Next Issue
Volume 14, August
Previous Issue
Volume 14, June
 
 

Insects, Volume 14, Issue 7 (July 2023) – 94 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Flavescence dorée (FD) is a quarantine grapevine disease caused by widespread phytoplasmas in Europe. Two phytoplasma strains are associated with the disease (FD-C and FD-D), but mixed infections are rare in vineyards. Here, we demonstrated that FD-C and FD-D strains compete during the infection of the laboratory insect vector Euscelidius variegatus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Although the insects were forced to acquire both strains by feeding or by injection, single infection and transmission of a unique strain, regardless of strain type, was the most frequent condition, likely due to competition between strains. Disease management is mainly based on insecticides, with undesirable environmental and public health effects. Understanding the mechanisms governing the FD epidemiology is crucial to refine treatments and eventually identify mild suppressor strains to overcome severe strains. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
11 pages, 1667 KiB  
Article
Potential of Entomopathogenic Nematodes to Control the Cabbage Stem Flea Beetle Psylliodes chrysocephala
Insects 2023, 14(7), 665; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14070665 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 974
Abstract
Cabbage stem flea beetle (CSFB) is an important pest of oilseed rape that was controlled by neonicotinoid seed treatments until they were banned for this use in 2013. Since then, CSFB has been a difficult pest to control, partly due to widespread resistance [...] Read more.
Cabbage stem flea beetle (CSFB) is an important pest of oilseed rape that was controlled by neonicotinoid seed treatments until they were banned for this use in 2013. Since then, CSFB has been a difficult pest to control, partly due to widespread resistance to pyrethroid insecticides. Alternate solutions are necessary. Here, four entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) species were tested against CSFB adults under laboratory conditions. In addition, a bioassay was completed to test for EPN compatibility with a range of adjuvants (glycerin, xanthan gum and flame retardant) to protect EPNs from UV radiation and desiccation. Results show that EPNs have the potential to control CSFB adults under laboratory conditions. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora caused 75% CSFB mortality at a concentration of 4000 nematodes/mL after six days, Steinernema feltiae caused 80% CSFB mortality when applied at a concentration of 40,000 nematodes/mL after two days, Steinernema carpocapsae caused 85% mortality at a concentration of 10,000 nematodes/mL after six days, and Steinernema kraussei caused no more than 70% CSFB mortality overall compared to the water control, which led to 23% mortality. Steinernema feltiae and H. bacteriophora survival was 100% when exposed to adjuvants, except S. feltiae with glycerin and H. bacteriophora with flame retardant. Further research to evaluate the efficacy of EPN and adjuvants under field conditions is necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Pest and Vector Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1497 KiB  
Article
Chemical Components of Dufour’s and Venom Glands in Camponotus japonicus (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)
Insects 2023, 14(7), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14070664 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 923
Abstract
The Dufour’s and venom glands are the most developed glands connected to the female reproductive organs, playing important roles in defense, foraging, information exchange, and reproduction in ants. The main chemical secretions of these glands vary among species and even among castes of [...] Read more.
The Dufour’s and venom glands are the most developed glands connected to the female reproductive organs, playing important roles in defense, foraging, information exchange, and reproduction in ants. The main chemical secretions of these glands vary among species and even among castes of the same species. In this study, we analyzed the chemical components of the Dufour’s and venom glands in different castes of Camponotus japonicus (original worker, minor worker, major worker, gyne, and queen) using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) with two sample processing methods (hexane solution and solid-phase microextraction). The secretion of the Dufour’s gland is characterized by a high ratio of alkanes, with n-undecane being the dominant secretion in all castes except the original workers. The venom gland’s secretion mainly includes alkanes, acids, ketones, and alcohols, with formic acid and n-undecane being the dominant components. Additionally, the chemical composition and proportion of the main components vary significantly among castes, which may be closely related to the division of labor in their social life. This study provides basic information to further understand the function of these two glands in the social life of ants. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1689 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Stability of a 1,8-Cineole Nanoemulsion and Its Fumigant Toxicity Effect against the Pests Tetranychus urticae, Rhopalosiphum maidis and Bemisia tabaci
Insects 2023, 14(7), 663; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14070663 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1255
Abstract
Pest control is a main concern in agriculture. Indiscriminate application of synthetic pesticides has caused negative impacts leading to the rapid development of resistance in arthropod pests. Plant secondary metabolites have been proposed as a safer alternative to conventional pesticides. Monoterpenoids have reported [...] Read more.
