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Coatings, Volume 11, Issue 11 (November 2021) – 165 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Superhydrophobic surfaces have captured the attention of both the research and industry community owing to the wide range of potential applications. Nevertheless, there is a need to find simpler production methods that can be adapted to industrial needs. For this reason, the development of relationships between synthesis methods and specific surface properties such as morphology and roughness is considered crucial for hydrophobic surface performance. Superhydrophobic copper was prepared by means of solution immersion and surface self-assembly methods. Wetting characteristics and chemical stability were evaluated by means of static contact angle and electrochemical corrosion. View this paper
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11 pages, 603 KiB  
Article
Application of Auricularia cornea as a Pork Fat Replacement in Cooked Sausage
by Yuan Fu, Long Zhang, Mengdi Cong, Kang Wan, Guochuan Jiang, Siqi Dai, Liyan Wang and Xuejun Liu
Coatings 2021, 11(11), 1432; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111432 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2021
Abstract
The effect of Auriculariacornea (AC) as an alternative for pork fat on the physico-chemical properties and sensory characteristics of cooked sausage were evaluated. The results indicated that replacement of pork fat with AC led to a significant increase in the protein, ash, [...] Read more.
The effect of Auriculariacornea (AC) as an alternative for pork fat on the physico-chemical properties and sensory characteristics of cooked sausage were evaluated. The results indicated that replacement of pork fat with AC led to a significant increase in the protein, ash, moisture, cooking loss, water holding capacity, springiness, and chewiness, especially isoleucine, leucine, proline, palmitic, palmitoleic, oleic, and arachidonic acids of the sausages. In contrast, AC reduced the level of fat (12.61%–87.56%) and energy (5.76%–56.40%) of the sausages. In addition, AC led to the mild lightness, yellowness, whiteness, and soft texture, while it did not affect the water activity of the sausages. From the sensory point of view, all sausages were judged acceptable, and the substitution of 75% of pork fat by AC exhibited best sensory characteristics. In a word, AC is a promising food to partially replace the pork fat in sausages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coatings on Food Packaging and Shelf Life)
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17 pages, 3787 KiB  
Article
Solution-Processed All-Solid-State Electrochromic Devices Based on SnO2/NiO doped with Tin
by Gieun Kim, Songeun Hong, Suho Yoo and Jongwoon Park
Coatings 2021, 11(11), 1431; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111431 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2657
Abstract
We investigated the photochromic (PC) and electrochromic (EC) properties of tin-doped nickel oxide (NiO) thin films for solution-processable all-solid-state EC devices. The PC effect is shown to be enhanced by the addition of Sn into the precursor NiO solution. We fabricated an EC [...] Read more.
We investigated the photochromic (PC) and electrochromic (EC) properties of tin-doped nickel oxide (NiO) thin films for solution-processable all-solid-state EC devices. The PC effect is shown to be enhanced by the addition of Sn into the precursor NiO solution. We fabricated an EC device with six layers—ITO/TiO2 (counter electrode)/SnO2 (ion-conducting layer)/SiO2 (barrier)/NiO doped with tin (EC layer)/ITO—by a hybrid fabrication process (sputtering for ITO and TiO2, sol–gel spin coating for SnO2 and NiO). The EC effect was also observed to be improved with the Sn-doped NiO layer. It was demonstrated that UV/O3 treatment is one of the critical processes that determine the EC performance of the hydroxide ion-based device. UV/O3 treatment generates hydroxide ions, induces phase separation from a single mixture of SnO2 and silicone oil, and improves the surface morphology of the films, thereby boosting the performance of EC devices. EC performance can be enhanced further by optimizing the thickness of TiO2 and SiO2 layers. Specifically, the SiO2 barrier blocks the transport of charges, bringing in an increase in anodic coloration. We achieved the transmittance modulation of 38.3% and the coloration efficiency of 39.7 cm2/C. We also evaluated the heat resistance of the all-solid-state EC device and found that the transmittance modulation was decreased by 36% from its initial value at 100 °C. Furthermore, we demonstrated that a large-area EC device can be fabricated using slot-die coating without much compromise on EC performance. Full article
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16 pages, 7702 KiB  
Article
Deposition, Morphological, and Mechanical Evaluation of W and Be-Al2O3 and Er2O3 Co-Sputtered Films in Comparison with Pure Oxides
by Mihail Lungu, Cornel Staicu, Flaviu Baiasu, Alexandru Marin, Bogdan Butoi, Daniel Cristea, Oana Gloria Pompilian, Claudiu Locovei and Corneliu Porosnicu
Coatings 2021, 11(11), 1430; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111430 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2341
Abstract
Compact and defect-free high melting point oxide strengthened metallic matrix configurations are promising to resolve the hydrogen permeation and brittleness issues relevant to the fusion research community. Previous studies on oxide addition to metallic matrix demonstrated a mitigation in brittleness behavior, while deposition [...] Read more.
Compact and defect-free high melting point oxide strengthened metallic matrix configurations are promising to resolve the hydrogen permeation and brittleness issues relevant to the fusion research community. Previous studies on oxide addition to metallic matrix demonstrated a mitigation in brittleness behavior, while deposition techniques and material configurations are still to be investigated. Thus, here, we report the structural, morphological, and mechanical characterization of metal-oxides thin layers co-deposited by radio frequency (RF)and direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering. A total of six configurations were deposited such as single thin layers of oxides (Al2O3, Er2O3) and co-deposition configurations as metal-oxides (W, Be)—(Al2O3, Er2O3). The study of films roughness by atomic force microscopy (AFM) method show that for Al2O3 metallic-oxides is increased to an extent that could favor gaseous trapping, while co-depositions with Be seem to promote an increased roughness and defects formation probability compared to W co-depositions. Lower elastic modulus on metal-oxide co-depositions was observed, while the indentation hardness increased for Be and decreased for W matrix configurations. These outputs are highly relevant for choosing the proper compact and trap-free configuration that could be categorized as a permeation barrier for hydrogen and furtherly studied in laborious permeation yield campaigns. Full article
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17 pages, 23254 KiB  
Article
On Soliton Solutions of Perturbed Boussinesq and KdV-Caudery-Dodd-Gibbon Equations
by Muhammad Imran Asjad, Hamood Ur Rehman, Zunaira Ishfaq, Jan Awrejcewicz, Ali Akgül and Muhammad Bilal Riaz
Coatings 2021, 11(11), 1429; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111429 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1882
Abstract
Nonlinear science is a fundamental science frontier that includes research in the common properties of nonlinear phenomena. This article is devoted for the study of new extended hyperbolic function method (EHFM) to attain the exact soliton solutions of the perturbed Boussinesq equation (PBE) [...] Read more.
