Special Issue "Carbonic Anhydrases and Metabolism Volume 2"

A special issue of Metabolites (ISSN 2218-1989).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 21 December 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Claudiu T. Supuran

Neurofarba Department, Sezione di Scienze Farmaceutiche e Nutraceutiche, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Florence) 50019, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +39-055-4573385
Interests: drug design; metalloenzymes; carbonic anhydrases, anticancer agents; antiinfectives; sulfonamides; coumarins

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC are metalloenzymes present in all life kingdoms, as they equilibrate the reaction between three simple but essential chemical species: CO2, bicarbonate, and protons. Discovered more than 80 year ago, in 1933, these enzymes were extensively investigated due to the biomedical application of their inhibitors, but also because they are an extraordinary example of convergent evolution, with seven genetically-distinct CA families that evolved independently in Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. CAs are also among the most efficient enzymes known in nature, due to the fact that the uncatalyzed CO2 hydration is a very slow process, and the physiologic demands for its conversion to ionic, soluble species is very high. Inhibition of the CAs has pharmacologic applications in many fields, such as antiglaucoma, anticonvulsant, antiobesity, and anticancer agents/diagnostic tools, but is also emerging for designing anti-infectives, i.e., antifungal, antibacterial and antiprotozoan agents with a novel mechanism of action. Mitochondrial CAs are implicated in de novo lipogenesis allowing the ability to consider selective inhibitors of such enzymes as useful for the development of new antiobesity drugs. As the tumor metabolism is diverse form that of normal cells, ultimately, relevant contributions on the role of the tumor-associated isoforms CA IX and XII in these phenomena have been published, and the two isoforms have been validated as novel antitumor/antimetastatic drug targets, with antibodies and small molecule inhibitors in various stages of clinical development. CAs also play a crucial role in other metabolic processes connected with urea biosynthesis, gluconeogenesis, etc., since many carboxylation reactions catalyzed by acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase or pyruvate carboxylase use bicarbonate not CO2 as a substrate. In organisms other than mammals, e.g., plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, CAs are involved in photosynthesis, whereas, in many parasites (fungi, protozoa), they are involved in the de novo synthesis of important metabolites (lipids, nucleic acids, etc.). The metabolic effects related to interference with CA activity were, however, scarcely investigated. The present Special Issue of Metabolites has the goal of filling this gap, by presenting the latest developments in the field of CAs and their role in metabolism.

Prof. Dr. Claudiu T. Supuran
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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  • carbonic anhydrase
  • inhibitors
  • activators
  • metabolism

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Open AccessReview
Carbonic Anhydrases in Photosynthesizing Cells of C3 Higher Plants
Metabolites 2019, 9(4), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo9040073
Received: 19 March 2019 / Revised: 13 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 16 April 2019
PDF Full-text (773 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
The review presents data on the location, nature, properties, number, and expression of carbonic anhydrase genes in the photosynthesizing cells of C3 plants. The available data about the presence of carbonic anhydrases in plasma membrane, cytoplasm, mitochondria, chloroplast stroma and thylakoids are scrutinized. [...] Read more.
The review presents data on the location, nature, properties, number, and expression of carbonic anhydrase genes in the photosynthesizing cells of C3 plants. The available data about the presence of carbonic anhydrases in plasma membrane, cytoplasm, mitochondria, chloroplast stroma and thylakoids are scrutinized. Special attention was paid to the presence of carbonic anhydrase activities in the different parts of thylakoids, and on collation of sources of these activities with enzymes encoded by the established genes of carbonic anhydrases. The data are presented to show that the consistent incorporation of carbonic anhydrases belonging to different families of these enzymes forms a coherent system of CO2 molecules transport from air to chloroplasts in photosynthesizing cells, where they are included in organic molecules in the carboxylation reaction. It is discussed that the manifestation of the activity of a certain carbonic anhydrase depends on environmental conditions and the stage of ontogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbonic Anhydrases and Metabolism Volume 2)

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