Pest control is a main concern in agriculture. Indiscriminate application of synthetic pesticides has caused negative impacts leading to the rapid development of resistance in arthropod pests. Plant secondary metabolites have been proposed as a safer alternative to conventional pesticides. Monoterpenoids have reported bioactivities against important pests; however, due to their high volatility, low water solubility and chemical instability, the application of these compounds has been limited. Nanosystems represent a potential vehicle for the broad application of monoterpenoids. In this study, an 1,8-cineole nanoemulsion was prepared by the low energy method of phase inversion, characterization of droplet size distribution and polydispersity index (PDI) was carried out by dynamic light scattering and stability was evaluated by centrifugation and Turbiscan analysis. Fumigant bioactivity was evaluated against Tetranychus urticae, Rhopalosiphum maidis and Bemisia tabaci. A nanoemulsion with oil:surfactant:water ratio of 0.5:1:8.5 had a droplet size of 14.7 nm and PDI of 0.178. Formulation was stable after centrifugation and the Turbiscan analysis showed no particle migration and a delta backscattering of ±1%. Nanoemulsion exhibited around 50% more bioactivity as a fumigant on arthropods when compared to free monoterpenoid. These results suggest that nanoformulations can provide volatile compounds of protection against volatilization, improving their bioactivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Pest and Vector Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 283 KiB  
Article
Determination of a Discriminant Dose to Identify Resistance to Amitraz in Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. (Acari: Ixodidae) from Mexico
Insects 2023, 14(7), 662; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14070662 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 629
Abstract
The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l., is considered the most widely distributed three-host tick in the world and has medical and veterinary importance; the control of infestation is carried out with acaricides, towards which it can develop resistance. This study aimed to [...] Read more.
The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l., is considered the most widely distributed three-host tick in the world and has medical and veterinary importance; the control of infestation is carried out with acaricides, towards which it can develop resistance. This study aimed to determine the discriminant dose (d.d) of amitraz to identify resistance in R. sanguineus s.l. larvae natives from Mexico and to evaluate its application in field-collected ticks. Engorged ticks were collected from naturally infested dogs residing in rural communities and were incubated for 25 days, and their progeny was used in a larval immersion test (LIT) to be exposed to the d.d. determined in Rhipicephalus microplus, and those that were susceptible were analyzed using the LIT in six concentrations. Mortality was analyzed through probit methodology to calculate the lethal concentration (LC) 50 and 99. The d.d. was determined as a consensus value by multiplying the LC99 × 2, and then, we proceeded to evaluate it in in-field samples by using the LIT technique. The d.d. calculated was 4 ppm. The in-field evaluation found 64% of the resistant samples to amitraz with mortality percentages between 98.3% and 0.35%. This dose can be used to rapidly and inexpensively identify resistant populations in samples collected in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Advances in Acarology)
24 pages, 2542 KiB  
Article
Effects of γ-Irradiation on Mating Behavior of Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier, 1790) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae)
Insects 2023, 14(7), 661; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14070661 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 769
Abstract
Red palm weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier 1790) is a highly invasive species originating from Southeast Asia and Melanesia. Over the past 30 years, this alien pest has spread extensively in the Middle East and the Mediterranean basin. Its endophagous larvae feed on [...] Read more.
