Metabolomic Applications in Animal Science

A special issue of Metabolites (ISSN 2218-1989). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2020) | Viewed by 60282

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Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
Interests: amino acids; imidazole dipepitdes; GC-MS based metabolomics; metabolomics in animal science; nutritional science for stress response; early nutrition
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Metabolomics has been a useful method for various study fields. However, its application in animal science seems not enough. Metabolomics will be useful for various studies in animal science: Animal genetics and breeding, animal physiology, animal nutrition, animal products (milk, meat, eggs, and their by-products) and their processing, livestock environment, animal biotechnology, animal behavior, and animal welfare. More application examples and protocols for animal science will promote more motivation to use metabolomics effectively in the study field.

Therefore, in this Special Issue, I invite research and review articles for “Metabolomic Applications in Animal Science”. The contribution to animal science should be clearly stated in the manuscript. The main methods used should be mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, or other suitable techniques. Not only nontargeted but also targeted analysis of metabolites are welcome. The topics include dietary and pharmacological interventions, metabolic flux analysis, genetic manipulations, in vitro/in vivo imaging, and protocols for metabolomic experiments.

The Special Issue is open for submission now. Some extension may be granted if you kindly let me know in advance. Accepted papers will be published rapidly and will be listed together on the Special Issue website.

Dr. Shozo Tomonaga
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Animal science
  • Livestock
  • Metabolomics

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 805 KiB  
Article
Differential Metabolomics Profiles Identified by CE-TOFMS between High and Low Intramuscular Fat Amount in Fattening Pigs
by Masaaki Taniguchi, Aisaku Arakawa, Motohide Nishio, Toshihiro Okamura, Chika Ohnishi, Kouen Kadowaki, Kimiko Kohira, Fumika Homma, Kazunori Matsumoto and Kazuo Ishii
Metabolites 2020, 10(8), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10080322 - 7 Aug 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2646
Abstract
The amount of intramuscular fat (IMF) present in the loin eye area is one of the most important characteristics of high-quality pork. IMF measurements are currently impractical without a labor-intensive process. Metabolomic profiling could be used as an IMF indicator to avoid this [...] Read more.
The amount of intramuscular fat (IMF) present in the loin eye area is one of the most important characteristics of high-quality pork. IMF measurements are currently impractical without a labor-intensive process. Metabolomic profiling could be used as an IMF indicator to avoid this process; however, no studies have investigated their use during the fattening period of pigs. This study examined the metabolite profiles in the plasma of two groups of pigs derived from the same Duroc genetic line and fed the same diet. Five plasma samples were collected from each individual the day before slaughter. Capillary electrophoresis-time of flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS) was used to analyze the purified plasma from each sample. Principle component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) were used to find the semi-quantitative values of the compounds. The results indicate that branched-chain amino acids are significantly associated with high IMF content, while amino acids are associated with low IMF content. These differences were validated using the quantification analyses by high-performance liquid chromatograph, which supported our results. These results suggest that the concentration of branched-chain amino acids in plasma could be an indicative biomarker for the IMF content in the loin eye area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomic Applications in Animal Science)
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25 pages, 2469 KiB  
Article
Profiling of Metabolomic Changes in Plasma and Urine of Pigs Caused by Illegal Administration of Testosterone Esters
by Kamil Stastny, Kristina Putecova, Lenka Leva, Milan Franek, Petr Dvorak and Martin Faldyna
Metabolites 2020, 10(8), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10080307 - 27 Jul 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2995
Abstract
The use of anabolic steroid hormones as growth promoters in feed for farm animals has been banned in the European Union since 1988 on the basis of Council Directive 96/22/EC. However, there is still ongoing monitoring and reporting of positive findings of these [...] Read more.
