Vitamin D and Bone Metabolism

A special issue of Metabolites (ISSN 2218-1989). This special issue belongs to the section "Endocrinology and Clinical Metabolic Research".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2021) | Viewed by 42754

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
Interests: osteoporosis; vitamin D; ageing; comorbidity; frailty; fracture risk; postmenopause

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
Interests: renal disease; glomerulonephritis; hemodialysis; renin angiotensin system
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Based on the recent literature, vitamin D has becoming a topic of interest in several areas of medicine. Vitamin D and related metabolites play a critical role in regulating skeletal homeostasis both indirectly and directly via the 1,25(OH)2D/VDR system. 1,25(OH)2D shows different roles in bone, acting either via endocrine or autocrine pathways, suggesting that vitamin D contributes lifelong to the maintenance of bone turn-over and bone strength. The local synthesis and activity of vitamin D within the bone microenvironment may contribute to the rationale for vitamin D supplementation in the condition of bone fragility. Vitamin D is also a major regulator of calcium and phosphorus metabolism with important implications in chronic kidney disease, and vitamin D deficiency has been strictly associated with rickets, osteomalacia, and osteoporosis. Other biological activities of vitamin D have recently been identified, including important aspects of cellular proliferation, differentiation, and the immune system. The interaction of vitamin D with other kidney hormones such as renin and erythropoietin is also interesting. Genetic and acquired diseases could impair the vitamin D system and thus impact bone and mineral metabolism. Due to the large amount of data on vitamin D, the main aim of this Special Issue will be to cover novel evidence focused on the contribution of vitamin D in bone metabolism and related outcomes. We therefore invite original contributions, reviews, and viewpoint manuscripts based on clinical and preclinical data on this proposed topic.

Prof. Antonino Catalano
Prof. Domenico Santoro
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • vitamin D
  • calcium
  • phosphorus
  • FGF-23
  • chronic kidney disease
  • osteoporosis
  • fractures
  • osteoblasts
  • osteoclasts
  • osteocytes
  • renal disease
  • glomerulonephritis
  • hemodialysis
  • renin angiotensin system

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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8 pages, 224 KiB  
Article
Vitamin D Metabolites and Sex Steroid Indices in Postmenopausal Women with and without Low Bone Mass
by Nasser M. Al-Daghri, Sobhy M. Yakout, Mohammed G.A. Ansari, Syed D. Hussain, Kaiser A. Wani and Shaun Sabico
Metabolites 2021, 11(2), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11020086 - 1 Feb 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2070
Abstract
While the independent roles of vitamin D and sex hormones in skeletal health are well established, the associations of vitamin D and its metabolites to sex hormones and their indices are less investigated. In this observational study, clinical information of 189 Saudi postmenopausal [...] Read more.
While the independent roles of vitamin D and sex hormones in skeletal health are well established, the associations of vitamin D and its metabolites to sex hormones and their indices are less investigated. In this observational study, clinical information of 189 Saudi postmenopausal women aged ≥50 years old [N = 80 with normal bone mineral density (BMD), aged 53.3 ± 7.7 years with body mass index (BMI)= 34.1kg/m2 ± 5.8, and N = 109 with low BMD (T-score −1.0 to −2.5), aged 57.0 ± 8.2 years, BMI = 32.4kg/m2 ± 6.2] was extracted from an existing capital-wide osteoporosis registry in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Data included were BMD scores, serum total 25(OH)D, sex hormones, and bone turnover markers which were measured using commercially available assays. Age- and BMI-adjusted comparisons revealed significantly higher parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels as well as significantly lower testosterone and bioavailable testosterone in the low BMD group than the normal BMD group (p-values 0.04, 0.02, and 0.03, respectively). Stepwise linear regression showed that circulating testosterone levels accounted for 9.7% and 8.9% of the variances perceived in bioavailable 25(OH)D and free 25(OH)D, respectively (p < 0.01), independent of other sex hormones, sex hormone indices, and bone turnover markers. Our study suggests that androgens are significantly associated with non-conventional vitamin D metabolites and these associations may have clinical relevance in assessing risk for low BMD and osteoporosis in Arab postmenopausal women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Bone Metabolism)
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19 pages, 726 KiB  
Article
Total vs. Bioavailable: Determining a Better 25(OH)D Index in Association with Bone Density and Muscle Mass in Postmenopausal Women
by Nurdiana Z. Abidin and Soma R. Mitra
Metabolites 2021, 11(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11010023 - 31 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2779
Abstract
The concurrent presence of low bone density (osteopenia/osteoporosis) and low muscle mass (sarcopenia) in older adults has led to the recognition of “osteosarcopenia” (OS) as a singular entity. Vitamin D may play important role in the manifestation of OS, in terms of intake, [...] Read more.
The concurrent presence of low bone density (osteopenia/osteoporosis) and low muscle mass (sarcopenia) in older adults has led to the recognition of “osteosarcopenia” (OS) as a singular entity. Vitamin D may play important role in the manifestation of OS, in terms of intake, absorption, and bioavailability. Evidence suggests that bioavailable 25(OH)D may be a better indicator of Vitamin D compared to total 25(OH)D due to its weak bind to albumin, increasing its ‘availability’. The aim of this study was to assess total and bioavailable 25(OH)D levels in postmenopausal women and to determine their associations to bone density and muscle mass. We assessed body composition, bone density, and 25(OH)D indices of multiethnic, postmenopausal Malaysian women. A significant and negative correlation was found between body fat % and each index of 25(OH)D. Both bioavailable and total 25(OH)D were positively correlated with serum calcium and negatively correlated with iPTH(intact parathyroid hormone). VDBP(Vitamin D binding protein) level was significantly correlated with bioavailable 25(OH)D level, but not with the total 25(OH)D level. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that bioavailable, but not total, 25(OH)D was significantly correlated to bone density and muscle mass, (where stronger correlation was found with bone density), suggesting its superiority. Nevertheless, the low effect size warrants further studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Bone Metabolism)
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Review

