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Antioxidants, Volume 8, Issue 6 (June 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus mold. It has a nephrotoxic effect and [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Cis/Trans-N-Phenyl-1,4,4a,5,8,8a-Hexahydro-3,1-Benzoxazin-2-Imines
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060197
Received: 1 May 2019 / Revised: 12 June 2019 / Accepted: 21 June 2019 / Published: 25 June 2019
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Abstract
The growing interest in the chemistry of unsaturated ring-fused 1,3-heterocycles, in this particular case 1,3-oxazines, arise in part from their versatile pharmacological applications. In the present article, the evaluation of the in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant activity of two cyclohexene-fused oxazines is [...] Read more.
The growing interest in the chemistry of unsaturated ring-fused 1,3-heterocycles, in this particular case 1,3-oxazines, arise in part from their versatile pharmacological applications. In the present article, the evaluation of the in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant activity of two cyclohexene-fused oxazines is discussed. The in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by trapping the ABTS and hydroxyl radicals as well as the inhibition of the enzyme acetyl-cholinesterase and hemolysis of erythrocytes by 2,2’-Azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH). The results suggest that both unsaturated 1,3-oxazines are auspicious sources of biologically active compounds with good antioxidant properties. In addition, a comprehensive analysis of the interaction between these heterocycles with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals, as well as the measurements of redox potential, provided evidence for a mechanism of antioxidant activity that takes place through electron transfer (ET) processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Chemistry of Antioxidant Activity)
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Open AccessReview
Antioxidant and Adaptative Response Mediated by Nrf2 during Physical Exercise
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060196
Received: 18 May 2019 / Revised: 16 June 2019 / Accepted: 19 June 2019 / Published: 25 June 2019
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Abstract
Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a powerful nuclear transcription factor that coordinates an antioxidant cytoprotector system complex stimulated by the increase in inoxidative stress (OS). In the present manuscript, we conduct a review on the evidence that shows the effect [...] Read more.
Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a powerful nuclear transcription factor that coordinates an antioxidant cytoprotector system complex stimulated by the increase in inoxidative stress (OS). In the present manuscript, we conduct a review on the evidence that shows the effect different modalities of physical exercise exert on the antioxidant metabolic response directed by Nrf2. During physical exercise, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) are increased; therefore, if the endogenous and exogenous antioxidant defenses are unable to control the elevation of ROS, the resulting OS triggers the activation of the transcriptional factor Nrf2 to induce the antioxidant response. On a molecular basis related to physical exercise, hormesis maintenance (exercise preconditioning) and adaptative changes in training are supported by a growing body of evidence, which is important for detailing the health benefits that involve greater resistance to environmental aggressions, better tolerance to constant changes, and increasing the regenerative capacity of the cells in such a way that it may be used as a tool to support the prevention or treatment of diseases. This may have clinical implications for future investigations regarding physical exercise in terms of understanding adaptations in high-performance athletes but also as a therapeutic model in several diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox Signalling and Exercise)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Acute Ingestion of Green Tea Extract and Lemon Juice on Oxidative Stress and Lipid Profile in Pigs Fed a High-Fat Diet
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060195
Received: 3 June 2019 / Revised: 20 June 2019 / Accepted: 21 June 2019 / Published: 23 June 2019
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Abstract
Green tea and its catechins have been shown to ameliorate high fat diet-induced oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia. However, low bioavailability of catechins limits their therapeutic potential. Lemon juice (LJ) has been suggested to enhance the bioavailability of catechins in vitro. This study investigated [...] Read more.
Green tea and its catechins have been shown to ameliorate high fat diet-induced oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia. However, low bioavailability of catechins limits their therapeutic potential. Lemon juice (LJ) has been suggested to enhance the bioavailability of catechins in vitro. This study investigated the antioxidative and hypolipidemic efficacy of a single dose of green tea extract (GTE) or GTE plus LJ (GTE + LJ) in high-fat diet fed pigs. Sixteen pigs ingested a single dose of GTE (190 mg/kg/day) or GTE + LJ (0.75 mL/kg/day) mixed with low-fat (LF; 5% fat) or high-fat (HF; 22% fat) diets and blood samples were collected for 24 h. Plasma catechin level peaked at two hours, and gradually returned to baseline after six hours following the intake. The addition of LJ significantly increased plasma catechin level. The diet containing GTE did not lower plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol (TG) concentrations, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity, or malondialdehyde concentration in 24 h in HF-fed pigs. Addition of a single dose of LJ, however, significantly decreased plasma TG level in LF groups but did not cause further changes on any other markers compared to the GTE alone. Our findings indicate limited effect of a single meal containing GTE on plasma antioxidant enzymes, lipid profile, and lipid peroxidation in pigs and no significant synergistic/additive action of adding LJ to GTE within 24 h in pigs. A study with a longer treatment period is warranted to further understand the potential role of GTE in reducing HF diet-induced oxidative stress and the possible synergistic role of LJ. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Interaction of Potent Mitochondrial Uncouplers with Thiol-Containing Antioxidants
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060194
Received: 11 April 2019 / Revised: 20 June 2019 / Accepted: 21 June 2019 / Published: 23 June 2019
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Abstract
It is generally considered that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the development of numerous pathologies. The level of ROS can be altered via the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation by using protonophores causing mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Here, we report that the uncoupling [...] Read more.