Nonlinear science is a fundamental science frontier that includes research in the common properties of nonlinear phenomena. This article is devoted for the study of new extended hyperbolic function method (EHFM) to attain the exact soliton solutions of the perturbed Boussinesq equation (PBE) and KdV–Caudery–Dodd–Gibbon (KdV-CDG) equation. We can claim that these solutions are new and are not previously presented in the literature. In addition, 2d and 3d graphics are drawn to exhibit the physical behavior of obtained new exact solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanofluidics: Interfacial Transport Phenomena)
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14 pages, 5274 KiB  
Article
Investigations on the Influence of Annealing on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Electrodeposited Ni-Mo and Ni-Mo-W Alloy Coatings
by Chao Zhang, Wudong Si, Yin Wang, Sichao Dai and Da Shu
Coatings 2021, 11(11), 1428; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111428 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2632
Abstract
Ni-Mo and Ni-Mo-W coatings were electrodeposited on a stainless steel sheet, and then were annealed at 200, 400, and 600 °C. The effect of annealing heat treatment on the microstructure of Ni-Mo and Ni-Mo-W electrodepositions, their nano-hardness, and tribological properties were investigated. It [...] Read more.
Ni-Mo and Ni-Mo-W coatings were electrodeposited on a stainless steel sheet, and then were annealed at 200, 400, and 600 °C. The effect of annealing heat treatment on the microstructure of Ni-Mo and Ni-Mo-W electrodepositions, their nano-hardness, and tribological properties were investigated. It was revealed that the average crystalline are refined and phase separation are promoted with formation of Mo-W related intermetallic precipitates at temperature exceed 400 °C on account of the co-existence of Mo-W elements within Ni-Mo-W coatings. Annealing heat treatment leads to hardening, and the hardness and elastic module increase significantly. The grain boundary (GB) relaxation and hard precipitated intermetallic particles are responsible for the annealing-induced hardening for ≤400 °C annealed and 600 °C annealed Ni-Mo-W coatings, respectively. In addition, both adhesive wear and abrasive wear are observed for coatings, and abrasive wear becomes predominant when annealing temperature up to 600 °C. The wear resistance of coatings is improved eventually by formation of a mixture of lubricated oxides upon annealing at 600 °C and the enhancement of H/E ratio for ≤400 °C annealed Ni-Mo-W coatings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art on Coatings Research in Asia)
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13 pages, 5100 KiB  
Article
PLGA Coatings and PLGA Drug-Loading Coatings for Cardiac Stent Samples: Degradation Characteristics and Blood Compatibility
by Ziyang Jia, Chunyang Ma and Hongbin Zhang
Coatings 2021, 11(11), 1427; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111427 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2921
Abstract
PLGA (Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid) and PLGA drug-loading coatings were prepared on 316 L stainless steel by electrostatic spray deposition (ESD). The surface morphology, three-dimensional morphology, and crystal structures of the coatings were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and [...] Read more.
PLGA (Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid) and PLGA drug-loading coatings were prepared on 316 L stainless steel by electrostatic spray deposition (ESD). The surface morphology, three-dimensional morphology, and crystal structures of the coatings were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Thermal properties, molecular weight, and coating composition were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and NMR. The degradation behaviors of the coatings were studied by mass changes, relative molecular mass and distributions, polymer compositions, thermal properties, and surface morphologies. The blood compatibilities of the coatings were investigated by platelet adhesion testing and dynamic coagulation times. SEM results indicated the drug-loading coating with 33% RAPA had the smoothest and most compact morphology. Addition of RAPA decreased the Tg of the PLGA coating, accompanied by partial crystallization that slowed the degradation rate of the drug-loaded coating. Microscopically, the morphology of the PLGA drug-loaded coating was coarser than the PLGA coating. The average surface roughness values of line and surface scannings were 16.232 nm and 39.538 nm, respectively. The surface of the drug-loading coating was micro uneven, and the macro smooth and micro multiphase separation structure helped improve its blood compatibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art on Coatings Research in Asia)
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13 pages, 3540 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Acid-Etching on Grit-Blasted Dental Implants to Improve Osseointegration: Histomorphometric Analysis of the Bone-Implant Contact in the Rabbit Tibia Model
by Blanca Ríos-Carrasco, Bernardo Ferreira Lemos, Mariano Herrero-Climent, F. Javier Gil Mur and Jose Vicente Ríos-Santos
Coatings 2021, 11(11), 1426; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111426 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2608
Abstract
Previous studies have shown that the most reliable way to evaluate the success of an implant is by bone-to-implant contact (BIC). Recent techniques allow modifications to the implant surface that improve mechanical and biological characteristics, and also upgrade osseointegration. Objective: The aim was [...] Read more.
Previous studies have shown that the most reliable way to evaluate the success of an implant is by bone-to-implant contact (BIC). Recent techniques allow modifications to the implant surface that improve mechanical and biological characteristics, and also upgrade osseointegration. Objective: The aim was to evaluate the osseointegration in rabbit tibia of two different titanium dental implant surfaces: shot-blasted with Al2O3 (SB) and the same treatment with an acid-etching by immersion for 15 s in HCl/H2SO4 (SB + AE). Material and methods: Roughness parameters (Ra, Rt, and Rz) were determined by white light interferometer microscopy. Surface wettability was evaluated with a contact angle video-based system using water, di-iodomethane, and formamide. Surface free energy was determined by means of Owens and Wendt equations. Scanning electron microscopy equipped with X-ray microanalysis was used to study the morphology and determine the chemical composition of the surfaces. Twenty-four grade 4 titanium dental implants (Essential Klockner®) were implanted in the rabbit’s tibia, 12 for each surface treatment, using six rabbits. Six weeks later the rabbits were sacrificed and the implants were sent for histologic analysis. Resonance frequency analysis (RFA) was recorded both at the time of surgery and the end of the research with each device (Osstell Mentor and Osstell ISQ). Results: The roughness measurements between the two treatments did not show statistically significant differences. However, the effect of the acid etching made the surface slightly more hydrophilic (decreasing contact angle from 74.7 for SB to 64.3 for SB + AE) and it presented a higher surface energy. The bone-to-implant contact ratio (BIC %) showed a similar tendency, with 55.18 ± 15.67 and 59.9 ± 13.15 for SB and SB + AE implants, respectively. After 6 weeks of healing, the SB + AE showed an implant stability quotient (ISQ) value of 76 ± 4.47 and the shot-blasted one an ISQ value of 75.83 ± 8.44 (no statistically significant difference). Implants with different surface properties had distinctive forms of behavior regarding osseointegration. Furthermore, the Osstell system was an invasive and reliable method to measure implant stability. Conclusion: Both surfaces of implants studied showed high osseointegration. The SB and SB + AE implants used in our study had similar behavior both in terms of BIC values and RFA. The RFA systems in Osstell Mentor and Osstell ISQ confirmed nearly perfect reproducibility and repeatability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advanced in Titanium-Based Coatings)
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13 pages, 3452 KiB  
Article
Corrosion and Biocompatibility of Pure Zn with a Micro-Arc-Oxidized Layer Coated with Calcium Phosphate
by Yixuan Shi, Lijing Yang, Lucai Wang, Qingke Zhang, Xinglong Zhu, Wensheng Sun, Jianwei Shen, Ting Lu, Zhenlun Song and Huinan Liu
Coatings 2021, 11(11), 1425; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111425 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2367
Abstract
Recent studies have indicated a great demand to optimize the biocompatibility properties of pure Zn as an implant material. For this purpose, CaZn2(PO4)2·2H2O (CaZnP) was prepared using hydrothermal treatment (HT) combined with micro-arc oxidation (MAO) [...] Read more.