Red palm weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier 1790) is a highly invasive species originating from Southeast Asia and Melanesia. Over the past 30 years, this alien pest has spread extensively in the Middle East and the Mediterranean basin. Its endophagous larvae feed on various palm species, causing significant damage that leads to the death of palm trees. Controlling RPW infestations is challenging due to their gregarious nature and the lack of detectable early symptoms. Systemic insecticides are effective means of control, but their use in urban areas is prohibited and resistance can develop. Considering alternative options with minimal environmental impact, the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has been explored. Previous research has shown that male RPWs irradiated at 80 Gy or higher achieve full sterility. This study aimed to investigate in laboratory conditions whether RPW sterile males (irradiated at 60 and 80 Gy) could compete sexually with non-irradiate males. Laboratory bio-assays under both no-choice and choice conditions assessed sexual performance in terms of number of matings, mating duration and time elapsed until the first mating. The results confirmed that irradiation does not negatively affect the mating performance of sterile males, demonstrating their ability to compete successfully with non-irradiated males in both experimental setups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Pest and Vector Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 18285 KiB  
Article
A Novel Deep Learning Model for Accurate Pest Detection and Edge Computing Deployment
Insects 2023, 14(7), 660; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14070660 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 889
Abstract
In this work, an attention-mechanism-enhanced method based on a single-stage object detection model was proposed and implemented for the problem of rice pest detection. A multi-scale feature fusion network was first constructed to improve the model’s predictive accuracy when dealing with pests of [...] Read more.
In this work, an attention-mechanism-enhanced method based on a single-stage object detection model was proposed and implemented for the problem of rice pest detection. A multi-scale feature fusion network was first constructed to improve the model’s predictive accuracy when dealing with pests of different scales. Attention mechanisms were then introduced to enable the model to focus more on the pest areas in the images, significantly enhancing the model’s performance. Additionally, a small knowledge distillation network was designed for edge computing scenarios, achieving a high inference speed while maintaining a high accuracy. Experimental verification on the IDADP dataset shows that the model outperforms current state-of-the-art object detection models in terms of precision, recall, accuracy, mAP, and FPS. Specifically, a mAP of 87.5% and an FPS value of 56 were achieved, significantly outperforming other comparative models. These results sufficiently demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Pest and Vector Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2159 KiB  
Article
Biology and Ecology of Delia planipalpis (Stein) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), an Emerging Pest of Broccoli in Mexico
Insects 2023, 14(7), 659; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14070659 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 900
Abstract
Delia planipalpis (Stein) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) is a pest of crucifers, such as broccoli, radish, cauliflower, turnip and cabbage. It has been recently described in Mexico as a significant emerging pest of broccoli. Due the lack of knowledge of this pest, the present study [...] Read more.
Delia planipalpis (Stein) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) is a pest of crucifers, such as broccoli, radish, cauliflower, turnip and cabbage. It has been recently described in Mexico as a significant emerging pest of broccoli. Due the lack of knowledge of this pest, the present study aimed to determine its life cycle, female sexual maturation, copulation, oviposition behavior and adult longevity. The identity of the fly in Mexico was confirmed genetically by sequencing the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene (COI). The mean development time of D. planipalpis was 32–33 days on radish at 24 °C under laboratory conditions. Females became sexually mature 1–2 days after emergence, and the highest incidence of matings was recorded on the second day (60%). Under choice conditions, D. planipalpis females preferred to oviposit on radish plants, rather than broccoli plants, possibly due to the use of radish for rearing the laboratory colony. Oviposition and the mean number of eggs laid varied among the broccoli varieties, with the highest oviposition observed on the Tlaloc variety. Repeated attempts to rear the laboratory colony on broccoli plants failed. Radish-reared insects of both sexes lived longer when individualized in the adult stage (14.5–22.5 days) than when adult flies were maintained in groups (10–11 days). This study contributes to the understanding of D. planipalpis biology and provides information that can be used to establish future control strategies against this pest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Physiology, Reproduction and Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 3210 KiB  
Article
Transcriptomic Analysis of Starvation on the Silkworm Brain
Insects 2023, 14(7), 658; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14070658 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 948
Abstract
Starvation imposes significant stress on animal survival and development, resulting in organ damage within the organism. The brain, being one of the most vital organs in animals, plays a crucial role in coordinating the physiological functions of other organs. However, performing brain experiments [...] Read more.