It is generally considered that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the development of numerous pathologies. The level of ROS can be altered via the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation by using protonophores causing mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Here, we report that the uncoupling activity of potent protonophores, such as carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP), carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), and fluazinam, can be abrogated by the addition of thiol-containing antioxidants to isolated mitochondria. In particular, N-acetylcysteine, glutathione, cysteine, and dithiothreitol removed both a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential and an increase in the respiration rate that is caused by FCCP. The thiols also reduced the electrical current that is induced by FCCP and CCCP across planar bilayer lipid membranes. Thus, when speculating on the mechanistic roles of ROS level modulation by mitochondrial uncoupling based on the antioxidant reversing certain FCCP and CCCP effects on cellular processes, one should take into account the ability of these protonophoric uncouplers to directly interact with the thiol-containing antioxidants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidants)
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Open AccessArticle
Endothelin-1-Induced Microvascular ROS and Contractility in Angiotensin-II-Infused Mice Depend on COX and TP Receptors
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060193
Received: 21 March 2019 / Revised: 12 June 2019 / Accepted: 19 June 2019 / Published: 22 June 2019
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Abstract
(1) Background: Angiotensin II (Ang II) and endothelin 1 (ET-1) generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can activate cyclooxygenase (COX). However, thromboxane prostanoid receptors (TPRs) are required to increase systemic markers of ROS during Ang II infusion in mice. We hypothesized that COX [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Angiotensin II (Ang II) and endothelin 1 (ET-1) generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can activate cyclooxygenase (COX). However, thromboxane prostanoid receptors (TPRs) are required to increase systemic markers of ROS during Ang II infusion in mice. We hypothesized that COX and TPRs are upstream requirements for the generation of vascular ROS by ET-1. (2) Methods: ET-1-induced vascular contractions and ROS were assessed in mesenteric arterioles from wild type (+/+) and knockout (−/−) of COX1 or TPR mice infused with Ang II (400 ng/kg/min × 14 days) or a vehicle. (3) Results: Ang II infusion appeared to increase microvascular protein expression of endothelin type A receptors (ETARs), TPRs, and COX1 and 2 in COX1 and TPR +/+ mice but not in −/− mice. Ang II infusion increased ET-1-induced vascular contractions and ROS, which were prevented by a blockade of COX1 and 2 in TPR −/− mice. ET-1 increased the activity of aortic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) 1, 2, and 3 in Ang-II-infused mice, which were prevented by a blockade of TPRs. (4) Conclusion: Activation of vascular TPRs by COX products are required for ET-1 to increase vascular contractions and ROS generation from NADPH oxidase and reduce ROS metabolism by SOD. These effects require an increase in these systems by prior infusion of Ang II. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Risk and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Paraoxonase 1, HDL Subclasses and Post Surgery Acute Inflammation: A Pilot Study
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060192
Received: 25 May 2019 / Revised: 20 June 2019 / Accepted: 21 June 2019 / Published: 22 June 2019
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Abstract
High density lipoproteins (HDL) structure and function studies are needed to better understand the heterogeneous nature of the HDL particle, and its interaction with associated proteins such as apolipoprotein A-1 (ApoA-1), paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and the environment. Our study assesses the effects of [...] Read more.
High density lipoproteins (HDL) structure and function studies are needed to better understand the heterogeneous nature of the HDL particle, and its interaction with associated proteins such as apolipoprotein A-1 (ApoA-1), paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and the environment. Our study assesses the effects of acute inflammation on PON1 and HDL subclasses in post-surgical colorectal cancer patients. PON1 was measured kinetically through its arylesterase and lactonase activity and HDL sub-classes were measured using Quantimetrix Lipoprint® System. White blood cells (WBC) counts, c-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) levels were also analyzed using standard techniques. Our findings show that baseline PON1 activity is lower in colorectal cancer patients and significant reductions are observed in the acute inflammatory state post-surgery. PON1 changes are also inversely related to inflammatory markers such as SAA and CRP. In addition, our preliminary findings show that small and intermediate HDL decreases post-op Day 1. In conclusion, our study demonstrates the effects of chronic and acute inflammation on PON1. Specifically, PON1 arylesterase and lactonase activity is lower in states of chronic inflammation and further decreased in the acute inflammatory state. Additionally, in our limited sample size, while changes in PON1 and HDL subclasses may be variable in the acute inflammatory period, small HDL decreased with a loss of PON1 activity in the subacute phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paraoxonases in Oxidation and Inflammation)
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Open AccessCommunication
Antioxidant-Rich Extracts of Terminalia ferdinandiana Interfere with Estimation of Cell Viability
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060191
Received: 3 June 2019 / Revised: 17 June 2019 / Accepted: 19 June 2019 / Published: 22 June 2019
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Abstract
The impact of plant extracts and phytochemicals on in vitro cell viability is usually assessed by employing cell viability assays dependent upon the activity of dehydrogenase enzymes. The CellTiter 96® AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay (CellTiter) was used to measure [...] Read more.
The impact of plant extracts and phytochemicals on in vitro cell viability is usually assessed by employing cell viability assays dependent upon the activity of dehydrogenase enzymes. The CellTiter 96® AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay (CellTiter) was used to measure cell viability in response to antioxidant-rich extracts of Terminalia ferdinandiana fruits. Conflicting results were obtained from this assay whereby higher concentrations of extracts significantly increased cell viability compared to lower concentrations. Intrinsic reductive potential was observed in a cell-free system when extracts were added directly to the CellTiter assay reagent. To confirm this effect in a similar cell proliferation assay, we employed the CellTiter-Blue® Cell Viability Assay and again observed increased viability with increased concentrations of the extracts and direct reduction of the assay reagent by the extracts in cell-free systems. In the search for a cell proliferation assay that would not be directly affected by the plant extracts, we identified the CyQUANT® NF Cell Proliferation Assay that is based on the estimation of DNA content in viable cells. Cell viability decreased with increasing concentrations of the extracts. Accordingly, the results of the present study indicated that cell viability assays reliant upon dehydrogenase activity may lead to false positive results when testing antioxidant-rich plant extracts with intrinsic reductive potential, and alternative cell viability assays should be used to measure the cell viability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Marine Alga Ecklonia cava Extract and Dieckol Attenuate Prostaglandin E2 Production in HaCaT Keratinocytes Exposed to Airborne Particulate Matter
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060190
Received: 9 May 2019 / Revised: 17 June 2019 / Accepted: 19 June 2019 / Published: 21 June 2019
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Abstract
Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is an important cause of skin damage, and an increasing number of studies have been conducted to discover safe, natural materials that can alleviate the oxidative stress and inflammation caused by PM. It has been previously shown that the [...] Read more.
Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is an important cause of skin damage, and an increasing number of studies have been conducted to discover safe, natural materials that can alleviate the oxidative stress and inflammation caused by PM. It has been previously shown that the extract of Ecklonia cava Kjellman, a perennial brown macroalga, can alleviate oxidative stress in epidermal keratinocytes exposed to PM less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10). The present study was undertaken to further examine the anti-inflammatory effects of E. cava extract and its major polyphenolic constituent, dieckol. HaCaT keratinocytes were exposed to PM10 in the presence or absence of E. cava extract or dieckol and analyzed for their viability, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release, and gene expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2, microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase (mPGES)-1, mPGES-2, and cytosolic prostaglandin E2 synthase (cPGES). PM10 treatment decreased cell viability and increased the production of PGE2, and these changes were partially abrogated by E. cava extract. E. cava extract also attenuated the expression of COX-1, COX-2, and mPGES-2 stimulated by PM10. Dieckol attenuated PGE2 production and the gene expression of COX-1, COX-2, and mPGES-1 stimulated by PM10. This study demonstrates that E. cava extract and dieckol alleviate airborne PM10-induced PGE2 production in keratinocytes through the inhibition of gene expression of COX-1, COX-2, mPGES-1, and/or mPGES-2. Thus, E. cava extract and dieckol are potentially useful natural cosmetic ingredients for counteracting the pro-inflammatory effects of airborne PM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Cosmetics)
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Open AccessArticle
Apple Pomace Extract as a Sustainable Food Ingredient
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060189
Received: 9 April 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 16 June 2019 / Published: 21 June 2019
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Abstract
Apple pomace is a by-product of apple processing industries with low value and thus frequent disposal, although with valuable compounds. Acidified hot water extraction has been suggested as a clean, feasible, and easy approach for the recovery of polyphenols. This type of extraction [...] Read more.
Apple pomace is a by-product of apple processing industries with low value and thus frequent disposal, although with valuable compounds. Acidified hot water extraction has been suggested as a clean, feasible, and easy approach for the recovery of polyphenols. This type of extraction allowed us to obtain 296 g of extract per kg of dry apple pomace, including 3.3 g of polyphenols and 281 g of carbohydrates. Ultrafiltration and solid-phase extraction using C18 cartridges of the hot water extract suggested that, in addition to the apple native polyphenols detected by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to a diode-array detector and mass spectrometry UHPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn, polyphenols could also be present as complexes with carbohydrates. For the water-soluble polyphenols, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects were observed by inhibiting chemically generated hydroxyl radicals (OH•) and nitrogen monoxide radicals (NO•) produced in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. The water-soluble polyphenols, when incorporated into yogurt formulations, were not affected by fermentation and improved the antioxidant properties of the final product. This in vitro research paves the way for agro-food industries to achieve more diversified and sustainable solutions towards their main by-products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenolic Antioxidants from Agri-Food Waste Biomass)
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Open AccessReview
Antidiabetic Effects of Hydroxytyrosol: In Vitro and In Vivo Evidence
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060188
Received: 17 May 2019 / Revised: 14 June 2019 / Accepted: 18 June 2019 / Published: 21 June 2019
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Abstract
Insulin resistance, a pathological condition characterized by defects in insulin action leads to the development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a disease which is currently on the rise that pose an enormous economic burden to healthcare systems worldwide. The current treatment and [...] Read more.
Insulin resistance, a pathological condition characterized by defects in insulin action leads to the development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a disease which is currently on the rise that pose an enormous economic burden to healthcare systems worldwide. The current treatment and prevention strategies are considerably lacking in number and efficacy and therefore new targeted therapies and preventative strategies are urgently needed. Plant-derived chemicals such as metformin, derived from the French lilac, have been used to treat/manage insulin resistance and T2DM. Other plant-derived chemicals which are not yet discovered, may have superior properties to prevent and manage T2DM and thus research into this area is highly justifiable. Hydroxytyrosol is a phenolic phytochemical found in olive leaves and olive oil reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antidiabetic properties. The present review summarizes the current in vitro and in vivo studies examining the antidiabetic properties of hydroxytyrosol and investigating the mechanisms of its action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Plant Extracts)
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Open AccessArticle
Urinary Markers of Oxidative Stress in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060187
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 12 June 2019 / Accepted: 17 June 2019 / Published: 20 June 2019
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Abstract
Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction, restricted interest and repetitive behavior. Oxidative stress in response to environmental exposure plays a role in virtually every human disease and represents a significant avenue of research [...] Read more.
Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction, restricted interest and repetitive behavior. Oxidative stress in response to environmental exposure plays a role in virtually every human disease and represents a significant avenue of research into the etiology of ASD. The aim of this study was to explore the diagnostic utility of four urinary biomarkers of oxidative stress. Methods: One hundred and thirty-nine (139) children and adolescents with ASD (89% male, average age = 10.0 years, age range = 2.1 to 18.1 years) and 47 healthy children and adolescents (49% male, average age 9.2, age range = 2.5 to 20.8 years) were recruited for this study. Their urinary 8-OH-dG, 8-isoprostane, dityrosine and hexanoil-lisine were determined by using the ELISA method. Urinary creatinine was determined with the kinetic Jaffee reaction and was used to normalize all biochemical measurements. Non-parametric tests and support vector machines (SVM) with three different kernel functions (linear, radial, polynomial) were used to explore and optimize the multivariate prediction of an ASD diagnosis based on the collected biochemical measurements. The SVM models were first trained using data from a random subset of children and adolescents from the ASD group (n = 70, 90% male, average age = 9.7 years, age range = 2.1 to 17.8 years) and the control group (n = 24, 45.8% male, average age = 9.4 years, age range = 2.5 to 20.8 years) using bootstrapping, with additional synthetic minority over-sampling (SMOTE), which was utilized because of unbalanced data. The computed SVM models were then validated using the remaining data from children and adolescents from the ASD (n = 69, 88% male, average age = 10.2 years, age range = 4.3 to 18.1 years) and the control group (n = 23, 52.2% male, average age = 8.9 years, age range = 2.6 to 16.7 years). Results: Using a non-parametric test, we found a trend showing that the urinary 8-OH-dG concentration was lower in children with ASD compared to the control group (unadjusted p = 0.085). When all four biochemical measurements were combined using SVMs with a radial kernel function, we could predict an ASD diagnosis with a balanced accuracy of 73.4%, thereby accounting for an estimated 20.8% of variance (p < 0.001). The predictive accuracy expressed as the area under the curve (AUC) was solid (95% CI = 0.691–0.908). Using the validation data, we achieved significantly lower rates of classification accuracy as expressed by the balanced accuracy (60.1%), the AUC (95% CI = 0.502–0.781) and the percentage of explained variance (R2 = 3.8%). Although the radial SVMs showed less predictive power using the validation data, they do, together with ratings of standardized SVM variable importance, provide some indication that urinary levels of 8-OH-dG and 8-isoprostane are predictive of an ASD diagnosis. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the examined urinary biomarkers in combination may differentiate children with ASD from healthy peers to a significant extent. However, the etiological importance of these findings is difficult to assesses, due to the high-dimensional nature of SVMs and a radial kernel function. Nonetheless, our results show that machine learning methods may provide significant insight into ASD and other disorders that could be related to oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Food Additives and Other Exposomes)
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Flavanones from Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (licorice) Leaf Phytocomplexes: Identification of Licoflavanone as a Modulator of NF-kB/MAPK Pathway
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060186
Received: 28 May 2019 / Revised: 17 June 2019 / Accepted: 18 June 2019 / Published: 20 June 2019
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Abstract
Inflammation represents an adaptive response generated by injuries or harmful stimuli. Natural remedies represent an interesting alternative to traditional therapies, involving several biochemical pathways. Besides, the valorization of agrochemical wastes nowadays seems to be a feasible way to reduce the health spending and [...] Read more.