The use of anabolic steroid hormones as growth promoters in feed for farm animals has been banned in the European Union since 1988 on the basis of Council Directive 96/22/EC. However, there is still ongoing monitoring and reporting of positive findings of these banned substances in EU countries. The aim of this work was to investigate the efficacy and discriminatory ability of metabolic fingerprinting after the administration of 17β-testosterone esters to pigs. Plasma and urine samples were chromatographically separated on a Hypersil Gold C18 column. High resolution mass spectrometry metabolomic fingerprints were analysed on a hybrid mass spectrometer Q-Exactive. Three independent multivariate statistical methods, namely principal component analysis, clustre analysis, and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis showed significant differences between the treated and control groups of pigs even 14 days after the administration of the hormonal drug. Plasma samples were also analysed by a conventional quantitative analysis using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and a pharmacokinetic curve was constructed based on the results. In this case, no testosterone residue was detected 14 days after the administration. The results clearly showed that a metabolomics approach can be a useful and effective tool for the detection and monitoring of banned anabolic steroids used illegally in pig fattening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomic Applications in Animal Science)
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14 pages, 2459 KiB  
Article
Exercise Induced Changes in Salivary and Serum Metabolome in Trained Standardbred, Assessed by 1H-NMR
by Marilena Bazzano, Luca Laghi, Chenglin Zhu, Enrica Lotito, Stefano Sgariglia, Beniamino Tesei and Fulvio Laus
Metabolites 2020, 10(7), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10070298 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2723
Abstract
In the present study, data related to the metabolomics of saliva and serum in trained standardbred horses are provided for the first time. Metabolomic analysis allows to analyze all the metabolites within selected biofluids, providing a better understanding of biochemistry modifications related to [...] Read more.
In the present study, data related to the metabolomics of saliva and serum in trained standardbred horses are provided for the first time. Metabolomic analysis allows to analyze all the metabolites within selected biofluids, providing a better understanding of biochemistry modifications related to exercise. On the basis of the current advances observed in metabolomic research on human athletes, we aimed to investigate the metabolites’ profile of serum and saliva samples collected from healthy standardbred horses and the relationship with physical exercise. Twelve trained standardbred horses were sampled for blood and saliva before (T0) and immediately after (T1) standardized exercise. Metabolomic analysis of both samples was performed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Forty-six metabolites in serum and 62 metabolites in saliva were detected, including alcohols, amino acids, organic acids, carbohydrates and purine derivatives. Twenty-six and 14 metabolites resulted to be significantly changed between T0 and T1 in serum and saliva, respectively. The findings of 2-hydroxyisobutyrate and 3-hydroxybutyrate in serum and GABA in equine saliva, as well as their modifications following exercise, provide new insights about the physiology of exercise in athletic horses. Glycerol might represent a novel biomarker for fitness evaluation in sport horses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomic Applications in Animal Science)
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19 pages, 1900 KiB  
Article
Integrative Analysis of Metabolomic and Transcriptomic Profiles Uncovers Biological Pathways of Feed Efficiency in Pigs
by Priyanka Banerjee, Victor Adriano Okstoft Carmelo and Haja N. Kadarmideen
Metabolites 2020, 10(7), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10070275 - 6 Jul 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3370
Abstract
Feed efficiency (FE) is an economically important trait. Thus, reliable predictors would help to reduce the production cost and provide sustainability to the pig industry. We carried out metabolome-transcriptome integration analysis on 40 purebred Duroc and Landrace uncastrated male pigs to identify potential [...] Read more.
Feed efficiency (FE) is an economically important trait. Thus, reliable predictors would help to reduce the production cost and provide sustainability to the pig industry. We carried out metabolome-transcriptome integration analysis on 40 purebred Duroc and Landrace uncastrated male pigs to identify potential gene-metabolite interactions and explore the molecular mechanisms underlying FE. To this end, we applied untargeted metabolomics and RNA-seq approaches to the same animals. After data quality control, we used a linear model approach to integrate the data and find significant differently correlated gene-metabolite pairs separately for the breeds (Duroc and Landrace) and FE groups (low and high FE) followed by a pathway over-representation analysis. We identified 21 and 12 significant gene-metabolite pairs for each group. The valine-leucine-isoleucine biosynthesis/degradation and arginine-proline metabolism pathways were associated with unique metabolites. The unique genes obtained from significant metabolite-gene pairs were associated with sphingolipid catabolism, multicellular organismal process, cGMP, and purine metabolic processes. While some of the genes and metabolites identified were known for their association with FE, others are novel and provide new avenues for further research. Further validation of genes, metabolites, and gene-metabolite interactions in larger cohorts will elucidate the regulatory mechanisms and pathways underlying FE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomic Applications in Animal Science)
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20 pages, 3689 KiB  
Article
Metabolic Profiling Provides Unique Insights to Accumulation and Biosynthesis of Key Secondary Metabolites in Annual Pasture Legumes of Mediterranean Origin
by Sajid Latif, Paul A. Weston, Russell A. Barrow, Saliya Gurusinghe, John W. Piltz and Leslie A. Weston
Metabolites 2020, 10(7), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10070267 - 28 Jun 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3091
Abstract
Annual legumes from the Mediterranean region are receiving attention in Australia as alternatives to traditional pasture species. The current study employed novel metabolic profiling approaches to quantify key secondary metabolites including phytoestrogens to better understand their biosynthetic regulation in a range of field-grown [...] Read more.
