene glycosides. Most of these compounds were identified in gentian samples for the first time. Quantitative differences were found in levels of seven iridoid glycosides, nine glycosylflavones, and two xanthones obtained by HPLC-DAD assay. The gentian extracts were evaluated for their radical-scavenging properties against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals, lipid peroxidation inhibition, and α-amylase/α-glycosidase inhibition. The herb extracts showed higher activity than root extracts. Positive correlations were found between the content of quantified phenolics and antioxidant and digestive enzymes inhibiting activity. The findings presented in our work suggest that the Caucasian gentians are a good source of bioactive phytocompounds with antioxidant and antidiabetic potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Metabolomics)
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23 pages, 4482 KiB  
Article
Metabolomic Dynamics Reveals Oxidative Stress in Spongy Tissue Disorder During Ripening of Mangifera indica L. Fruit
by Pranjali Oak, Ashish Deshpande, Ashok Giri and Vidya Gupta
Metabolites 2019, 9(11), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo9110255 - 29 Oct 2019
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4367
Abstract
Spongy tissue disorder, a mesocarp specific malady, severely affects the flavor and pulp characters of Alphonso mango fruit reducing its consumer acceptability. Here, we investigated comparative metabolomic changes that occur during ripening in healthy and spongy tissue-affected fruits using high resolution mass spectrometric [...] Read more.
Spongy tissue disorder, a mesocarp specific malady, severely affects the flavor and pulp characters of Alphonso mango fruit reducing its consumer acceptability. Here, we investigated comparative metabolomic changes that occur during ripening in healthy and spongy tissue-affected fruits using high resolution mass spectrometric analysis. During the spongy tissue formation, 46 metabolites were identified to be differentially accumulated. These putative metabolites belong to various primary and secondary metabolic pathways potentially involved in maintaining the quality of the fruit. Analysis revealed metabolic variations in tricarboxylic acid cycle and gamma amino butyric acid shunt generating reactive oxygen species, which causes stressed conditions inside the mesocarp. Further, reduced levels of antioxidants and enzymes dissipating reactive oxygen species in mesocarp deteriorate the fruit physiology. This oxidative stress all along affects the level of amino acids, sugars and enzymes responsible for flavor generation in the fruit. Our results provide metabolic insights into spongy tissue development in ripening Alphonso mango fruit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Metabolomics)
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9 pages, 2072 KiB  
Article
Abscisic Acid Receptors Modulate Metabolite Levels and Phenotype in Arabidopsis Under Normal Growing Conditions
by Xiaoyi Li, Lintao Wu, Yao Qiu, Tao Wang, Qin Zhou, Qian Zhang, Wei Zhang and Zhibin Liu
Metabolites 2019, 9(11), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo9110249 - 24 Oct 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2754
Abstract
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a vital phytohormone that accumulates in response to various biotic and abiotic stresses, as well as plant growth. In Arabidopsis thaliana, there are 14 members of the ABA receptor family, which are key positive regulators involved in ABA [...] Read more.
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a vital phytohormone that accumulates in response to various biotic and abiotic stresses, as well as plant growth. In Arabidopsis thaliana, there are 14 members of the ABA receptor family, which are key positive regulators involved in ABA signaling. Besides reduced drought stress tolerance, the quadruple and sextuple mutants (pyr1pyl1pyl2pyl4 (1124) and pyr1pyl1pyl2pyl4pyl5pyl8 (112458) show abnormal growth phenotypes, such as decreases in yield and height, under non-stress conditions. However, it remains unknown whether ABA receptors mediate ABA signaling to regulate plant growth and development. Here, we showed the primary metabolite profiles of 1124, 112458 and wild-type (WT) plants grown under normal conditions. The metabolic changes were significantly different between ABA receptor mutants and WT. Guanosine, for the biosynthesis of cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP), is an important second messenger that acts to regulate the level of ABA. In addition, other amino acids were increased in the 112458 mutant, including proline. These results, together with phenotype analysis, indicated that ABA receptors are involved in ABA signaling to modulate metabolism and plant growth under normal conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Metabolomics)
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13 pages, 1531 KiB  
Article
Comparative Metabolomics Unravel the Effect of Magnesium Oversupply on Tomato Fruit Quality and Associated Plant Metabolism
by Min Cheol Kwon, Yangmin X. Kim, Seulbi Lee, Eun Sung Jung, Digar Singh, Jwakyung Sung and Choong Hwan Lee
Metabolites 2019, 9(10), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo9100231 - 16 Oct 2019
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 4606
Abstract
In general, greenhouse cultivation involves the rampant application of chemical fertilizers, with the aim of achieving high yields. Oversaturation with mineral nutrients that aid plant growth, development, and yield may lead to abiotic stress conditions. We explore the effects of excess magnesium on [...] Read more.