Inflammation represents an adaptive response generated by injuries or harmful stimuli. Natural remedies represent an interesting alternative to traditional therapies, involving several biochemical pathways. Besides, the valorization of agrochemical wastes nowadays seems to be a feasible way to reduce the health spending and improve the accessibility at bioactive natural compounds. In this context, the chemical composition of three Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (licorice) leaf extracts, obtained through maceration or ultrasound-assisted method (fresh and dried leaves) was investigated. A guided fractionation obtained three main components: pinocembrin, glabranin and licoflavanone. All the extracts showed similar antioxidant properties, evaluated by 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) or 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) Diammonium Salt (ABTS) assay, while, among the isolated compounds, licoflavanone exhibited the best antioxidant activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts and the purified compounds was investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. Extract C and licoflavanone showed a good anti-inflammatory activity without affecting cell viability, as they decreased nitrite levels even when used at 12.5 μg/mL (p < 0.005) and 50 μM concentration (p < 0.001), respectively. Interestingly, licoflavanone markedly decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and cyclooxygenase 2/inducible nitric oxide synthase (COX-2/iNOS) expression levels (p < 0.001). A modulation of nuclear factor kappa B/mitogen-activated protein kinases (NF-kB/MAPK) pathway underlay such behavior, highlighting the potential of this natural compound as a new scaffold in anti-inflammatory drug research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Plants Extract)
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Open AccessArticle
Quantification of Berberine in Berberis vulgaris L. Root Extract and Its Curative and Prophylactic Role in Cisplatin-Induced In Vivo Toxicity and In Vitro Cytotoxicity
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060185
Received: 21 May 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
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Abstract
Cisplatin is amongst the most potent chemotherapeutic drugs with applications in more than 50% of cancer treatments, but dose-dependent side effects limit its usefulness. Berberis vulgaris L. (B. vulgaris) has a proven role in several therapeutic applications in the traditional medicinal [...] Read more.
Cisplatin is amongst the most potent chemotherapeutic drugs with applications in more than 50% of cancer treatments, but dose-dependent side effects limit its usefulness. Berberis vulgaris L. (B. vulgaris) has a proven role in several therapeutic applications in the traditional medicinal system. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to quantify berberine, a potent alkaloid in the methanolic root extract of B. vulgaris (BvRE). Berberine chloride in BvRE was found to be 10.29% w/w. To assess the prophylactic and curative protective effects of BvRE on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and hyperlipidemia, in vivo toxicity trials were carried out on 25 healthy male albino Wistar rats (130–180 g). Both prophylactic and curative trials included a single dose of cisplatin (4 mg/kg, i.p.) and nine doses of BvRE (500 mg/kg/day, orally). An array of marked toxicity effects appeared in response to cisplatin dosage evident by morphological condition, biochemical analysis of serum (urea, creatinine, total protein, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, total cholesterol, and triglyceride), and organ tissue homogenates (malondialdehyde and catalase). Statistically-significant (p < 0.05) variations were observed in various parameters. Moreover, histological studies of liver and kidney tissues revealed that the protective effect of BvRE effectively minimized and reversed nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, and hyperlipidemic effects caused by cisplatin in both prophylactic and curative groups with relatively promising ameliorative effects in the prophylactic regimen. The in vitro cell viability effect of cisplatin, BvRE, and their combination was determined on HeLa cells using the tetrazolium (MTT) assay. MTT clearly corroborated that HeLa cells appeared to be less sensitive to cisplatin and berberine individually, while the combination of both at the same concentrations resulted in growth inhibition of HeLa cells in a remarkable synergistic way. The present study validated the use of BvRE as a protective agent in combination therapy with cisplatin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Cytoprotective Activity)
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Open AccessArticle
Green Alternatives to Synthetic Antioxidants, Antimicrobials, Nitrates, and Nitrites in Clean Label Spanish Chorizo
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060184
Received: 19 May 2019 / Revised: 13 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
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Abstract
Natural extracts obtained from fruit and vegetable processing are important sources of phenolic compounds and nitrates, with excellent antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to characterize and determine the antioxidant and antimicrobial capacity of several natural extracts (citric (Ct), [...] Read more.