Starvation imposes significant stress on animal survival and development, resulting in organ damage within the organism. The brain, being one of the most vital organs in animals, plays a crucial role in coordinating the physiological functions of other organs. However, performing brain experiments on the human body is challenging. In this work, we selected the silkworm, a model Lepidoptera organism, due to its favorable characteristics. A comprehensive transcriptome analysis was conducted on the brain of silkworm subjected to starvation treatment. The analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed significant alterations in 330 genes following the period of starvation. Through an enrichment analysis, we successfully identified pathways associated with metabolism, hormones, immunity, and diseases. Our findings highlight the transcriptional response of the brain to starvation, providing valuable insights for comprehending the impact of starvation stress in other animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Physiology, Reproduction and Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

3 pages, 168 KiB  
Editorial
Mechanoecology and Chemoecology: Physical and Chemical Interactions between Insects and Plants
Insects 2023, 14(7), 657; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14070657 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 653
Abstract
Plants and herbivorous insects, as well as their natural enemies such as predatory and parasitoid insects, are united by intricate relationships [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical and Chemical Interactions between Insects and Plants)
18 pages, 307 KiB  
Article
Insecticidal Effect of Diatomaceous Earth Formulations for the Control of a Wide Range of Stored-Product Beetle Species
Insects 2023, 14(7), 656; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14070656 - 22 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 913
Abstract
Diatomaceous earth (DE) formulations are promising alternatives over the use of traditional insecticides. In the present study, a series of laboratory bioassays was carried out to assess the efficacy of three diatomaceous earth formulations, i.e., Silicid, Celatom® MN-23, and SilicoSec®, [...] Read more.
Diatomaceous earth (DE) formulations are promising alternatives over the use of traditional insecticides. In the present study, a series of laboratory bioassays was carried out to assess the efficacy of three diatomaceous earth formulations, i.e., Silicid, Celatom® MN-23, and SilicoSec®, for the control of a wide range of stored-product insect species in soft wheat. The species tested were Tribolium confusum, Tribolium castaneum, Sitophilus oryzae, Sitophilus granarius, Rhyzopertha dominica, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, and Alphitobious diaperinus. Different dose rates, i.e., 0 (control), 100, 300, 500, and 1000 ppm, were used for each of the aforementioned dust formulations. Mortality levels of the exposed individuals were assessed after 3, 7, 14, and 21 days of exposure. Moreover, progeny were counted 65 days later. Based on our results, dust formulations were effective for the control of most of the stored-product beetle species tested. Among the DE formulations tested, Silicid could adequately control the stored-product insect species. Complete suppression of offspring was observed only for secondary species (T. confusum, T. castaneum, O. surinamensis, and A. diaperinus). For primary species (S. oryzae, S. granarius, and R. dominica), the lowest number of progeny was observed in wheat treated with Silicid. For instance, in the case of R. dominica, significantly fewer individuals were produced in Silicid-treated wheat at the highest dose rate. The results of the present study aim to encourage the utilization of DE in stored-product protection as an integrated pest management tool. Additional experimentation is required to apply the tested DE formulations in the field and on different surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Pest and Vector Management)
15 pages, 3734 KiB  
Article
The Ladybird Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) of La Palma
Insects 2023, 14(7), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14070655 - 22 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 903
Abstract
This paper provides new data on the ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae) of La Palma, one of the western islands of the Canarian archipelago. The field survey of 54 study sites resulted in recording 2494 ladybird individuals belonging to 26 species. Seven of the species [...] Read more.
This paper provides new data on the ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae) of La Palma, one of the western islands of the Canarian archipelago. The field survey of 54 study sites resulted in recording 2494 ladybird individuals belonging to 26 species. Seven of the species recorded were new to La Palma, including two, Harmonia quadripunctata (Pontoppidan) and Nephus reunioni (Fürsch), which were not registered so far on any of the Canary Islands. Novius conicollis (Korschefsky) is synonymized with N. cruentatus (Mulsant). Taking our survey and literature reports into account, a total of at least 35 species of Coccinellidae have so far been recorded on La Palma. This richness in species is lower compared to that of the central islands of the Canarian archipelago, Gran Canaria (42 species) and Tenerife (41 species), but higher than that of the remaining four islands (between 22 and 27 species). The detection of two alien species new to La Palma, Nephaspis bicolor Gordon and Nephus reunioni (Fürsch), confirms earlier observations that colonization of the Canary Islands by ladybird species of exotic origins seems to be a frequent phenomenon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Ecology, Diversity and Conservation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2127 KiB  
Article
Combining Irradiation and Biological Control against Brown Marmorated Stink Bug: Are Sterile Eggs a Suitable Substrate for the Egg Parasitoid Trissolcus japonicus?