Recent studies have indicated a great demand to optimize the biocompatibility properties of pure Zn as an implant material. For this purpose, CaZn2(PO4)2·2H2O (CaZnP) was prepared using hydrothermal treatment (HT) combined with micro-arc oxidation (MAO) on pure Zn substrate to generate biodegradable implants. The polarization test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicated that the MAO1−HT coating could modulate the corrosion behavior of MAO1 by filling the crevice between the coating and the substrate. Immersion test evaluation revealed that the osteogenic properties of MAO1−HT coating were better than that of pure Zn substrate, as evidenced by the molar ratio of Ca and P, which increased after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) for up to 10 days. In addition, L-929 cells cultured in the 100%, 50%, and 25% extracts of MAO1−HT coated samples exhibited excellent cytocompatibility. Meanwhile, cell adhesion was promoted on the surface with high roughness generated during MAO and HT processes. In summary, the calcified coatings improved biocompatibility and adjusted the degradation rates of pure Zn, broadening the application of Zn alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Function Enhancement Film and Coating Technology)
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15 pages, 3978 KiB  
Article
Sialon and Alumina Modified UV-Curable Coatings with Improved Mechanical Properties and Hydrophobicity
by Mariola Robakowska, Łukasz Gierz and Hubert Gojzewski
Coatings 2021, 11(11), 1424; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111424 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2056
Abstract
This article describes the modification of UV-curable coatings with silicon aluminum oxynitride (Sialon) and aluminum oxide (Alu C), which improve the hydrophobicity of the coating surface and the scratch hardness. The contact angle is greater due to surface roughness being enhanced with inorganic [...] Read more.
This article describes the modification of UV-curable coatings with silicon aluminum oxynitride (Sialon) and aluminum oxide (Alu C), which improve the hydrophobicity of the coating surface and the scratch hardness. The contact angle is greater due to surface roughness being enhanced with inorganic fillers. Improved scratch resistance results from the formation of a sliding layer triggered by the diffusion of Sialon or alumina on the coating surface. One can observed an increase in the surface hydrophobicity as well as in the scratch hardness (up to 100%) when small amounts (5 wt.%) of the inorganic compounds are added. Imaging microscopies, i.e., SEM, OM, and AFM (with nanoscopic Young’s modulus determination), revealed the good distribution of both types of fillers in the studied matrix. Full article
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23 pages, 1715 KiB  
Review
Overview of Bioplastic Introduction and Its Applications in Product Packaging
by Nor Izaida Ibrahim, Farah Syazwani Shahar, Mohamed Thariq Hameed Sultan, Ain Umaira Md Shah, Syafiqah Nur Azrie Safri and Muhamad Hasfanizam Mat Yazik
Coatings 2021, 11(11), 1423; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111423 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 85 | Viewed by 21642
Abstract
Each year, more than 330 million tons of plastic are produced worldwide. The main consumers of plastics are the packaging (40%), building (20%) and automotive (8%) industries, as well as for the manufacture of household appliances. The vast majority of industrial plastics are [...] Read more.
Each year, more than 330 million tons of plastic are produced worldwide. The main consumers of plastics are the packaging (40%), building (20%) and automotive (8%) industries, as well as for the manufacture of household appliances. The vast majority of industrial plastics are not biodegradable and, therefore, create environmental problems due to the increase in the amount of solid waste. Studies have been conducted to produce biodegradable materials such as bioplastics to overcome this environmental problem. Bioplastics are defined as materials that are bio-based, biodegradable, or both; they can provide excellent biodegradability and can be used to help alleviate environmental problems. Therefore, this article presents an overview of the introduction of bioplastic materials and classifications, and a comprehensive review of their drawbacks and areas of importance, including basic and applied research, as well as biopolymer mixtures and biocomposites developed in the last decade. At the same time, this article provides insights into the development of bioplastics research to meet the needs of many industries, especially in the packaging industry in Malaysia. This review paper also focuses generally on bioplastic packaging applications such as food and beverage, healthcare, cosmetics, etc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Coating for Packaging Applications)
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19 pages, 6266 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Anticorrosion Properties through Structured Particle Design of Waterborne Epoxy-Styrene-Acrylate Composite Emulsion
by Kai Zhang, Xifang Chen, Yuling Xiao, Rujia Liu and Jie Liu
Coatings 2021, 11(11), 1422; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111422 - 21 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2416
Abstract
In order to develop a waterborne epoxy-styrene–acrylate composite latex with a better stability and anticorrosion resistance, a novel synthetic approach has been proposed. First, modified by methyl acrylic, epoxy resin containing terminal C=C double bonds was successfully synthesized, where epoxide groups were partially [...] Read more.