Natural extracts obtained from fruit and vegetable processing are important sources of phenolic compounds and nitrates, with excellent antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to characterize and determine the antioxidant and antimicrobial capacity of several natural extracts (citric (Ct), acerola (Ac), rosemary (R), paprika, garlic, oregano, beet (B), lettuce (L), arugula (A), spinach (S), chard (Ch), celery (Ce), and watercress (W)), both in vitro and applied to a cured meat product (chorizo). For that, the volatile compounds by GC-MS and microbial growth were determined. The total phenolic and nitrate contents were measured and related with their antioxidant capacity (measured by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and ORAC methods) and antimicrobial capacity against Clostridium perfringens growth in vitro. In order to study the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the extracts in food, their properties were also measured in Spanish chorizo enriched with these natural extracts. R and Ct showed the highest antioxidant capacity, however, natural nitrate sources (B, L, A, S, Ch, Ce, and W) also presented excellent antimicrobial activity against C. perfringens. The incorporation of these extracts as preservatives in Spanish chorizo also presented excellent antioxidant and antimicrobial capacities and could be an excellent strategy in order to produce clean label dry-cured meat products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein and Lipid Oxidation in Meat and Meat Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Fucoxanthin, A Carotenoid Derived from Phaeodactylum tricornutum Exerts Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Activities In Vitro
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060183
Received: 20 May 2019 / Revised: 12 June 2019 / Accepted: 17 June 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
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Abstract
Microalgae contain a multitude of nutrients and can be grown sustainably. Fucoxanthin, a carotenoid from Phaeodactylum tricornutum, could have beneficial health effects. Therefore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and antiproliferative effects of fucoxanthin derived from this diatom in vitro. The effects of purified [...] Read more.
Microalgae contain a multitude of nutrients and can be grown sustainably. Fucoxanthin, a carotenoid from Phaeodactylum tricornutum, could have beneficial health effects. Therefore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and antiproliferative effects of fucoxanthin derived from this diatom in vitro. The effects of purified fucoxanthin on metabolic activity were assessed in blood mononuclear cells and different cell lines. In cell lines, caspase 3/7 activity was also analyzed. Nitrogen monoxide release and mRNA-expression of proinflammatory cytokines were measured. For antioxidant assays, cell free assays were conducted. Additionally, the antioxidant effect in neutrophils was quantified and glutathione was determined in HeLa cells. The results show that neither did fucoxanthin have anti-inflammatory properties nor did it exert cytotoxic effects on mononuclear cells. However, the metabolic activity of cell lines was decreased up to 58% and fucoxanthin increased the caspase 3/7 activity up to 4.6-fold. Additionally, dose-dependent antioxidant effects were detected, resulting in a 63% decrease in chemiluminescence in blood neutrophils and a 3.3-fold increase in the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione. Our studies show that fucoxanthin possesses antiproliferative and antioxidant activities in vitro. Hence, this carotenoid or the whole microalgae P. tricornutum could be considered as a food or nutraceutical in human nutrition, showcasing beneficial health effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Algal Antioxidants)
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Open AccessReview
Anthocyanins and Anthocyanin-Derived Products in Yeast-Fermented Beverages
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060182
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 16 June 2019 / Accepted: 17 June 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
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Abstract
The beverages obtained by yeast fermentation from anthocyanin-rich natural sources (grapes, berries, brown rice, etc.) retain part of the initial pigments in the maturated drink. During the fermentation and aging processes anthocyanins undergo various chemical transformations, which include reactions with glycolytic products (especially [...] Read more.
The beverages obtained by yeast fermentation from anthocyanin-rich natural sources (grapes, berries, brown rice, etc.) retain part of the initial pigments in the maturated drink. During the fermentation and aging processes anthocyanins undergo various chemical transformations, which include reactions with glycolytic products (especially pyruvate and acetaldehyde) or with other compounds present in the complex fermentation milieu (such as vinylphenols obtained from cinnamic acids by means of a yeast decarboxylase) yielding pigments which can be more stable than the initial anthocyanins. Overall, these compounds contribute to the organoleptic traits of the mature product, but also to the overall chemical composition which make the yeast fermented beverages important sources of dietary antioxidants. In this review, we focused on the studies regarding the changes underwent by anthocyanins during yeast-mediated fermentation, on the approaches taken to enrich the fermented beverages in anthocyanins and their derived products, and on the interrelations between yeast and anthocyanin which were of relevance for obtaining a high-quality product containing optimum amounts of anthocyanin and anthocyanin-derived products. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Targeting Heme Oxygenase-1 in Cardiovascular and Kidney Disease
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060181
Received: 3 June 2019 / Revised: 13 June 2019 / Accepted: 15 June 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
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Abstract
Heme oxygenase (HO) plays an important role in the cardiovascular system. It is involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes in all organs of the cardiovascular system. From the regulation of blood pressure and blood flow to the adaptive response to end-organ injury, [...] Read more.
Heme oxygenase (HO) plays an important role in the cardiovascular system. It is involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes in all organs of the cardiovascular system. From the regulation of blood pressure and blood flow to the adaptive response to end-organ injury, HO plays a critical role in the ability of the cardiovascular system to respond and adapt to changes in homeostasis. There have been great advances in our understanding of the role of HO in the regulation of blood pressure and target organ injury in the last decade. Results from these studies demonstrate that targeting of the HO system could provide novel therapeutic opportunities for the treatment of several cardiovascular and renal diseases. The goal of this review is to highlight the important role of HO in the regulation of cardiovascular and renal function and protection from disease and to highlight areas in which targeting of the HO system needs to be translated to help benefit patient populations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of 30 Chinese Teas
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060180
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 12 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
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Abstract
Tea has been reported to prevent and manage many chronic diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases, and the antioxidant capacity of tea may be responsible for these health benefits. In this study, the antioxidant capacities of fat-soluble, water-soluble, and bound-insoluble [...] Read more.
Tea has been reported to prevent and manage many chronic diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases, and the antioxidant capacity of tea may be responsible for these health benefits. In this study, the antioxidant capacities of fat-soluble, water-soluble, and bound-insoluble fractions of 30 Chinese teas belonging to six categories, namely green, black, oolong, dark, white, and yellow teas, were systematically evaluated, applying ferric-reducing antioxidant power and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assays. In addition, total phenolic contents of teas were determined by Folin–Ciocalteu method, and the contents of 18 main phytochemical compounds in teas were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results found that several teas possessed very strong antioxidant capacity, and caffeine, theaflavine, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, and kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, as well as eight catechins, were the main antioxidant compounds in them. Thus, these teas could be good natural sources of dietary antioxidants, and their extracts might be developed as food additives, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Plant Extracts)
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Open AccessReview
Carotenoids and Markers of Oxidative Stress in Human Observational Studies and Intervention Trials: Implications for Chronic Diseases
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060179
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 12 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
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Abstract
Carotenoids include C30, C40 and C50 terpenoid-based molecules, many of which constitute coloured pigments. However, >1100 of these are known to occur in nature and only about a dozen are known to play a role in our daily diet. Carotenoids have received much [...] Read more.