Insects 2023, 14(7), 654; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14070654 - 22 Jul 2023
Viewed by 965
Abstract
The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys, is a phytophagous invasive pest native to south-eastern Asia, and it is now distributed worldwide. This species is considered to be one of the most damaging insect pests in North America and in Europe. [...] Read more.
The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys, is a phytophagous invasive pest native to south-eastern Asia, and it is now distributed worldwide. This species is considered to be one of the most damaging insect pests in North America and in Europe. In agriculture, the predominant approach to managing BMSB is based on the use of insecticides, specifically pyrethroids and neonicotinoids. Unfortunately, the biology of the species and its facility to develop mechanisms of resistance to available pesticides has induced farmers and scientists to develop different, least-toxic, and more effective strategies of control. In a territorial area-wide approach, the use of a classical biological control program in combination with other least-toxic strategies has been given prominent consideration. Following exploratory surveys in the native range, attention has focused on Trissolcus japonicus, a small scelionid egg parasitoid wasp that is able to oviposit and complete its larval development in a single egg of H. halys. A common method for detecting egg parasitoids in the native range involves the placement of so-called ‘sentinel’ egg masses of the pest in the environment for a short period, which are then returned to the laboratory to determine if any of them are parasitized. Outside of the area of origin, the use of fertile sentinel eggs of the alien species may lead to the further release of the pest species; an alternative is to use sterile sentinel eggs to record the presence of new indigenous egg parasitoids or to detect the dispersal of alien species (in this case, T. japonicus) released in a new environment to control the target insect pest species. This study evaluated the performance of three types of sterile sentinel eggs as a suitable substrate for the oviposition and larval development of the egg parasitoid T. japonicus in a context of combining classical biological control with a Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) approach. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 1692 KiB  
Article
Pheromone and Host Plant Odor Detection in Eastern Spruce Budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana Clemens (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)
Insects 2023, 14(7), 653; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14070653 - 21 Jul 2023
Viewed by 766
Abstract
Spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana Clemens, is an ecologically significant defoliator of spruce and balsam fir in North America. Optimization of semiochemical-mediated control is needed to improve the existing integrated pest management systems such as mating disruption and population estimation. This study used single [...] Read more.
Spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana Clemens, is an ecologically significant defoliator of spruce and balsam fir in North America. Optimization of semiochemical-mediated control is needed to improve the existing integrated pest management systems such as mating disruption and population estimation. This study used single sensillum recordings (SSR) to identify the responses of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in the antennal sensilla of adult male and female C. fumiferana to host plant volatiles, and female sex pheromones. There have been few SSR studies done on spruce budworm, and to our knowledge, the present study represents the first attempt to examine the responses of ORNs from antennal sensilla in response to a range of host and conspecific stimuli. A total of 86 sensilla were characterized and sorted into 15 possible sensillum categories based on odor responses. We observed that specialist sensilla responding to few ligands were more abundant in both male and female than sensilla exhibiting more generalized odorant responses. (E/Z)-11-tetradecenal elicited responses from ORNs from any sensilla which were sensitive to pheromones in both males and females. Female C. fumiferana ORNs were able to detect and physiologically respond to female-produced sex pheromones with the same degree of sensitivity as their male counterparts. Together, these data improve our knowledge of mechanisms by which adult budworms respond to pheromone and host plant volatiles and provide insights that may be complementary to existing integrated pest management (IPM) strategies based on the chemical ecology of spruce budworm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Insect Sensory Biology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 23971 KiB  
Article
New Insights on Antennal Sensilla of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) Using Advanced Microscopy Techniques
Insects 2023, 14(7), 652; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14070652 - 20 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 912
Abstract
Using light, transmission, scanning electron, and confocal microscopy, we carried out a morphological study of antennal sensilla and their ultrastructures of the Mexican Fruit Fly Anastrepha ludens (Loew), an economically important species that is a pest of mangos and citrus in Mexico and [...] Read more.