In order to develop a waterborne epoxy-styrene–acrylate composite latex with a better stability and anticorrosion resistance, a novel synthetic approach has been proposed. First, modified by methyl acrylic, epoxy resin containing terminal C=C double bonds was successfully synthesized, where epoxide groups were partially retained. Then, by structural design and multi-stage seed emulsion copolymerization, a stable waterborne epoxy-styrene-acrylate composite latex composed of a modified epoxy resin acrylate polymer as the core, inert polystyrene ester as the intermediate layer, and carboxyl acrylate polymer as the shell was successfully fabricated. The structure of the obtained latex was characterized by fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The stability of the composite latex was tested based on the wet gel weight, Zeta potential, and storage stability, and the corrosion resistance of the composite latex films was analyzed by electrochemical measurements and salt spray tests. The thickness of each layer of the composite latex was calculated by the temperature random multi-frequency modulation DSC (TOPEM-DSC) technique. In addition to the successful emulsion copolymerization that occurred between the modified epoxy resin and acrylate monomer, the presence of carboxyl groups in the obtained latex was evidenced, while the epoxide groups were partially retained. The anticorrosion resistance and stability of the multilayer composite latex with the intermediate layer are better than that of the conventional core-shell latex. The outstanding stability and corrosion resistance is attributed to the multilayer core-shell structure. The TOPEM-DSC approach can accurately determine the thickness of the intermediate layer in the multilayer core-shell particles and is a new strategy for characterizing the core-shell structure of polymer particles with a similar monomer composition. Full article
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11 pages, 5589 KiB  
Article
Non-Destructive Evaluation of Coating Thickness Using Water Immersion Ultrasonic Testing
by Jiannan Zhang, Younho Cho, Jeongnam Kim, Azamatjon Kakhramon ugli Malikov, Young H. Kim, Jin-Hak Yi and Weibin Li
Coatings 2021, 11(11), 1421; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111421 - 20 Nov 2021
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 4277
Abstract
The coating is applied to prevent corrosion on the surface of ships or marine structures, and the thickness of the coating affects its anti-corrosion effect. As a result, non-destructive testing (NDT) is required to measure coating thickness, and ultrasonic NDT is a convenient [...] Read more.
The coating is applied to prevent corrosion on the surface of ships or marine structures, and the thickness of the coating affects its anti-corrosion effect. As a result, non-destructive testing (NDT) is required to measure coating thickness, and ultrasonic NDT is a convenient and quick way to measure the thickness of underwater coatings. However, the offshore coating’s energy attenuation and absorption rates are high, the ultrasonic pulse echo test is difficult, and the testing environment is harsh. Because of the coating’s high attenuation, the distance of the optimal water delay line designed based on the reflection coefficient of the vertically incident wave is used. To accurately measure the thickness of the coating material, TOF of the reflected echo on the time-domain waveform was evaluated. The experimental results show that, when compared to caliper measurements, the coating thickness measured by the proposed method has a lower error and can be used for accurate measurement. The use of ultrasonic water immersion measurement is almost limitless in terms of size, location, and material of the object to be measured, and it is expected to be used to measure the thickness of the surface coating of ships or marine structures in the water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Nondestructive Evaluation and Characterization of Surface)
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8 pages, 2932 KiB  
Article
Data Analysis of Two-Phase Flow Simulation Experiment of Array Optical Fiber and Array Resistance Probe
by Shuaifei Cui, Junfeng Liu, Kui Li and Qinze Li
Coatings 2021, 11(11), 1420; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111420 - 20 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1620
Abstract
To solve the problem that traditional single-probe instruments cannot accurately measure the gas and water holdup, the domestic design of the array holdup measuring instrument Array of Optical and Resistance Tool (AORT), composed of five sets of optical fiber probes and five sets [...] Read more.
To solve the problem that traditional single-probe instruments cannot accurately measure the gas and water holdup, the domestic design of the array holdup measuring instrument Array of Optical and Resistance Tool (AORT), composed of five sets of optical fiber probes and five sets of resistance probes, is carried out in both gas–water and oil–water. Simulated measurement experiments were conducted under different water cut in phase flow. Through the analysis of the experimental data, the response relationship between the optical fiber probe and the resistance probe of the AORT instrument in different fluids was obtained. Then, the data under different conditions of fluid, flowrate and water cut in the experiment were compared by drawing. Interpolation algorithm was used to perform two-maintenance holdup imaging, and finally the holdup image was compared with the pictures of the flow in the pipe recorded during the experiment. The results show that the resistance probe has a better response under low water cut conditions, and the optical fiber probe has a better response under high gas cut conditions, which is consistent with the theoretical analysis. The imaging diagram and the flow pattern in the pipe during the experiment are in good agreement. It can be seen that the accuracy of the holdup measured by the AORT instrument under the test conditions is verified, and can provide technical support for further carrying out the measurement and interpretation of the holdup in future, as well as the improvement of the instrument and on-site testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro-Nano Optics and Its Applications)
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10 pages, 6371 KiB  
Article
Degradation Mechanisms Occurring in PTFE-Based Coatings Employed in Food-Processing Applications
by Alfredo Rondinella, Francesco Andreatta, Daniele Turrin and Lorenzo Fedrizzi
Coatings 2021, 11(11), 1419; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111419 - 20 Nov 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3607
Abstract
The application of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coatings to metal surfaces is a well-known procedure carried out to avoid fouling phenomena on food-processing surfaces. Fluorine-based polymers are generally chemically and thermally stable, thus allowing them to be the preferred choice when designing anti-stick coatings in [...] Read more.
The application of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coatings to metal surfaces is a well-known procedure carried out to avoid fouling phenomena on food-processing surfaces. Fluorine-based polymers are generally chemically and thermally stable, thus allowing them to be the preferred choice when designing anti-stick coatings in the food service industry. Their lifespan, however, depends on the environmental conditions. It is well known that thermal ageing can affect the properties of PTFE polymers and reduce their mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties causing failures and contaminating food. The main goal of the study is to identify the different failure mechanisms occurring in PTFE-based coatings, using both SEM/EDXS and ATR FT-IR data to reveal the starting point of degradation phenomena in food processing applications. The results from this research reveal that the preferential points for failures are mainly the polymer/substrate interfaces, the polymer/filler interfaces, or the polymer matrix itself. Full article
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12 pages, 6849 KiB  
Article
Obliquely Bideposited TiN Thin Film with Morphology-Dependent Optical Properties
by Yi-Jun Jen, Wei-Chieh Ma and Ting-Yen Lin
Coatings 2021, 11(11), 1418; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111418 - 20 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1735
Abstract
TiN thin films were obliquely bideposited with different subdeposit thicknesses. The morphology of the bideposited film was varied from a nano-zigzag array to a vertically grown columnar structure by reducing the subdeposit thickness. The principal index of refraction and extinction coefficient were obtained [...] Read more.