Carotenoids include C30, C40 and C50 terpenoid-based molecules, many of which constitute coloured pigments. However, >1100 of these are known to occur in nature and only about a dozen are known to play a role in our daily diet. Carotenoids have received much attention due to their proposed health benefits, including reducing the incidence of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Many of these diseases are characterized by chronic inflammation co-occurring with oxidative stress, characterized by, for example, enhanced plasma F2-isoprostane concentrations, malondialdehyde, and 8-hydroxyguanosine. Though carotenoids can act as direct antioxidants, quenching, for example, singlet oxygen and peroxide radicals, an important biological function appears to rest also in the activation of the body’s own antioxidant defence system, related to superoxide-dismutase, catalase, and glutathione-peroxidase expression, likely due to the interaction with transcription factors, such as nuclear-factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2). Though mostly based on small-scale and observational studies which do not allow for drawing conclusions regarding causality, several supplementation trials with isolated carotenoids or food items suggest positive health effects. However, negative effects have also been reported, especially regarding beta-carotene for smokers. This review is aimed at summarizing the results from human observational studies/intervention trials targeting carotenoids in relation to chronic diseases characterized by oxidative stress and markers thereof. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Oxidative Stress Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Long-Term Effects of Ochratoxin A on the Glutathione Redox System and Its Regulation in Chicken
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060178
Received: 25 May 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 13 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of three-weeks ochratoxin A (OTA) exposure on some lipid peroxidation parameters, reduced glutathione concentration and glutathione-peroxidase activity, as well as expression of oxidative stress response-related (KEAP1, NRF2) and glutathione system ( [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of three-weeks ochratoxin A (OTA) exposure on some lipid peroxidation parameters, reduced glutathione concentration and glutathione-peroxidase activity, as well as expression of oxidative stress response-related (KEAP1, NRF2) and glutathione system (GPX3, GPX4, GSS, GSR) genes in chickens. Three levels of exposure (106, 654 and 1126 μg/kg feed) were applied. The results showed that OTA initiated free radical formation, which was suggested by the increase in the malondialdehyde content in the liver and kidney, which was more marked in the liver, depending on the length of exposure and dose. Reduced glutathione concentration increased as an effect of the highest OTA dose in blood plasma and in liver, but not in red blood cell hemolysates and the kidney. Glutathione peroxidase activity did not change in the blood and showed increasing tendency in the liver, and significant increase in the kidney. Expression of KEAP1 gene showed up-regulation in the liver, and down-regulation in the kidney, but overexpression of NRF2 gene was found in the liver and kidney at the highest dose. However, down-regulation of Nrf2 dependent genes, GPX3, GPX4, GSS and GSR, suggested an improper antioxidant response at the protein level, thus oxidative stress occurred, even at the dose of the EU regulatory limit for poultry diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Poultry Nutrition and Reproduction)
Open AccessArticle
Suppression of AMD-Like Pathology by Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant SkQ1 Is Associated with a Decrease in the Accumulation of Amyloid β and in mTOR Activity
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060177
Received: 15 April 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of irreversible visual impairment and blindness in developed countries, and the molecular pathogenesis of AMD is poorly understood. Recent studies strongly indicate that amyloid β (Aβ) accumulation —found in the brain and a defining feature [...] Read more.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of irreversible visual impairment and blindness in developed countries, and the molecular pathogenesis of AMD is poorly understood. Recent studies strongly indicate that amyloid β (Aβ) accumulation —found in the brain and a defining feature of Alzheimer’s disease—also forms in the retina in both Alzheimer’s disease and AMD. The reason why highly neurotoxic proteins of consistently aggregate in the aging retina, and to what extent they contribute to AMD, remains to be fully addressed. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that Aβ is a therapeutic target in AMD is debated. Here, we showed that long-term treatment with SkQ1 (250 nmol/[kg body weight] daily from the age of 1.5 to 22 months) suppressed the development of AMD-like pathology in senescence-accelerated OXYS rats by reducing the level of Aβ and suppressing the activity of mTOR in the retina. Inhibition of mTOR signaling activity, which plays key roles in aging and age-related diseases, can be considered a new mechanism of the prophylactic effect of SkQ1. It seems probable that dietary supplementation with mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 can be a good prevention strategy to maintain eye health and possibly a treatment of AMD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidants)
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Open AccessArticle
Mitochondrial Damage and Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant Protection in LPS-Induced Acute Kidney Injury
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060176
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 6 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
Induced and frequently unwanted alterations in the mitochondrial structure and functions are a key component of the pathological cascade in many kidney pathologies, including those associated with acute damage. One of the principal pathogenic elements causing mitochondrial dysfunction in Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) [...] Read more.
Induced and frequently unwanted alterations in the mitochondrial structure and functions are a key component of the pathological cascade in many kidney pathologies, including those associated with acute damage. One of the principal pathogenic elements causing mitochondrial dysfunction in Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is oxidative stress. After ischemia and nephrotoxic action of drugs, sepsis and systemic inflammation are the most frequent causes of AKI. As the kidney suffers from oxidative stress during sepsis, one of the most promising approaches to alleviate such damaging consequences is the use of antioxidants. Considering administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a model of sepsis, we demonstrate that the mitochondria of neonatal renal tissue are severely affected by LPS-induced AKI, with pathological ultrastructural changes observed in both the mitochondria of the renal tubular epithelium and the vascular endothelium. Upon mitochondrial damage, we evaluated the effect of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant plastoquinol decylrhodamine 19 (SkQR1) on the development of acute renal failure in newborn rats associated with systemic inflammation induced by the administration of LPS. We found that SkQR1 administration 3 h before LPS led to decreased urinal expression of the AKI marker neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin 2 (NGAL), in addition to a decrease in urea and creatinine levels in the blood. Additionally, an observed impairment of proliferative activity in the neonatal kidney caused by LPS treatment was also prevented by the treatment of rat pups with SkQR1. Thus, one of the key events for renal tissue damage in neonatal sepsis is an alteration in the structure and function of the mitochondria and the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQR1 is an effective nephroprotective agent, which protects the neonatal kidney from sepsis-induced AKI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidants)
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Open AccessArticle
BG-4 from Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia) Differentially Affects Inflammation In Vitro and In Vivo
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060175
Received: 13 May 2019 / Revised: 8 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
BG-4 isolated from bitter gourd has been reported for anti-cancer properties. The objective was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of BG-4 in vitro and in vivo. Comparative study of the anti-inflammatory properties of BG-4 in vitro and in vivo was conducted on lipopolysaccharide [...] Read more.