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33 pages, 2516 KiB  
Review
Vitamin D Sources, Metabolism, and Deficiency: Available Compounds and Guidelines for Its Treatment
by Ligia J. Dominguez, Mario Farruggia, Nicola Veronese and Mario Barbagallo
Metabolites 2021, 11(4), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11040255 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 106 | Viewed by 19596
Abstract
Studies on vitamin/hormone D deficiency have received a vast amount of attention in recent years, particularly concerning recommendations, guidelines, and treatments. Moreover, vitamin D’s role as a hormone has been confirmed in various enzymatic, metabolic, physiological, and pathophysiological processes related to many organs [...] Read more.
Studies on vitamin/hormone D deficiency have received a vast amount of attention in recent years, particularly concerning recommendations, guidelines, and treatments. Moreover, vitamin D’s role as a hormone has been confirmed in various enzymatic, metabolic, physiological, and pathophysiological processes related to many organs and systems in the human body. This growing interest is mostly due to the evidence that modest-to-severe vitamin D deficiency is widely prevalent around the world. There is broad agreement that optimal vitamin D status is necessary for bones, muscles, and one’s general health, as well as for the efficacy of antiresorptive and anabolic bone-forming treatments. Food supplementation with vitamin D, or the use of vitamin D supplements, are current strategies to improve vitamin D levels and treat deficiency. This article reviews consolidated and emerging concepts about vitamin D/hormone D metabolism, food sources, deficiency, as well as the different vitamin D supplements available, and current recommendations on the proper use of these compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Bone Metabolism)
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14 pages, 574 KiB  
Review
Vitamin D, Bone Metabolism, and Fracture Risk in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
by Flavia Di Bari, Antonino Catalano, Federica Bellone, Gabriella Martino and Salvatore Benvenga
Metabolites 2021, 11(2), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11020116 - 18 Feb 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4040
Abstract
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder among premenopausal women. PCOS may have reproductive, metabolic, cardiovascular, and psychological implications. Vitamin D deficit is often encountered in PCOS women and may contribute to the pathophysiology of this disorder. As of the [...] Read more.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder among premenopausal women. PCOS may have reproductive, metabolic, cardiovascular, and psychological implications. Vitamin D deficit is often encountered in PCOS women and may contribute to the pathophysiology of this disorder. As of the key role of vitamin D in bone and mineral metabolism, and because the vitamin D status appears to be closely linked with the PCOS manifestations including insulin resistance, obesity, ovulatory and menstrual irregularities, oxidative stress and PTH elevation, hypovitaminosis D may directly and indirectly via the different facets of PCOS impair bone health in these women. Although limited data are available on life-long fracture risk in women with PCOS, the importance of preserving bone health in youth and adults to prevent osteoporosis and related fractures is also recognized in PCOS women. Evidence of the association between vitamin D and the clinical hallmarks of PCOS are summarized and discussed. Vitamin D arises as a cornerstone in women with PCOS and contributes to the pathophysiological link between PCOS and bone metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Bone Metabolism)
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14 pages, 2061 KiB  
Review
Vitamin D Metabolism and Its Role in Mineral and Bone Disorders in Chronic Kidney Disease in Humans, Dogs and Cats
by Fernanda C. Chacar, Márcia M. Kogika, Rafael V. A. Zafalon and Marcio A. Brunetto
Metabolites 2020, 10(12), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10120499 - 4 Dec 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4454
Abstract
Some differences regarding Vitamin D metabolism are described in dogs and cats in comparison with humans, which may be explained by an evolutionary drive among these species. Similarly, vitamin D is one of the most important regulators of mineral metabolism in dogs and [...] Read more.