TiN thin films were obliquely bideposited with different subdeposit thicknesses. The morphology of the bideposited film was varied from a nano-zigzag array to a vertically grown columnar structure by reducing the subdeposit thickness. The principal index of refraction and extinction coefficient were obtained to explain the measured reflectance and transmittance spectra. The loss of the bideposited thin film decreased as the thickness of the subdeposit decreased. The principal indices for normal incidence were near or under unity, indicating the low reflection by the bideposited thin films. A TiN film with a subdeposit thickness of 3 nm demonstrated an average index of refraction of 0.83 and extinction coefficient of below 0.2 for visible wavelengths. The retrieved principal refractive indexes explained the anisotropic transmission and reflection. For most normal incident cases, the analysis offers the tunable anisotropic property of a TiN nanostructured film for multilayer design in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glancing Angle Deposited and Anisotropic Thin Films and Coatings)
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18 pages, 5096 KiB  
Article
Corrosion Behavior of Chromium Coated Zy-4 Cladding under CANDU Primary Circuit Conditions
by Diana Diniasi, Florentina Golgovici, Alexandru Anghel, Manuela Fulger, Carmen Cristina Surdu-Bob and Ioana Demetrescu
Coatings 2021, 11(11), 1417; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111417 - 20 Nov 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2180
Abstract
The manuscript is focused on corrosion behavior of a Cr coating under CANada Deuterium Uranium(CANDU) primary circuit conditions. The Cr coating is obtained via the thermionic vacuum arc procedure on Zircaloy -4 cladding. The surface coating characterization was performed using metallographic analysis and [...] Read more.
The manuscript is focused on corrosion behavior of a Cr coating under CANada Deuterium Uranium(CANDU) primary circuit conditions. The Cr coating is obtained via the thermionic vacuum arc procedure on Zircaloy -4 cladding. The surface coating characterization was performed using metallographic analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with an energy dispersive spectra detector (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) investigations. The thickness of the Cr coating determined from SEM images is around 500 nm layers After the autoclaving period, the thickness of the samples increased in time slowly. The kinetic of oxidation established a logarithmic oxidation law. The corrosion tests for various autoclaving periods of time include electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic tests, permitting computing porosity and efficiency of protection. All surface investigations sustain electrochemical results and promote the Cr coating on Zircaloy-4 alloy autoclaved for 3024 h as the best corrosion resistance based on decrease in corrosion current density values simultaneously with the increase of the time spent in autoclave. A slow increase of Vickers micro hardness was observed as a function of the autoclaved period as well. The value reached for 3024 h being 219 Kgf/mm2 compared with 210 Kgf/mm2 value before autoclaving. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coatings for Accident Tolerant Fuel Claddings)
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8 pages, 6395 KiB  
Article
A Novel Technique for Controllable Fabrication of Multilayer Copper/Brass Block
by Jiansheng Li, Zhongchen Zhou, Tong Liu, Yu Zhao, Yan Lu, Ming Chen, Xiaozhen Wang, Gang Wang and Qingzhong Mao
Coatings 2021, 11(11), 1416; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111416 - 20 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2232
Abstract
Fabricating a dissimilar-metal block with micro/nano-multilayered structures is usually used by engineers and scientists because of their excellent mechanical properties. In the current work, multilayered copper/brass blocks were effectively fabricated by a synthetical DWFR technique, which includes the processes of diffusion welding, forging [...] Read more.
Fabricating a dissimilar-metal block with micro/nano-multilayered structures is usually used by engineers and scientists because of their excellent mechanical properties. In the current work, multilayered copper/brass blocks were effectively fabricated by a synthetical DWFR technique, which includes the processes of diffusion welding, forging and rolling. Diffusion welding was used as the first operation to metallurgically bond the copper and brass sheets, with a Zn diffusion transition layer (thickness of ~100 μm), which can guarantee the bonding strength of copper/brass interfaces during the subsequent forging and rolling processes. After diffusion welding, the original copper/brass blocks were required to be forged, with its total thickness reduced to ~10 mm. This can further restrain the delamination of copper and brass layers during the final rolling process. Rolling was utilized as the ideal operation that can precisely tune the thickness of copper/brass laminate. This novel DWFR technique can easily tune the multilayered copper/brass blocks with controllable layer thickness (from ~250 to ~800 nm). The copper/brass interfaces were well-bonded, and the utilization efficiency of raw materials was very high (>95%). Full article
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21 pages, 9280 KiB  
Article
Formation of Solid Lubricants during High Temperature Tribology of Silver-Doped Molybdenum Nitride Coatings Deposited by dcMS and HIPIMS
by Martin Fenker, Martin Balzer, Sabine Kellner, Tomas Polcar, Andreas Richter, Frank Schmidl and Tomas Vitu
Coatings 2021, 11(11), 1415; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111415 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2272
Abstract
The coating system MoN-Ag is an interesting candidate for industrial applications as a low friction coating at elevated temperatures, due to the formation of lubricous molybdenum oxides and silver molybdates. Film deposition was performed by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering and direct current magnetron [...] Read more.
The coating system MoN-Ag is an interesting candidate for industrial applications as a low friction coating at elevated temperatures, due to the formation of lubricous molybdenum oxides and silver molybdates. Film deposition was performed by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering and direct current magnetron sputtering. To facilitate a future transfer to industry Mo-Ag composite targets have been sputtered in Ar/N2 atmosphere. The chemical composition of the deposited MoN-Ag films has been investigated by wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Morphology and crystallographic phases of the films were studied by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. To obtain film hardness in relation to Ag content and bias voltage, the instrumented indentation test was applied. Pin-on-disc tribological tests have been performed at room temperature and at high temperature (HT, 450 °C). Samples from HT tests have been analyzed by Raman measurements to identify possible molybdenum oxide and/or silver molybdate phases. At low Ag contents (≤7 at.%), coatings with a hardness of 18–31 GPa could be deposited. Friction coefficients at HT decreased with increasing Ag content. After these tests, Raman measurements revealed the MoO3 phase on all samples and the Ag2Mo4O13 phase for the highest Ag contents (~23–26 at.%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hard Coatings for Surface Engineering Solutions)
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21 pages, 27954 KiB  
Article
Electroplating of Pure Aluminum from [HMIm][TFSI]–AlCl3 Room-Temperature Ionic Liquid
by Yarden Melamed, Nabasmita Maity, Louisa Meshi and Noam Eliaz
Coatings 2021, 11(11), 1414; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111414 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3514
Abstract
Electrodeposition of aluminum and its alloys is of great interest in the aerospace, automobile, microelectronics, energy, recycle, and other industrial sectors, as well as for defense and, potentially, electrochemical printing applications. Here, for the first time, we report room-temperature electroplating of pure aluminum [...] Read more.