In general, greenhouse cultivation involves the rampant application of chemical fertilizers, with the aim of achieving high yields. Oversaturation with mineral nutrients that aid plant growth, development, and yield may lead to abiotic stress conditions. We explore the effects of excess magnesium on tomato plant metabolism, as well as tomato fruit quality using non-targeted mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomic approaches. Tomato plants were subjected to three different experiments, including high magnesium stress (MgH), extremely high magnesium stress (MgEH), and a control with optimal nutrient levels. Leaves, roots, and fruits were harvested at 16 weeks following the treatment. A metabolic pathway analysis showed that the metabolism induced by Mg oversupply was remarkably different between the leaf and root. Tomato plants allocated more resources to roots by upregulating carbohydrate and polyamine metabolism, while these pathways were downregulated in leaves. Mg oversupply affects the fruit metabolome in plants. In particular, the relative abundance of threonic acid, xylose, fucose, glucose, fumaric acid, malic acid, citric acid, oxoglutaric acid, threonine, glutamic acid, phenylalanine, and asparagine responsible for the flavor of tomato fruits was significantly decreased in the presence of Mg oversupply. Altogether, we concluded that Mg oversupply leads to drastically higher metabolite transport from sources (fully expanded leaves) to sinks (young leaves and roots), and thus, produces unfavorable outcomes in fruit quality and development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Metabolomics)
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9 pages, 2287 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Drying Temperatures on the Metabolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of Manilkara zapota Leaves
by Gloria I. Hernández-Bolio, Rubí E. Dzul-Romero, María G. Maldonado Velázquez, Pedro Zamora Cresencio, Emanuel Hernández-Núñez and Francisco J. Aguirre-Crespo
Metabolites 2019, 9(10), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo9100217 - 6 Oct 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3467
Abstract
In the present study, the leaves of Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen (Sapotaceae), an evergreen tree recognized for its medicinal properties in Southern Mexico, were used as a model to study the effect of different drying temperatures on its metabolic profile and therefore, [...] Read more.
In the present study, the leaves of Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen (Sapotaceae), an evergreen tree recognized for its medicinal properties in Southern Mexico, were used as a model to study the effect of different drying temperatures on its metabolic profile and therefore, its antioxidant potential. For this purpose, a methanol extraction of leaves dried at room temperature (25 °C) or by heat convection (50, 75 and 100 °C) were compared in terms of drying efficiency, yield of extraction, total phenol content, 1H-NMR metabolic profile, and DPPH antioxidant activity. The drying curves enabled the fact to be uncovered that drying efficiency improves with increase of temperature, as does the level of total phenols and antioxidant activity. A metabolomics approach using principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) of the corresponding 1H-NMR profiles allowed the impact of the drying temperature on their metabolic profile to be documented and also, caffeic acid and epicatechin as main secondary metabolites contributing to the antioxidant activity of M. zapota to be identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Metabolomics)
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18 pages, 2174 KiB  
Article
Untargeted Metabolomics Toward Systematic Characterization of Antioxidant Compounds in Betulaceae Family Plant Extracts
by Sunmin Lee, Dong-Gu Oh, Digar Singh, Hye Jin Lee, Ga Ryun Kim, Sarah Lee, Jong Seok Lee and Choong Hwan Lee
Metabolites 2019, 9(9), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo9090186 - 16 Sep 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3339
Abstract
Plant species have traditionally been revered for their unparalleled pharmacognostic applications. We outline a non-iterative multi-parallel metabolomic-cum-bioassay-guided methodology toward the functional characterization of ethanol extracts from the Betulaceae family plants (n = 10). We performed mass spectrometry (MS)-based multivariate analyses and bioassay-guided [...] Read more.
Plant species have traditionally been revered for their unparalleled pharmacognostic applications. We outline a non-iterative multi-parallel metabolomic-cum-bioassay-guided methodology toward the functional characterization of ethanol extracts from the Betulaceae family plants (n = 10). We performed mass spectrometry (MS)-based multivariate analyses and bioassay-guided (ABTS antioxidant activity and cytoprotective effects against H2O2-induced cell damage) analyses of SPE fractions. A clearly distinct metabolomic pattern coupled with significantly higher bioactivities was observed for 40% methanol SPE eluate. Further, the 40% SPE eluate was subjected to preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC) analysis, yielding 72 sub-fractions (1 min−1), with the highest antioxidant activities observed for the 15 min and 31 min sub-fractions. We simultaneously performed hyphenated-MS-based metabolite characterization of bioactive components for both the 40% methanol SPE fraction and its prep-HPLC sub-fraction (15 min and 31 min). Altogether, 19 candidate metabolites were mainly observed to contribute toward the observed bioactivities. In particular, ethyl gallate was mainly observed to affect the antioxidant activities of SPE and prep-HPLC fractions of Alnus firma extracts. We propose an integrated metabolomic-cum-bioassay-guided approach for the expeditious selection and characterization of discriminant metabolites with desired phenotypes or bioactivities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Metabolomics)
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12 pages, 1195 KiB  
Article
Comparative Metabolomic Analysis of Rapeseeds from Three Countries
by Ruinan Yang, Ligang Deng, Liangxiao Zhang, Xiaofeng Yue, Jin Mao, Fei Ma, Xiupin Wang, Qi Zhang, Wen Zhang and Peiwu Li
Metabolites 2019, 9(8), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo9080161 - 1 Aug 2019
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3932
Abstract
Rapeseed is an important oilseed with proper fatty acid composition and abundant bioactive components. Canada and China are the two major rapeseed-producing countries all over the world. Meanwhile, Canada and Mongolia are major importers of rapeseed due to the great demand for rapeseed [...] Read more.
Rapeseed is an important oilseed with proper fatty acid composition and abundant bioactive components. Canada and China are the two major rapeseed-producing countries all over the world. Meanwhile, Canada and Mongolia are major importers of rapeseed due to the great demand for rapeseed in China. To investigate the metabolites in rapeseeds from three countries, ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS)-based metabolomics was employed to analyze rapeseeds from China, Canada, and Mongolia. As results, 67, 53, and 68 metabolites showed significant differences between Chinese and Canadian, Chinese and Mongolian, and Canadian and Mongolian rapeseeds, respectively. Differential metabolites were mainly distributed in the metabolic pathways including phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, flavone and flavonol biosynthesis, and ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis. Among the differential metabolites, contents of sinapate and sinapine were higher in Chinese rapeseeds, while the contents of brassicasterol, stigmasterol, and campestanol were higher in Canadian rapeseeds. These findings might provide insight into the metabolic characteristics of rapeseeds from three countries to guide processing and consumption of the products of rapeseed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Metabolomics)
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