Annual legumes from the Mediterranean region are receiving attention in Australia as alternatives to traditional pasture species. The current study employed novel metabolic profiling approaches to quantify key secondary metabolites including phytoestrogens to better understand their biosynthetic regulation in a range of field-grown annual pasture legumes. In addition, total polyphenol and proanthocyanidins were quantified using Folin–Ciocalteu and vanillin assays, respectively. Metabolic profiling coupled with biochemical assay results demonstrated marked differences in the abundance of coumestans, flavonoids, polyphenols, and proanthocyanidins in annual pasture legume species. Genetically related pasture legumes segregated similarly from a chemotaxonomic perspective. A strong and positive association was observed between the concentration of phytoestrogens and upregulation of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in annual pasture legumes. Our findings suggest that evolutionary differences in metabolic dynamics and biosynthetic regulation of secondary metabolites have logically occurred over time in various species of annual pasture legumes resulting in enhanced plant defense. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomic Applications in Animal Science)
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17 pages, 2926 KiB  
Article
A Tale of Two Biomarkers: Untargeted 1H NMR Metabolomic Fingerprinting of BHBA and NEFA in Early Lactation Dairy Cows
by Timothy D. W. Luke, Jennie E. Pryce, William J. Wales and Simone J. Rochfort
Metabolites 2020, 10(6), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10060247 - 15 Jun 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3270
Abstract
Disorders of energy metabolism, which can result from a failure to adapt to the period of negative energy balance immediately after calving, have significant negative effects on the health, welfare and profitability of dairy cows. The most common biomarkers of energy balance in [...] Read more.
Disorders of energy metabolism, which can result from a failure to adapt to the period of negative energy balance immediately after calving, have significant negative effects on the health, welfare and profitability of dairy cows. The most common biomarkers of energy balance in dairy cows are β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). While elevated concentrations of these biomarkers are associated with similar negative health and production outcomes, the phenotypic and genetic correlations between them are weak. In this study, we used an untargeted 1H NMR metabolomics approach to investigate the serum metabolomic fingerprints of BHBA and NEFA. Serum samples were collected from 298 cows in early lactation (calibration dataset N = 248, validation N = 50). Metabolomic fingerprinting was done by regressing 1H NMR spectra against BHBA and NEFA concentrations (determined using colorimetric assays) using orthogonal partial least squares regression. Prediction accuracies were high for BHBA models, and moderately high for NEFA models (R2 of external validation of 0.88 and 0.75, respectively). We identified 16 metabolites that were significantly (variable importance of projection score > 1) correlated with the concentration of one or both biomarkers. These metabolites were primarily intermediates of energy, phospholipid, and/or methyl donor metabolism. Of the significant metabolites identified; (1) two (acetate and creatine) were positively correlated with BHBA but negatively correlated with NEFA, (2) nine had similar associations with both BHBA and NEFA, (3) two were correlated with only BHBA concentration, and (4) three were only correlated with NEFA concentration. Overall, our results suggest that BHBA and NEFA are indicative of similar metabolic states in clinically healthy animals, but that several significant metabolic differences exist that help to explain the weak correlations between them. We also identified several metabolites that may be useful intermediate phenotypes in genomic selection for improved metabolic health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomic Applications in Animal Science)
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19 pages, 7059 KiB  
Article
Metabolite Genome-Wide Association Study (mGWAS) and Gene-Metabolite Interaction Network Analysis Reveal Potential Biomarkers for Feed Efficiency in Pigs
by Xiao Wang and Haja N. Kadarmideen
Metabolites 2020, 10(5), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10050201 - 15 May 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 5194
Abstract
Metabolites represent the ultimate response of biological systems, so metabolomics is considered the link between genotypes and phenotypes. Feed efficiency is one of the most important phenotypes in sustainable pig production and is the main breeding goal trait. We utilized metabolic and genomic [...] Read more.