Electrodeposition of aluminum and its alloys is of great interest in the aerospace, automobile, microelectronics, energy, recycle, and other industrial sectors, as well as for defense and, potentially, electrochemical printing applications. Here, for the first time, we report room-temperature electroplating of pure aluminum on copper and nickel substrates from an ionic liquid (IL) consisting of 1-Hexyl-3-methylimidazolium (HMIm) cation and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (TFSI) anion, with a high concentration of 8 mol/L AlCl3 aluminum precursor. The aluminum deposits are shown to have a homogeneous and dense nanocrystalline structure. A quasi-reversible reaction is monitored, where the current is affected by both charge transfer and mass transport. The electrocrystallization of Al on Ni is characterized by instantaneous nucleation. The deposited Al layers are dense, homogeneous, and of good surface coverage. They have a nanocrystalline, single-phase Al (FCC) structure, with a dislocation density typical of Al metal. An increase in the applied cathodic potential from −1.3 to −1.5 V vs. Pt resulted in more than one order of magnitude increase in the deposition rate (to ca. 44 μm per hour), as well as in ca. one order of magnitude finer grain size. The deposition rate is in accordance with typical industrial coating systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments of Electrodeposition Coatings II)
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14 pages, 3078 KiB  
Article
Development of Antimicrobial Cotton Fabric Impregnating AgNPs Utilizing Contemporary Practice
by Md. Reazuddin Repon, Tarikul Islam, Halima Tus Sadia, Daiva Mikučionienė, Shakhawat Hossain, Golam Kibria and Mosab Kaseem
Coatings 2021, 11(11), 1413; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111413 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3145
Abstract
Multifunctional fabrics using conventional processes have piqued increasing global interest. The focus of this experiment was to assess the modification of the cotton fabric surface by utilizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and introducing functional properties along with sustainable dyeing performance. A single-jersey knitted fabric [...] Read more.
Multifunctional fabrics using conventional processes have piqued increasing global interest. The focus of this experiment was to assess the modification of the cotton fabric surface by utilizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and introducing functional properties along with sustainable dyeing performance. A single-jersey knitted fabric composed of cellulose-enriched 100% natural fiber (cotton) with an areal density of 172 GSM was used in this study. The standard recipe and test methods were employed. FTIR-ATR spectra were used to determine the fixing of AgNPs onto the fiber surface. A comparative assessment was conducted in response to the distribution of color, color fastness to wash, water, perspiration, rubbing, and light. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the surface of nano-Ag-deposited specimens. In terms of functional properties, antimicrobial activity was scrutinized. Our findings reveal that the nanoparticles impart remarkable antibacterial effects to cellulose-enriched fabric against S. aureus (Gram-positive) and E. coli (Gram-negative). Direct dyes were used for dyeing the proposed samples, resulting in enhanced dyeing performance. Except for light fastness, the samples dipped with AgNPs showed outstanding color levelness and color durability characteristics. The developed fabrics can be applied in a wide range of functions, including protective clothing, packaging materials, and healthcare, among others. Full article
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13 pages, 5758 KiB  
Article
Influence of Different Acid on the Interfacial Compatibility between Rusted Steel and Water-Based Coating
by Wenbo Li, Yue Jiang, Dingguo Liu, Jiran Zhu, Yi Xie and Lanlan Liu
Coatings 2021, 11(11), 1412; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111412 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1943
Abstract
We aimed to improve the corrosion resistance of transmission network cabinet equipment in high temperature and humidity environment. In this paper, using acid modified acrylic acid as the main component, the composite conversion agent was obtained by adding phosphoric acid phytic acid and [...] Read more.
We aimed to improve the corrosion resistance of transmission network cabinet equipment in high temperature and humidity environment. In this paper, using acid modified acrylic acid as the main component, the composite conversion agent was obtained by adding phosphoric acid phytic acid and other components. Through the surface morphology, electrochemical test and adhesion force test of rust conversion coating, the versatility and corrosion resistance of rust conversion coating on the substrates were analyzed. Combined with zinc phosphate primer, the effect of rust conversion agent on the adhesion and salt spray corrosion resistance of the commercial primers was studied. The composite conversion agent has good effect on atmospheric corrosion rust layer. The corrosion resistance and adhesion force of the atmospheric corrosion rust layer treated with rust conversion agent were significantly increased. The adhesion of zinc phosphate primer on atmospheric corrosion rust coating with rust conversion was three times higher than that of atmospheric corrosion rust coating without rust conversion, respectively. Composite rust conversion agent has broad versatility, which can be used for rust conversion of atmospheric corrosion rust layer. At the same time, it has a good corrosion resistance, that can obviously improve the corrosion potential of the corroded surface and reduce the corrosion current density. In addition, the composite rust conversion agent can significantly improve the adhesion and corrosion resistance of the primer coating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Trends in Corrosion Protection of Steels)
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13 pages, 3275 KiB  
Article
Large Negative Photoresistivity in Amorphous NdNiO3 Film
by Alexandr Stupakov, Tomas Kocourek, Natalia Nepomniashchaia, Marina Tyunina and Alexandr Dejneka
Coatings 2021, 11(11), 1411; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111411 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2044
Abstract
A significant decrease in resistivity by 55% under blue lighting with ~0.4 J·mm−2 energy density is demonstrated in amorphous film of metal-insulator NdNiO3 at room temperature. This large negative photoresistivity contrasts with a small positive photoresistivity of 8% in epitaxial NdNiO [...] Read more.
A significant decrease in resistivity by 55% under blue lighting with ~0.4 J·mm−2 energy density is demonstrated in amorphous film of metal-insulator NdNiO3 at room temperature. This large negative photoresistivity contrasts with a small positive photoresistivity of 8% in epitaxial NdNiO3 film under the same illumination conditions. The magnitude of the photoresistivity rises with the increasing power density or decreasing wavelength of light. By combining the analysis of the observed photoresistive effect with optical absorption and the resistivity of the films as a function of temperature, it is shown that photo-stimulated heating determines the photoresistivity in both types of films. Because amorphous films can be easily grown on a wide range of substrates, the demonstrated large photo(thermo)resistivity in such films is attractive for potential applications, e.g., thermal photodetectors and thermistors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in the Growth and Characterizations of Thin Films)
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10 pages, 7979 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical Investigation of Biosynthesis of a Protein Coating on Glass That Promotes Mammalian Cell Growth Using Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Bacteria
by Kamil Kaminski, Karolina Syrek, Joanna Grudzień, Magdalena Obloza, Monika Adamczyk and Grzegorz D. Sulka
Coatings 2021, 11(11), 1410; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111410 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1795
Abstract
Glass surfaces, although the first to be used for culturing ex vivo adherent cells, are not the perfect substrates for this purpose. Today, plastics dominate these applications, but in light of the global trend to reduce the use of synthetic polymers, it is [...] Read more.
