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Non-Pungent n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA)-Derived Capsaicin Analogues as Potential Functional Ingredients with Antioxidant and Carbohydrate-Hydrolysing Enzyme Inhibitory Activities

Department of Pharmacy, Health Science and Nutrition, University of Calabria, Via Pietro Bucci, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (CS), Italy
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 162;
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 27 May 2019 / Accepted: 3 June 2019 / Published: 5 June 2019
PDF [575 KB, uploaded 17 June 2019]


N-Eicosapentaenoyl vanillylamine (EPVA) and N-docosahexaenoyl vanillylamine (DHVA), derived from n-3 polyunsaturated eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), respectively, were studied for their potential antioxidant and carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzyme inhibitory activities together with capsaicin and the corresponding n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The antioxidant potential was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) assay, β-carotene bleaching test, and ferric reducing ability power (FRAP). In the ABTS assay the following trend of potency could be observed EPVA > DHVA ≥ capsaicin. In addition, except for the FRAP test, all samples showed a greater activity than the positive controls used as reference compounds in the antioxidant assays. Both EPVA and DHVA showed half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values much lower than acarbose, which was used as the reference drug in the carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzyme inhibitory activity assays. It is interesting to note that structural changes in capsaicin derivatives had higher impacts on α-glucosidase than on α-amylase inhibition. Taken together, our data suggest that both EPVA and DHVA, which are not limited in compliance-related considerations with respect to capsaicin, due to absence of pungency, could be proposed as functional ingredients for the development of products for the management of type II diabetes and border-line hyperglycaemic patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: capsaicin; diabetes; fatty acid amides; PUFA; vanillylamides capsaicin; diabetes; fatty acid amides; PUFA; vanillylamides

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Leporini, M.; Loizzo, M.R.; Tundis, R.; La Torre, C.; Fazio, A.; Plastina, P. Non-Pungent n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA)-Derived Capsaicin Analogues as Potential Functional Ingredients with Antioxidant and Carbohydrate-Hydrolysing Enzyme Inhibitory Activities. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 162.

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