BG-4 isolated from bitter gourd has been reported for anti-cancer properties. The objective was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of BG-4 in vitro and in vivo. Comparative study of the anti-inflammatory properties of BG-4 in vitro and in vivo was conducted on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated mouse macrophages, and on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. BG-4 reduced the production of pro-inflammatory markers in LPS-activated macrophages. On the other hand, intraperitoneal administration of BG-4 in DSS-induced colitis led to colon shortening, elevated neutrophils infiltration and myeloperoxidase activity, presence of blood in the stool, and loss of body weight, with differential systemic and local effects on pro-inflammatory cytokines in vivo. The results demonstrated that BG-4 differentially affected inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis of Lipophilic Esters of Tyrosol, Homovanillyl Alcohol and Hydroxytyrosol
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060174
Received: 26 April 2019 / Revised: 4 June 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
Low-molecular weight phenols such as tyrosol, homovanillyl alcohol and hydroxytyrosol are valuable compounds that exhibit a high number of health-promoting effects such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity. Despite these remarkable properties, their applications such as dietary supplements and stabilizers of foods and [...] Read more.
Low-molecular weight phenols such as tyrosol, homovanillyl alcohol and hydroxytyrosol are valuable compounds that exhibit a high number of health-promoting effects such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity. Despite these remarkable properties, their applications such as dietary supplements and stabilizers of foods and cosmetics in non-aqueous media are limited for the hydrophilic character. With the aim to overcome this limitation, the paper describes a simple and low-cost procedure for the synthesis of lipophilic esters of tyrosol, homovanillyl alcohol and hydroxytyrosol. The reactions were carried out under mild and green chemistry conditions, at room temperature, solubilizing the phenolic compounds in dimethyl carbonate, an eco-friendly solvent, and adding a little excess of the appropriate C2–C18 acyl chloride. The final products were isolated in good yields. Finally, according to the “circular economy” strategy, the procedure was applied to hydroxytyrosol-enriched extracts obtained by Olea europaea by-products to prepare a panel of lipophilic extracts that are useful for applications where solubility in lipid media is required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Phenolic Compounds for Health, Food and Cosmetic Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Composition of Amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) during Plant Growth
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060173
Received: 15 May 2019 / Revised: 7 June 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 12 June 2019
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Abstract
The antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of the aerial part of Amaranthus caudatus at seven stages of development were investigated. Total phenolic content, ABTS•+, DPPH, and O2•− scavenging activity, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and Fe2+ chelating [...] Read more.
The antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of the aerial part of Amaranthus caudatus at seven stages of development were investigated. Total phenolic content, ABTS•+, DPPH, and O2•− scavenging activity, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and Fe2+ chelating ability were evaluated. The phenolic profile was characterized by 17 compounds. Rutin was predominant in all growth stages, although its content, similar to the quantity of other phenolics, changed during the growth cycle. Flavonols were most abundant in the plants of early flowering and grain fill stages. In contrast, the highest content of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives was found in the early vegetative stage. The results of antioxidant assays also showed significant differences among plant stages. Generally, the lowest antioxidant activity was found in the shooting and budding stages. Significantly higher activity was observed in amaranths in earlier (vegetative) and later (early flowering and grain fill) stages, suggesting that plants in these stages are valuable sources of antioxidants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Carpinus turczaninowii Extract May Alleviate High Glucose-Induced Arterial Damage and Inflammation
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060172
Received: 6 May 2019 / Revised: 2 June 2019 / Accepted: 7 June 2019 / Published: 11 June 2019
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Abstract
Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress triggers severe vascular damage and induces an inflammatory vascular state, and is, therefore, one of the main causes of atherosclerosis. Recently, interest in the natural compound Carpinus turczaninowii has increased because of its reported antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated [...] Read more.
Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress triggers severe vascular damage and induces an inflammatory vascular state, and is, therefore, one of the main causes of atherosclerosis. Recently, interest in the natural compound Carpinus turczaninowii has increased because of its reported antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated whether a C. turczaninowii extract was capable of attenuating high glucose-induced inflammation and arterial damage using human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (hASMCs). mRNA expression levels of proinflammatory response [interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)], endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress [CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP)], and adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-protein activated kinase α2 (AMPK α2)], and DNA damage [phosphorylated H2.AX (p-H2.AX)] were measured in hASMCs treated with the C. turczaninowii extracts (1 and 10 μg/mL) after being stimulated by high glucose (25 mM) or not. The C. turczaninowii extract attenuated the increased mRNA expression of IL-6, TNF-α, and CHOP in hASMCs under high glucose conditions. The expression levels of p-H2.AX and AMPK α2 induced by high glucose were also significantly decreased in response to treatment with the C. turczaninowii extract. In addition, 15 types of phenolic compounds including quercetin, myricitrin, and ellagic acid, which exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, were identified in the C. turczaninowii extract through ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight (UPLC-Q-TOF) mass spectrometry. In conclusion, C. turczaninowii may alleviate high glucose-induced inflammation and arterial damage in hASMCs, and may have potential in the treatment of hyperglycemia-induced atherosclerosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Plants Extract)
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Open AccessArticle
Transmission Electron Microscopy Study of Mitochondria in Aging Brain Synapses
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060171
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 28 May 2019 / Accepted: 5 June 2019 / Published: 11 June 2019
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Abstract
The brain is sensitive to aging-related morphological changes, where many neurodegenerative diseases manifest accompanied by a reduction in memory. The hippocampus is especially vulnerable to damage at an early stage of aging. The present transmission electron microscopy study examined the synapses and synaptic [...] Read more.