Metabolites represent the ultimate response of biological systems, so metabolomics is considered the link between genotypes and phenotypes. Feed efficiency is one of the most important phenotypes in sustainable pig production and is the main breeding goal trait. We utilized metabolic and genomic datasets from a total of 108 pigs from our own previously published studies that involved 59 Duroc and 49 Landrace pigs with data on feed efficiency (residual feed intake (RFI)), genotype (PorcineSNP80 BeadChip) data, and metabolomic data (45 final metabolite datasets derived from LC-MS system). Utilizing these datasets, our main aim was to identify genetic variants (single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)) that affect 45 different metabolite concentrations in plasma collected at the start and end of the performance testing of pigs categorized as high or low in their feed efficiency (based on RFI values). Genome-wide significant genetic variants could be then used as potential genetic or biomarkers in breeding programs for feed efficiency. The other objective was to reveal the biochemical mechanisms underlying genetic variation for pigs’ feed efficiency. In order to achieve these objectives, we firstly conducted a metabolite genome-wide association study (mGWAS) based on mixed linear models and found 152 genome-wide significant SNPs (p-value < 1.06 × 10−6) in association with 17 metabolites that included 90 significant SNPs annotated to 52 genes. On chromosome one alone, 51 significant SNPs associated with isovalerylcarnitine and propionylcarnitine were found to be in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD). SNPs in strong LD annotated to FBXL4, and CCNC consisted of two haplotype blocks where three SNPs (ALGA0004000, ALGA0004041, and ALGA0004042) were in the intron regions of FBXL4 and CCNC. The interaction network revealed that CCNC and FBXL4 were linked by the hub gene N6AMT1 that was associated with isovalerylcarnitine and propionylcarnitine. Moreover, three metabolites (i.e., isovalerylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine, and pyruvic acid) were clustered in one group based on the low-high RFI pigs. This study performed a comprehensive metabolite-based genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis for pigs with differences in feed efficiency and provided significant metabolites for which there is significant genetic variation as well as biological interaction networks. The identified metabolite genetic variants, genes, and networks in high versus low feed efficient pigs could be considered as potential genetic or biomarkers for feed efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomic Applications in Animal Science)
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16 pages, 642 KiB  
Article
Effects of Cyclic High Ambient Temperature and Dietary Supplementation of Orotic Acid, a Pyrimidine Precursor, on Plasma and Muscle Metabolites in Broiler Chickens
by Saki Shimamoto, Kiriko Nakamura, Shozo Tomonaga, Satoru Furukawa, Akira Ohtsuka and Daichi Ijiri
Metabolites 2020, 10(5), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10050189 - 12 May 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3723
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high ambient temperature (HT) and orotic acid supplementation on the plasma and muscle metabolomic profiles in broiler chickens. Thirty-two 14-day-old broiler chickens were divided into four treatment groups that were fed diets [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high ambient temperature (HT) and orotic acid supplementation on the plasma and muscle metabolomic profiles in broiler chickens. Thirty-two 14-day-old broiler chickens were divided into four treatment groups that were fed diets with or without 0.7% orotic acid under thermoneutral (25 ± 1 °C) or cyclic HT (35 ± 1 °C for 8 h/day) conditions for 2 weeks. The chickens exposed to HT had higher plasma malondialdehyde concentrations, suggesting an increase in lipid peroxidation, which is alleviated by orotic acid supplementation. The HT environment also affected the serine, glutamine, and tyrosine plasma concentrations, while orotic acid supplementation affected the aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and tyrosine plasma concentrations. Untargeted gas chromatography–triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS)-based metabolomics analysis identified that the HT affected the plasma levels of metabolites involved in purine metabolism, ammonia recycling, pyrimidine metabolism, homocysteine degradation, glutamate metabolism, urea cycle, β-alanine metabolism, glycine and serine metabolism, and aspartate metabolism, while orotic acid supplementation affected metabolites involved in pyrimidine metabolism, β-alanine metabolism, the malate–aspartate shuttle, and aspartate metabolism. Our results suggest that cyclic HT affects various metabolic processes in broiler chickens, and that orotic acid supplementation ameliorates HT-induced increases in lipid peroxidation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomic Applications in Animal Science)
