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Apple Pomace Extract as a Sustainable Food Ingredient

1
QOPNA & LAQV-REQUIMTE, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
2
Faculty of Pharmacy and Center of Pharmaceutical Studies, University of Coimbra, Azinhaga de Santa Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
3
School of Agriculture and CI&DETS, Polytechnic Institute of Viseu, 3500-606 Viseu, Portugal
4
CITAB, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
5
CERNAS, Agrarian Higher School, 3045-601 Coimbra, Portugal
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060189
Received: 9 April 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 16 June 2019 / Published: 21 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenolic Antioxidants from Agri-Food Waste Biomass)
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Abstract

Apple pomace is a by-product of apple processing industries with low value and thus frequent disposal, although with valuable compounds. Acidified hot water extraction has been suggested as a clean, feasible, and easy approach for the recovery of polyphenols. This type of extraction allowed us to obtain 296 g of extract per kg of dry apple pomace, including 3.3 g of polyphenols and 281 g of carbohydrates. Ultrafiltration and solid-phase extraction using C18 cartridges of the hot water extract suggested that, in addition to the apple native polyphenols detected by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to a diode-array detector and mass spectrometry UHPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn, polyphenols could also be present as complexes with carbohydrates. For the water-soluble polyphenols, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects were observed by inhibiting chemically generated hydroxyl radicals (OH•) and nitrogen monoxide radicals (NO•) produced in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. The water-soluble polyphenols, when incorporated into yogurt formulations, were not affected by fermentation and improved the antioxidant properties of the final product. This in vitro research paves the way for agro-food industries to achieve more diversified and sustainable solutions towards their main by-products. View Full-Text
Keywords: polyphenols; antioxidant; anti-inflammatory; extraction; functional food polyphenols; antioxidant; anti-inflammatory; extraction; functional food
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Fernandes, P.A.R.; Ferreira, S.S.; Bastos, R.; Ferreira, I.; Cruz, M.T.; Pinto, A.; Coelho, E.; Passos, C.P.; Coimbra, M.A.; Cardoso, S.M.; Wessel, D.F. Apple Pomace Extract as a Sustainable Food Ingredient. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 189.

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