The brain is sensitive to aging-related morphological changes, where many neurodegenerative diseases manifest accompanied by a reduction in memory. The hippocampus is especially vulnerable to damage at an early stage of aging. The present transmission electron microscopy study examined the synapses and synaptic mitochondria of the CA1 region of the hippocampal layer in young-adult and old rats by means of a computer-assisted image analysis technique. Comparing young-adult (10 months of age) and old (22 months) male Fischer (CDF) rats, the total numerical density of synapses was significantly lower in aged rats than in the young adults. This age-related synaptic loss involved degenerative changes in the synaptic architectonic organization, including damage to mitochondria in both pre- and post-synaptic compartments. The number of asymmetric synapses with concave curvature decreased with age, while the number of asymmetric synapses with flat and convex curvatures increased. Old rats had a greater number of damaged mitochondria in their synapses, and most of this was type II and type III mitochondrial structural damage. These results demonstrate age-dependent changes in the morphology of synaptic mitochondria that may underlie declines in age-related synaptic function and may couple to age-dependent loss of synapses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Aspects of Redox, Antioxidant and Mitochondrial Signaling)
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Open AccessReview
Effects and Mechanisms of Tea for the Prevention and Management of Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetic Complications: An Updated Review
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060170
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 4 June 2019 / Accepted: 6 June 2019 / Published: 10 June 2019
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Abstract
Diabetes mellitus has become a serious and growing public health concern. It has high morbidity and mortality because of its complications, such as diabetic nephropathy, diabetic cardiovascular complication, diabetic neuropathy, diabetic retinopathy, and diabetic hepatopathy. Epidemiological studies revealed that the consumption of tea [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus has become a serious and growing public health concern. It has high morbidity and mortality because of its complications, such as diabetic nephropathy, diabetic cardiovascular complication, diabetic neuropathy, diabetic retinopathy, and diabetic hepatopathy. Epidemiological studies revealed that the consumption of tea was inversely associated with the risk of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Experimental studies demonstrated that tea had protective effects against diabetes mellitus and its complications via several possible mechanisms, including enhancing insulin action, ameliorating insulin resistance, activating insulin signaling pathway, protecting islet β-cells, scavenging free radicals, and decreasing inflammation. Moreover, clinical trials also confirmed that tea intervention is effective in patients with diabetes mellitus and its complications. Therefore, in order to highlight the importance of tea in the prevention and management of diabetes mellitus and its complications, this article summarizes and discusses the effects of tea against diabetes mellitus and its complications based on the findings from epidemiological, experimental, and clinical studies, with the special attention paid to the mechanisms of action. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Role of Cytosolic 2-Cys Prx1 and Prx2 in Redox Signaling
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060169
Received: 12 May 2019 / Revised: 2 June 2019 / Accepted: 7 June 2019 / Published: 10 June 2019
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Abstract
Peroxiredoxins (Prxs), a family of peroxidases, are reactive oxygen species scavengers that hydrolyze H2O2 through catalytic cysteine. Mammalian Prxs comprise six isoforms (typical 2-Cys Prxs; Prx1–4, atypical 2-Cys Prx; Prx5, and 1-Cys Prx; Prx6) that are distributed over various cellular [...] Read more.
Peroxiredoxins (Prxs), a family of peroxidases, are reactive oxygen species scavengers that hydrolyze H2O2 through catalytic cysteine. Mammalian Prxs comprise six isoforms (typical 2-Cys Prxs; Prx1–4, atypical 2-Cys Prx; Prx5, and 1-Cys Prx; Prx6) that are distributed over various cellular compartments as they are classified according to the position and number of conserved cysteine. 2-Cys Prx1 and Prx2 are abundant proteins that are ubiquitously expressed mainly in the cytosol, and over 90% of their amino acid sequences are homologous. Prx1 and Prx2 protect cells from ROS-mediated oxidative stress through the elimination of H2O2 and regulate cellular signaling through redox-dependent mechanism. In addition, Prx1 and Prx2 are able to bind to a diversity of interaction partners to regulate other various cellular processes in cancer (i.e., regulation of the protein redox status, cell growth, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis). Thus, Prx1 and Prx2 can be potential therapeutic targets and it is particularly important to control their level or activity. This review focuses on cytosolic 2-Cys Prx1 and Prx2 and their role in the regulation of redox signaling based on protein-protein interaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox Regulation of Cell Signalling)
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Open AccessArticle
Aging Exacerbates Ischemia-Reperfusion-Induced Mitochondrial Respiration Impairment in Skeletal Muscle
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060168
Received: 17 May 2019 / Revised: 31 May 2019 / Accepted: 5 June 2019 / Published: 8 June 2019
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Abstract
Cycles of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) that occur during peripheral arterial disease (PAD) are associated with significant morbi-mortality, and aging is an irreversible risk factor of PAD. However, the effects of advanced age on IR-induced skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction are not well known. Young and [...] Read more.
Cycles of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) that occur during peripheral arterial disease (PAD) are associated with significant morbi-mortality, and aging is an irreversible risk factor of PAD. However, the effects of advanced age on IR-induced skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction are not well known. Young and aged mice were therefore submitted to hindlimb IR (2 h ischemia followed by 2 h reperfusion). Skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration, calcium retention capacity (CRC) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were determined using high resolution respirometry, spectrofluorometry and electronic paramagnetic resonance. IR-induced impairment in mitochondrial respiration was enhanced in old animals (VADP; from 33.0 ± 2.4 to 18.4 ± 3.8 and 32.8 ± 1.3 to 5.9 ± 2.7 pmol/s/mg wet weight; −44.2 ± 11.4% vs. −82.0 ± 8.1%, in young and aged mice, respectively). Baseline CRC was lower in old animals and IR similarly decreased the CRC in both groups (from 11.8 ± 0.9 to 4.6 ± 0.9 and 5.5 ± 0.9 to 2.1 ± 0.3 µmol/mg dry weight; −60.9 ± 7.3 and −60.9 ± 4.6%, in young and aged mice, respectively). Further, IR-induced ROS production tended to be higher in aged mice. In conclusion, aging exacerbated the deleterious effects of IR on skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration, potentially in relation to an increased oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Oxidative Stress Diseases)
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