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20 pages, 2994 KiB  
Article
Use of Large and Diverse Datasets for 1H NMR Serum Metabolic Profiling of Early Lactation Dairy Cows
by Timothy D. W. Luke, Jennie E. Pryce, Aaron C. Elkins, William J. Wales and Simone J. Rochfort
Metabolites 2020, 10(5), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10050180 - 30 Apr 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2529
Abstract
Most livestock metabolomic studies involve relatively small, homogenous populations of animals. However, livestock farming systems are non-homogenous, and large and more diverse datasets are required to ensure that biomarkers are robust. The aims of this study were therefore to (1) investigate the feasibility [...] Read more.
Most livestock metabolomic studies involve relatively small, homogenous populations of animals. However, livestock farming systems are non-homogenous, and large and more diverse datasets are required to ensure that biomarkers are robust. The aims of this study were therefore to (1) investigate the feasibility of using a large and diverse dataset for untargeted proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) serum metabolomic profiling, and (2) investigate the impact of fixed effects (farm of origin, parity and stage of lactation) on the serum metabolome of early-lactation dairy cows. First, we used multiple linear regression to correct a large spectral dataset (707 cows from 13 farms) for fixed effects prior to multivariate statistical analysis with principal component analysis (PCA). Results showed that farm of origin accounted for up to 57% of overall spectral variation, and nearly 80% of variation for some individual metabolite concentrations. Parity and week of lactation had much smaller effects on both the spectra as a whole and individual metabolites (<3% and <20%, respectively). In order to assess the effect of fixed effects on prediction accuracy and biomarker discovery, we used orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS) regression to quantify the relationship between NMR spectra and concentrations of the current gold standard serum biomarker of energy balance, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA). Models constructed using data from multiple farms provided reasonably robust predictions of serum BHBA concentration (0.05 ≤ RMSE ≤ 0.18). Fixed effects influenced the results biomarker discovery; however, these impacts could be controlled using the proposed method of linear regression spectral correction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomic Applications in Animal Science)
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13 pages, 1409 KiB  
Article
First Insights into the Urinary Metabolome of Captive Giraffes by Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
by Chenglin Zhu, Sabrina Fasoli, Gloria Isani and Luca Laghi
Metabolites 2020, 10(4), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10040157 - 17 Apr 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3466
Abstract
The urine from 35 giraffes was studied by untargeted 1H-NMR, with the purpose of obtaining, for the first time, a fingerprint of its metabolome. The metabolome, as downstream of the transcriptome and proteome, has been considered as the most representative approach to [...] Read more.
The urine from 35 giraffes was studied by untargeted 1H-NMR, with the purpose of obtaining, for the first time, a fingerprint of its metabolome. The metabolome, as downstream of the transcriptome and proteome, has been considered as the most representative approach to monitor the relationships between animal physiological features and environment. Thirty-nine molecules were unambiguously quantified, able to give information about diet, proteins digestion, energy generation, and gut-microbial co-metabolism. The samples collected allowed study of the effects of age and sex on the giraffe urinary metabolome. In addition, preliminary information about how sampling procedure and pregnancy could affect a giraffe’s urinary metabolome was obtained. Such work could trigger the setting up of methods to non-invasively study the health status of giraffes, which is utterly needed, considering that anesthetic-related complications make their immobilization a very risky practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomic Applications in Animal Science)
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7 pages, 744 KiB  
Article
Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomic Analysis of Wagyu and Holstein Beef
by Tomoya Yamada, Mituru Kamiya and Mikito Higuchi
Metabolites 2020, 10(3), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10030095 - 6 Mar 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3357
Abstract
Japanese Black cattle (Wagyu) beef is characterized by high intramuscular fat content and has a characteristic sweet taste. However, the chemical components for characterizing the sweet taste of Wagyu beef have been unclear. In this experiment, we conducted a metabolomic analysis of the [...] Read more.