Glass surfaces, although the first to be used for culturing ex vivo adherent cells, are not the perfect substrates for this purpose. Today, plastics dominate these applications, but in light of the global trend to reduce the use of synthetic polymers, it is reasonable to consider a return to glass vessels with coatings for these purposes. The ideal surface for cell growth is one that simulates the composition and structure of the mainly protein-based intercellular matrix. The work presented here shows a new idea of preparing porous protein coatings on glass using biosynthesis. The process utilizes the colonization of the gold nanoparticle-coated glass surface with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG bacteria, followed by permeabilization (using ethanol) of their membrane and partial thermal degradation (at 160 °C in vacuum) of the surface-bound protein components of these microorganisms. It results in a development of coating on the glass that promotes mammalian cell growth, which has been preliminary confirmed using Vero cells. Subsequent steps in the formation of coating components were documented by reflectance ultraviolet and visible spectra and infrared spectroscopy. The presence of microorganisms and mammalian cells was confirmed using scanning electron and optical microscopy and crystalline violet staining. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactive Coatings and Biointerfaces)
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11 pages, 3309 KiB  
Article
Validation of Antibacterial Systems for Sustainable Ceramic Tiles
by Valeria La Torre, Elisa Rambaldi, Giulia Masi, Silvia Nici, Daniele Ghezzi, Martina Cappelletti and Maria Chiara Bignozzi
Coatings 2021, 11(11), 1409; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111409 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2928
Abstract
Ceramic tiles are bacteriostatic materials; however, the COVID-19 emergency has pushed tile producers to improve surfaces’ antibacterial properties. The aim of this work was to validate a silver-based antibacterial treatment applied to porcelain stoneware tiles based on natural and waste materials, thus correlating [...] Read more.
Ceramic tiles are bacteriostatic materials; however, the COVID-19 emergency has pushed tile producers to improve surfaces’ antibacterial properties. The aim of this work was to validate a silver-based antibacterial treatment applied to porcelain stoneware tiles based on natural and waste materials, thus correlating surface functionalization to tile composition and relevant physical, microstructural, and textural parameters. The treatment was applied before firing, with and without a polymeric primer. Antibacterial activity tests, stain resistance tests, and contact angle measurements were carried out on fired tiles. Further investigations were made by SEM and optical profilometry in order to study the morphological–structural profile of tile surfaces. Results showed strong antibacterial activities for all the functionalized tiles, which were mainly correlated to the morphological and textural parameters of ceramic surfaces, as well as the presence of the polymeric primer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Coatings for Metallic and Ceramic Materials)
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10 pages, 28476 KiB  
Article
Spheroidization Behavior of Nano-Primary Silicon Induced by Neodymium under High-Current Pulsed Electron Beam Irradiation
by Liang Hu, Kui Li, Bo Gao, Ning Xu, Zhuang Liu, Yue Sun, Ying Zhang and Pengfei Xing
Coatings 2021, 11(11), 1408; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111408 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1455
Abstract
The spheroidization behavior of the nano-primary silicon phase induced by Nd under high-current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) irradiation was investigated in this study. The study results revealed that, compared to the Al–17.5Si alloy, spheroidized nano-primary silicon phase emerged in the alloy’s HCPEB-irradiated surface [...] Read more.
The spheroidization behavior of the nano-primary silicon phase induced by Nd under high-current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) irradiation was investigated in this study. The study results revealed that, compared to the Al–17.5Si alloy, spheroidized nano-primary silicon phase emerged in the alloy’s HCPEB-irradiated surface layer due to the presence of Nd. Because Nd was abundantly enriched on the fast-growing silicon crystal plane, its surface tension was reduced under the extreme undercooling caused by HCPEB irradiation, causing the growth velocity of each crystal plane to be the same and spherical nanometers of silicon to appear. The spheroidization of nano-primary silicon phases occurred in the remelted layer. The microhardness test revealed that Nd could depress the microhardness of the Al matrix at the same number of pulses, but conversely increase the microhardness of the primary silicon phase, compared to the Al–17.5Si alloy. The tribological test showed that the presence of spherical nano-primary silicon could significantly improve the alloy’s tribological property. Full article
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18 pages, 5226 KiB  
Review
Arsenic Removal from Contaminated Water Using Natural Adsorbents: A Review
by Kanfolo Franck Herve YEO, Chaokun Li, Hui Zhang, Jin Chen, Wendong Wang and Yingying Dong
Coatings 2021, 11(11), 1407; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111407 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 5233
Abstract
More than 170 million individuals have been influenced by arsenic (As) because of the ingestion of As-polluted groundwater. The presence of As in water bodies, particularly groundwater, has been found to become a widespread issue in the past few decades. Because arsenic causes [...] Read more.
