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Open AccessArticle

Glycemic Control during Pregnancy—A Predictor of Vitamin C Status at Labor in Type 1 Diabetic Women?

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Medical Department, Aarhus University Hospital, 8200 Aarhus, Denmark
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Gynecology & Obstetrics Department, Herning Hospital, 7400 Herning, Denmark
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Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 2200 København N, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060153
Received: 23 April 2019 / Revised: 21 May 2019 / Accepted: 28 May 2019 / Published: 31 May 2019
Several experimental studies have suggested that vitamin C (vitC) deficiency during pregnancy may be detrimental to fetal development, and observational studies have shown that vitC status is lower during pregnancy and in people with diabetes. A cross-sectional study in pregnant type 1 diabetic women found that poor maternal vitC status was a significant predictor for obstetric complications of pregnancy when measured within four weeks before labor. The plasma vitC concentration was significantly negatively correlated to HbA1c, the biomarker of glycemic control well-known to be associated with the outcome of the diabetic pregnancy. Here, we evaluated HbA1c during pregnancy in relation to the measured vitC levels in late pregnancy based on data from 46 women from the same cohort. Regression analysis showed that HbA1c of first trimester, the combined mean HbA1c of first and second trimester, mean HbA1c of the whole pregnancy (first, second and third trimester combined), and HbA1c of third trimester alone were all associated with vitC in late pregnancy (p = 0.03, n = 45; p = 0.034, n = 43; p = 0.017, n = 42; and p = 0.008, n = 46, respectively). In third trimester, when adjusted for creatinine clearance, the association between vitC and HbA1c persisted (p = 0.029). Women in third trimester with HbA1c above 7.0% had an increased risk of having poor vitC status compared to women with HbA1c below this level (11 out of 21 vs. 2 out of 25 women, p < 0.001). The results suggest that high HbA1c is associated with poor maternal vitC status and potentially inadequate supply of vitC for the neonate. HbA1c may thus be a relevant substitute biomarker for identifying pregnant women who might benefit from vitC supplementation. View Full-Text
Keywords: type 1 diabetes mellitus; HbA1c; pregnancy; vitamin C; cohort study type 1 diabetes mellitus; HbA1c; pregnancy; vitamin C; cohort study
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Juhl, B.; Lauszus, F.F.; Lykkesfeldt, J. Glycemic Control during Pregnancy—A Predictor of Vitamin C Status at Labor in Type 1 Diabetic Women? Antioxidants 2019, 8, 153.

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