Japanese Black cattle (Wagyu) beef is characterized by high intramuscular fat content and has a characteristic sweet taste. However, the chemical components for characterizing the sweet taste of Wagyu beef have been unclear. In this experiment, we conducted a metabolomic analysis of the longissimus muscle (sirloin) in Wagyu and Holstein cattle to determine the key components associated with beef taste using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Holstein sirloin beef was characterized by the abundance of components such as glutamine, ribose-5-phosphate, uric acid, inosine monophosphate, 5-oxoproline, and glycine. In contrast, Wagyu sirloin beef was characterized by the abundance of sugar components (maltose and xylitol). Dietary fat is known to increase the intensity of sweet taste. These results suggest that the sweet taste of Wagyu beef is due to the synergetic effects of higher sugar components and intramuscular fat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomic Applications in Animal Science)
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12 pages, 797 KiB  
Communication
Effect of Gender, Rearing, and Cooking on the Metabolomic Profile of Porcine Muscles
by Shoko Sawano, Keishi Oza, Tetsuya Murakami, Mako Nakamura, Ryuichi Tatsumi and Wataru Mizunoya
Metabolites 2020, 10(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10010010 - 22 Dec 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2700
Abstract
To clarify the relationship between the fiber type composition and meat quality, we performed metabolomic analysis using porcine longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles. In the LD of pigs raised outdoors, the expression of myosin heavy chain (MyHC)1 (slow-twitch fiber marker protein) was significantly increased [...] Read more.
To clarify the relationship between the fiber type composition and meat quality, we performed metabolomic analysis using porcine longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles. In the LD of pigs raised outdoors, the expression of myosin heavy chain (MyHC)1 (slow-twitch fiber marker protein) was significantly increased compared with that of MyHC1 in pigs raised in an indoor pen, suggesting that rearing outdoors could be considered as an exercise treatment. These LD samples were subjected to metabolomic analysis for examining the profile of most primary and secondary metabolites. We found that the sex of the animal and exercise stimulation had a strong influence on the metabolomic profile in the porcine skeletal muscles, and this difference in the metabolomic profile is likely in part due to the changes in the muscle fiber type. We also examined the effects of cooking (70 °C for 1 h). The effect of exercise on the metabolomic profile was also maintained in the cooked muscle tissues. Cooking treatment resulted in an increase in some of the metabolite levels while decreasing in some other metabolite levels. Thus, our study could indicate the effect of the sex of the animal, exercise stimulus, and cooking on the metabolomic profile of pork meat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomic Applications in Animal Science)
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17 pages, 1849 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Lipid Profiles after Dietary Intake of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Using Integrated Untargeted and Targeted Lipidomics
by Satoko Naoe, Hiroshi Tsugawa, Mikiko Takahashi, Kazutaka Ikeda and Makoto Arita
Metabolites 2019, 9(10), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo9100241 - 21 Oct 2019
Cited by 51 | Viewed by 7577
Abstract
Illuminating the comprehensive lipid profiles after dietary supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is crucial to revealing the tissue distribution of PUFAs in living organisms, as well as to providing novel insights into lipid metabolism. Here, we performed lipidomic analyses on mouse plasma [...] Read more.
