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Long-Term Effects of Ochratoxin A on the Glutathione Redox System and Its Regulation in Chicken

1
Department of Nutrition, Szent István University, H-2103 Gödöllő, Hungary
2
Department of Environmental Safety and Ecotoxicology, Szent István University, H-2103 Gödöllő, Hungary
3
MTA-KE-SZIE Mycotoxins in the Food Chain Research Group, Kaposvár University, H-7400 Kaposvár, Hungary
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060178
Received: 25 May 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 13 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Poultry Nutrition and Reproduction)
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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of three-weeks ochratoxin A (OTA) exposure on some lipid peroxidation parameters, reduced glutathione concentration and glutathione-peroxidase activity, as well as expression of oxidative stress response-related (KEAP1, NRF2) and glutathione system (GPX3, GPX4, GSS, GSR) genes in chickens. Three levels of exposure (106, 654 and 1126 μg/kg feed) were applied. The results showed that OTA initiated free radical formation, which was suggested by the increase in the malondialdehyde content in the liver and kidney, which was more marked in the liver, depending on the length of exposure and dose. Reduced glutathione concentration increased as an effect of the highest OTA dose in blood plasma and in liver, but not in red blood cell hemolysates and the kidney. Glutathione peroxidase activity did not change in the blood and showed increasing tendency in the liver, and significant increase in the kidney. Expression of KEAP1 gene showed up-regulation in the liver, and down-regulation in the kidney, but overexpression of NRF2 gene was found in the liver and kidney at the highest dose. However, down-regulation of Nrf2 dependent genes, GPX3, GPX4, GSS and GSR, suggested an improper antioxidant response at the protein level, thus oxidative stress occurred, even at the dose of the EU regulatory limit for poultry diets. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ochratoxin A; glutathione; glutathione-peroxidase; oxidative stress; gene expression Ochratoxin A; glutathione; glutathione-peroxidase; oxidative stress; gene expression
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kövesi, B.; Cserháti, M.; Erdélyi, M.; Zándoki, E.; Mézes, M.; Balogh, K. Long-Term Effects of Ochratoxin A on the Glutathione Redox System and Its Regulation in Chicken. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 178.

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