Some differences regarding Vitamin D metabolism are described in dogs and cats in comparison with humans, which may be explained by an evolutionary drive among these species. Similarly, vitamin D is one of the most important regulators of mineral metabolism in dogs and cats, as well as in humans. Mineral metabolism is intrinsically related to bone metabolism, thus disturbances in vitamin D have been implicated in the development of chronic kidney disease mineral and bone disorders (CKD-MBD) in people, in addition to dogs and cats. Vitamin D deficiency may be associated with Renal Secondary Hyperparathyroidism (RSHPT), which is the most common mineral disorder in later stages of CKD in dogs and cats. Herein, we review the peculiarities of vitamin D metabolism in these species in comparison with humans, and the role of vitamin D disturbances in the development of CKD-MBD among dogs, cats, and people. Comparative studies may offer some evidence to help further research about vitamin D metabolism and bone disorders in CKD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Bone Metabolism)
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21 pages, 303 KiB  
Review
The Role of Vitamin D in Small Animal Bone Metabolism
by Rafael Vessecchi Amorim Zafalon, Bruna Ruberti, Mariana Fragoso Rentas, Andressa Rodrigues Amaral, Thiago Henrique Annibale Vendramini, Fernanda Chicharo Chacar, Marcia Mery Kogika and Marcio Antonio Brunetto
Metabolites 2020, 10(12), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10120496 - 3 Dec 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3856
Abstract
Dogs and cats have differences in vitamin D metabolism compared to other mammalian species, as they are unable to perform vitamin D cutaneous synthesis through sun exposure. Therefore, they are dependent on the dietary intake of this nutrient. The classic functions of vitamin [...] Read more.
Dogs and cats have differences in vitamin D metabolism compared to other mammalian species, as they are unable to perform vitamin D cutaneous synthesis through sun exposure. Therefore, they are dependent on the dietary intake of this nutrient. The classic functions of vitamin D are to stimulate intestinal calcium and phosphate absorption, renal calcium and phosphate reabsorption and regulate bone mineral metabolism. Thus, it is an important nutrient for calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. This review highlights the evidence of the direct and indirect actions of vitamin D on bone mineral metabolism, the consequences of nutritional imbalances of this nutrient in small animals, as well as differences in vitamin D metabolism between different size dogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Bone Metabolism)
15 pages, 1941 KiB  
Review
Protective Role of Vitamin D in Renal Tubulopathies
by Guido Gembillo, Valeria Cernaro, Rossella Siligato, Francesco Curreri, Antonino Catalano and Domenico Santoro
Metabolites 2020, 10(3), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10030115 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4840
Abstract
Vitamin D is tightly linked with renal tubular homeostasis: the mitochondria of proximal convoluted tubule cells are the production site of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Patients with renal impairment or tubular injury often suffer from chronic inflammation. This alteration comes from oxidative stress, acidosis, decreased [...] Read more.
Vitamin D is tightly linked with renal tubular homeostasis: the mitochondria of proximal convoluted tubule cells are the production site of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Patients with renal impairment or tubular injury often suffer from chronic inflammation. This alteration comes from oxidative stress, acidosis, decreased clearance of inflammatory cytokines and stimulation of inflammatory factors. The challenge is to find the right formula for each patient to correctly modulate the landscape of treatment and preserve the essential functions of the organism without perturbating its homeostasis. The complexity of the counter-regulation mechanisms and the different axis involved in the Vitamin D equilibrium pose a major issue on Vitamin D as a potential effective anti-inflammatory drug. The therapeutic use of this compound should be able to inhibit the development of inflammation without interfering with normal homeostasis. Megalin-Cubilin-Amnionless and the FGF23-Klotho axis represent two Vitamin D-linked mechanisms that could modulate and ameliorate the damage response at the renal tubular level, balancing Vitamin D therapy with an effect potent enough to contrast the inflammatory cascades, but which avoids potential severe side effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Bone Metabolism)
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