Illuminating the comprehensive lipid profiles after dietary supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is crucial to revealing the tissue distribution of PUFAs in living organisms, as well as to providing novel insights into lipid metabolism. Here, we performed lipidomic analyses on mouse plasma and nine tissues, including the liver, kidney, brain, white adipose, heart, lung, small intestine, skeletal muscle, and spleen, with the dietary intake conditions of arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as the ethyl ester form. We incorporated targeted and untargeted approaches for profiling oxylipins and complex lipids such as glycerol (phospho) lipids, sphingolipids, and sterols, respectively, which led to the characterization of 1026 lipid molecules from the mouse tissues. The lipidomic analysis indicated that the intake of PUFAs strongly impacted the lipid profiles of metabolic organs such as the liver and kidney, while causing less impact on the brain. Moreover, we revealed a unique lipid modulation in most tissues, where phospholipids containing linoleic acid were significantly decreased in mice on the ARA-supplemented diet, and bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP) selectively incorporated DHA over ARA and EPA. We comprehensively studied the lipid profiles after dietary intake of PUFAs, which gives insight into lipid metabolism and nutrition research on PUFA supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomic Applications in Animal Science)
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12 pages, 450 KiB  
Article
Metabolomics Approach Reveals the Effects of Breed and Feed on the Composition of Chicken Eggs
by Tatsuhiko Goto, Hiroki Mori, Shunsuke Shiota and Shozo Tomonaga
Metabolites 2019, 9(10), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo9100224 - 13 Oct 2019
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4721
Abstract
Chicken eggs provide essential nutrients to consumers around the world. Although both genetic and environmental factors influence the quality of eggs, it is unclear how these factors affect the egg traits including egg metabolites. In this study, we investigated breed and feed effects [...] Read more.
Chicken eggs provide essential nutrients to consumers around the world. Although both genetic and environmental factors influence the quality of eggs, it is unclear how these factors affect the egg traits including egg metabolites. In this study, we investigated breed and feed effects on 10 egg traits, using two breeds (Rhode Island Red and Australorp) and two feed conditions (mixed feed and fermented feed). We also used gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS/MS) to analyze 138 yolk and 132 albumen metabolites. Significant breed effects were found on yolk weight, eggshell weight, eggshell colors, and one albumen metabolite (ribitol). Three yolk metabolites (erythritol, threitol, and urea) and 12 albumen metabolites (erythritol, threitol, ribitol, linoleic acid, isoleucine, dihydrouracil, 4-hydroxyphenyllactic acid, alanine, glycine, N-butyrylglycine, pyruvic acid, and valine) were significantly altered by feed, and a significant interaction between breed and feed was discovered in one albumen metabolite (N-butyrylglycine). Yolk and albumin had higher levels of sugar alcohols when hens were fed a fermented diet, which indicates that sugar alcohol content can be transferred from diet into eggs. Linoleic acid was also enriched in albumen under fermented feed conditions. This study shows that yolk and albumen metabolites will be affected by breed and feed, which is the first step towards manipulating genetic and environmental factors to create “designer eggs.” Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomic Applications in Animal Science)
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Review

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23 pages, 1537 KiB  
Review
MEATabolomics: Muscle and Meat Metabolomics in Domestic Animals
by Susumu Muroya, Shuji Ueda, Tomohiko Komatsu, Takuya Miyakawa and Per Ertbjerg
Metabolites 2020, 10(5), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10050188 - 11 May 2020
Cited by 86 | Viewed by 7002
Abstract
In the past decades, metabolomics has been used to comprehensively understand a variety of food materials for improvement and assessment of food quality. Farm animal skeletal muscles and meat are one of the major targets of metabolomics for the characterization of meat and [...] Read more.
In the past decades, metabolomics has been used to comprehensively understand a variety of food materials for improvement and assessment of food quality. Farm animal skeletal muscles and meat are one of the major targets of metabolomics for the characterization of meat and the exploration of biomarkers in the production system. For identification of potential biomarkers to control meat quality, studies of animal muscles and meat with metabolomics (MEATabolomics) has been conducted in combination with analyses of meat quality traits, focusing on specific factors associated with animal genetic background and sensory scores, or conditions in feeding system and treatments of meat in the processes such as postmortem storage, processing, and hygiene control. Currently, most of MEATabolomics approaches combine separation techniques (gas or liquid chromatography, and capillary electrophoresis)–mass spectrometry (MS) or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) approaches with the downstream multivariate analyses, depending on the polarity and/or hydrophobicity of the targeted metabolites. Studies employing these approaches provide useful information to monitor meat quality traits efficiently and to understand the genetic background and production system of animals behind the meat quality. MEATabolomics is expected to improve the knowledge and methodologies in animal breeding and feeding, meat storage and processing, and prediction of meat quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomic Applications in Animal Science)
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