More than 170 million individuals have been influenced by arsenic (As) because of the ingestion of As-polluted groundwater. The presence of As in water bodies, particularly groundwater, has been found to become a widespread issue in the past few decades. Because arsenic causes extreme wellbeing impacts, even at a low concentration in drinking water, the innovations of As removal from contaminated water are of significant importance. Traditional strategies, for example, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and electro-dialysis are generally utilized for the remediation of As-polluted water; however, the high cost and/or sludge production restricts their application in less-developed areas. The utilization of adsorbents acquired from natural materials has been explored as an alternative for the costly techniques for As removal. This paper aims to review the past and current developments in using naturals adsorbents or modified natural materials for arsenic removal and show the different parameters, which may influence the As removal effectiveness of the natural adsorbent, such as contact time, adsorbent dosage, flow rate, pH, reusability, temperature, and influence of others ions. Full article
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14 pages, 16983 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Gaseous Ozone and Moringa Leaf–Carboxymethyl Cellulose Edible Coating on Antioxidant Activity and Biochemical Properties of ‘Keitt’ Mango Fruit
by Nonjabulo L. Bambalele, Asanda Mditshwa, Lembe Samukelo Magwaza and Samson Zeray Tesfay
Coatings 2021, 11(11), 1406; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111406 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2601
Abstract
This study evaluated the effect of edible coating and gaseous ozone on the antioxidant activities and biochemical properties of mango fruit. Mango fruit (cv. Keitt) were coated with moringa leaf extract and carboxymethyl cellulose (EC) before exposure to ozone (0.25 ppm). Gaseous ozone [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the effect of edible coating and gaseous ozone on the antioxidant activities and biochemical properties of mango fruit. Mango fruit (cv. Keitt) were coated with moringa leaf extract and carboxymethyl cellulose (EC) before exposure to ozone (0.25 ppm). Gaseous ozone (O3) was administered intermittently for 24 or 36 h, and the control fruit were untreated. The fruit were stored at 10 °C for twenty-one days, then ripened at ambient temperature for seven days. The parameters measured were ascorbic acid, lipid peroxidation, phenolic content, total sugars, and antioxidant capacity (FRAP and DPPH). At the end of storage, the EC + O3 (36 h) had high phenolic content: 175.02 µg GEA/g DM compared to 151.87 µg GEA/g DM and 138.98 µg GEA/g DM for the O3 (24 h) and untreated fruit, respectively. Moreover, the combination of the EC and O3 (36 h) had a higher effect (p < 0.05) on preserving the antioxidant capacity of the mangoes. The EC + O3 (24 h) and EC significantly delayed fruit softening and maintained membrane integrity. Furthermore, the fruit treated with the EC reduced the accumulation of reducing (7.61 mg/mL) and total sugars (8.81 mg/mL) compared to the control treatment, which had a concentration of 12.74 mg/mL and 13.78 mg/mL, respectively. These findings demonstrate that EC combined with gaseous O3 enhanced the antioxidants of mango fruit during storage. Full article
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17 pages, 5358 KiB  
Article
Simulation of Cold Atmospheric Plasma Generated by Floating-Electrode Dielectric Barrier Pulsed Discharge Used for the Cancer Cell Necrosis
by Samira Elaissi and Kamel Charrada
Coatings 2021, 11(11), 1405; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111405 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3231
Abstract
A numerical simulation of a pulsed floating electrode dielectric barrier discharge (FE-DBD) at atmospheric pressure, used for melanoma cancer cell therapy, is performed using a plasma model in COMSOL Multiphysics software. Distributions of electron density, space charge, and electric field are presented at [...] Read more.
A numerical simulation of a pulsed floating electrode dielectric barrier discharge (FE-DBD) at atmospheric pressure, used for melanoma cancer cell therapy, is performed using a plasma model in COMSOL Multiphysics software. Distributions of electron density, space charge, and electric field are presented at different instants of the pulsed argon discharge. Significant results related to the characteristics of the plasma device used, the inter-electrodes distance, and the power supply are obtained to improve the efficiency of FE-DBD apparatus for melanoma cancer cell treatment. The FE-DBD presents a higher sensitivity to short pulse durations, related to the accumulated charge over the dielectric barrier around the powered electrode. At higher applied voltage, more energy is injected into the discharge channel and an increase in electron density and electric consumed power is noted. Anticancer activity provided by the FE-DBD plasma is improved using a small interelectrode distance with a high electron emission coefficient and a high dielectric constant with a small dielectric thickness, allowing higher electron density, generating reactive species responsible for the apoptosis of tumor cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Surface Engineering II)
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18 pages, 3640 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on Axial Compressive Behavior of Gangue Aggregate Concrete Filled FRP and Thin-Walled Steel Double Tubular Columns
by Jian Wang, Junwu Xia, Hongfei Chang, Youmin Han, Linli Yu and Li Jiang
Coatings 2021, 11(11), 1404; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111404 - 18 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1712
Abstract
In the present paper, the monotonic axial compression test of gangue aggregate concrete filled Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) and thin-walled steel double tubular columns (DTCC) was carried out, and the gangue aggregate concrete filled FRP tubular columns (CFFT) were designed as a comparison. [...] Read more.
In the present paper, the monotonic axial compression test of gangue aggregate concrete filled Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) and thin-walled steel double tubular columns (DTCC) was carried out, and the gangue aggregate concrete filled FRP tubular columns (CFFT) were designed as a comparison. The main experimental factors were the confinement level of the FRP jacket, the relative diameter ratio (the ratio of the outer diameter of the steel tube to the inner diameter of the FRP jacket), and the different strengths of gangue aggregate concrete. The test results show that the bearing capacity and ductility of gangue aggregate concrete in CFFT were significantly improved. As the local buckling of thin-walled steel tube was effectively inhibited, the load bearing capacity of DTCC was further improved compared with CFFT, but the change of dilation behavior and ductility was insignificant. By analyzing the bi-directional stress state of the steel tube, the confinement level of the external FRP jacket was the most sensitive factor affecting the hoop stress of the steel tube, and the axial stress was obviously weakened under the bi-directional stress state. In addition, with the increase of steel tube diameter, the confinement effect of steel tube in DTCC became more obvious. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interface and Surface Modification for Durable Concretes)
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10 pages, 50529 KiB  
Article
Development of Microstructured Carbon Coatings by Substrate-Catalytic CVD
by Mattia Pierpaoli, Mirosław Sawczak and Anna Dettlaff
Coatings 2021, 11(11), 1403; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111403 - 18 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1970
Abstract
Carbon nanostructured films were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on H18 stainless steel (AISI 440C) sheets with an H2/CH4/N2 gas mixture at various substrate temperatures. During the synthesis, the iron and chromium oxide layer was formed between [...] Read more.
Carbon nanostructured films were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on H18 stainless steel (AISI 440C) sheets with an H2/CH4/N2 gas mixture at various substrate temperatures. During the synthesis, the iron and chromium oxide layer was formed between the steel and carbonaceous layer. The carbon films exhibited wall-like and spherical morphologies and structures, as characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. It was found that the synthesis temperature affects the microsphere density and, therefore, also in the electrochemical behavior. The electrochemical behavior of nanostructured carbon coatings strongly depends on the CVD deposition conditions. The best corrosion resistance (Rp = 11.8 MΩ·cm2, Icorr = 4.4 nA·cm−2) exhibits a nanostructured carbon sample with a moderate amount of sp2-C-rich carbon microspheres CμSs synthesized at 700 °C. The corrosion resistance of the nanostructured carbon coating is better than raw stainless steel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Oxide Films and Their Applications)
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