Using light, transmission, scanning electron, and confocal microscopy, we carried out a morphological study of antennal sensilla and their ultrastructures of the Mexican Fruit Fly Anastrepha ludens (Loew), an economically important species that is a pest of mangos and citrus in Mexico and Central America. Our goal was to update the known information on the various sensilla in the antennae of A. ludens, involved in the perception of odors, temperature, humidity, and movement. Based on their external shape, size, cuticle-thickness, and presence of pores, we identified six types of sensilla with 16 subtypes (one chaetica in the pedicel, four clavate, two trichoid, four basiconic, one styloconic, and one campaniform-like in the flagellum, and three additional ones in the two chambers of the sensory pit (pit-basiconic I and II, and pit-styloconic)), some of them described for the first time in A. ludens. We also report, for the first time, two types of pores in the sensilla (hourglass and wedge shapes) that helped classify the sensilla. Additionally, we report a campaniform-like sensillum only observed by transmission electronic microscopy on the flagellum, styloconic and basiconic variants inside the sensory pit, and an “hourglass-shaped” pore in six sensilla types. We discuss and suggest the possible function of each sensillum according to their characteristics and unify previously used criteria in the only previous study on the topic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fly Biology, Ecology, Behavior and Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 1688 KiB  
Article
Receptivity and Remating Propensity in Female Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) after Mating with an Irradiated Male or Its F1 Male Progeny
Insects 2023, 14(7), 651; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14070651 - 20 Jul 2023
Viewed by 609
Abstract
The ‘Inherited or F1 sterility technique’ (IS), using sub-sterilized male moths, is a widely proposed pest management tool for Lepidoptera pests in general, and the tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura (Fabr.) in particular. However, the multiple mating tendency of female moths and the [...] Read more.
The ‘Inherited or F1 sterility technique’ (IS), using sub-sterilized male moths, is a widely proposed pest management tool for Lepidoptera pests in general, and the tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura (Fabr.) in particular. However, the multiple mating tendency of female moths and the ejaculate quality of male moths might influence the efficiency of this technique. Reduced ejaculate quality was observed in irradiated males, as evidenced by radiation’s impact on certain bio-parameters, such as the weight of the spermatophores and their protein content, sperm count, the molecular expression of the sex peptide receptor (SPR) and egg fertility, with a greater impact in F1 male progeny. During the remating of females with untreated males, irrespective of the irradiation status of the first male, there was an increase in calling behavior, remating propensity and fertility in females, with a larger time gap between consecutive matings. The ability of F1 male progeny to check remating propensity in females 24 h after the initial mating was lower than that of unirradiated males. Partially sterile (130 Gy) males were as successful as unirradiated males in inducing the level of mating refractoriness in females. Decreased ejaculate quality in F1 male progeny could be associated with increased female receptivity during remating. Understanding the influence of male moth irradiation, insemination quality and post (initial)-mating intervals on the remating behavior of normal female moths and induced sterility might help in simulation modeling and optimizing IS insect programs. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 9886 KiB  
Article
Comparative Morphology of Wax Gland Heads in Adult Dustywings (Insecta: Neuroptera: Coniopterygidae)
Insects 2023, 14(7), 650; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14070650 - 20 Jul 2023
Viewed by 685
Abstract
In the largest comparative study of coniopterygid wax gland head morphology to date, we used scanning electron microscopy to illustrate the ultrastructure of gland heads found in 2 subfamilies (Aleuropteryginae and Coniopteryginae), 5 tribes (Aleuropterygini, Coniocompsini, Coniopterygini, Conwentziini, and Fontenelleini), 9 genera ( [...] Read more.
In the largest comparative study of coniopterygid wax gland head morphology to date, we used scanning electron microscopy to illustrate the ultrastructure of gland heads found in 2 subfamilies (Aleuropteryginae and Coniopteryginae), 5 tribes (Aleuropterygini, Coniocompsini, Coniopterygini, Conwentziini, and Fontenelleini), 9 genera (Aleuropteryx, Coniopteryx, ConiocompsaConwentzia, Cryptoscenea, Heteroconis, Semidalis, Spiloconis, and Thecosemidalis), and 28 species of Palearctic and Oriental dustywings collected from a variety of sites across China. We propose a new descriptive terminology to concisely characterize the major elements of gland head ultrastructure and then identify similarities and differences among them and provide detailed descriptions of the wax gland heads found in each of the nine genera examined. Based on the range of taxa examined, we propose hypotheses about the functional morphology of some of the ultrastructural elements examined and relate them to wax ring formation in dustywings. An identification key for the examined genera based on gland head morphology is also presented. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 444 KiB  
Review
Overview of Updated Control Tactics for Western Flower Thrips
Insects 2023, 14(7), 649; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14070649 - 20 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1654
Abstract
Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), broadly known as Western flower thrips (WFT), are currently one of the most critical pests worldwide in field and greenhouse crops, and their management is full of yet unsolved challenges derived from their high reproductive potential, cryptic habit, [...] Read more.
Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), broadly known as Western flower thrips (WFT), are currently one of the most critical pests worldwide in field and greenhouse crops, and their management is full of yet unsolved challenges derived from their high reproductive potential, cryptic habit, and ability to disperse. The control of this pest relies widely on chemical control, despite the propensity of the species to develop resistance. However, significant advances have been produced through biological and ethological control. Although there has recently been a remarkable amount of new information regarding the management of this pest worldwide, there is no critical analysis of recent developments and advances in the attractive control tactics for WFT, constituting the present compilation’s aim. Hence, this narrative review provides an overview of effective control strategies for managing thrips populations. By understanding the pest’s biology, implementing monitoring techniques, accurately identifying the species, and employing appropriate control measures, farmers and researchers can mitigate the WFT impact on agricultural production and promote sustainable pest management practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Invasive Arthropod Pests - Volume II)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

10 pages, 1429 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Predatory Mite Neoseiulus barkeri against Spider Mites Damaging Rubber Trees
Insects 2023, 14(7), 648; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14070648 - 18 Jul 2023
Viewed by 975
Abstract
The spider mites Eotetranychus sexmaculatus, Eutetranychus orientalis and Oligonychus biharensisin are severe pests of rubber trees in China. The predatory mite Neoseiulus barkeri has been found to be a natural enemy of these three pests, while nothing is known about the biological [...] Read more.
The spider mites Eotetranychus sexmaculatus, Eutetranychus orientalis and Oligonychus biharensisin are severe pests of rubber trees in China. The predatory mite Neoseiulus barkeri has been found to be a natural enemy of these three pests, while nothing is known about the biological performance of this phytoseiid predator against these phytophagous mites. In this study, the development, survivorship, reproduction, adult longevity, fecundity, sex ratio and population growth parameters of N. barkeri fed on these pests were evaluated in comparison to the factitious prey Tyrophagus putrescentiae in the laboratory at 25 ± 1 °C, 75 ± 5% relative humidity and a 12:12 (L:D) h photoperiod. The results showed that N. barkeri could develop from egg to adult and reproduced successfully on the three preys. The survival rate of N. barkeri from egg to adult was higher when fed on E. orientalis (100%) and T. putrescentiae (100%) than when fed on O. biharensisin (93.60%) and E. sexmaculatus (71.42%). The shortest and longest generation time for N. barkeri were observed on E. orientalis with 6.67 d and E. sexmaculatus with 12.50 d, respectively. The maximum fecundity (29.35 eggs per female) and highest intrinsic rate of increase (rm = 0.226) were recorded when N. barkeri fed on E. orientalis, while feeding on E. sexmaculatus gave the minimum fecundity (1.87 eggs per female) and lowest reproduction rate (rm = 0.041). The values of these parameters for N. barkeri evaluated on O. biharensisin were found to be comparable to those obtained on T. putrescentiae. The sex ratio of N. barkeri progeny on the preys mentioned above, apart from O. biharensisin, was female biased. According to the findings, N. barkeri could serve as a promising biocontrol agent against E. orientalis and O. biharensisin, and possibly E. sexmaculatus on rubber trees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Other Arthropods and General Topics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

29 pages, 2914 KiB  
Article
A New Subgenus of the Genus Phenolia (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae) from Myanmar Cretaceous Amber with Taxonomic, Phylogenetic and Bionomic Notes on the ‘Nitidulid’ Group of Families
Insects 2023, 14(7), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14070647 - 18 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1122
Abstract
A new subgenus, Palaeoronia subgen. nov., is described from the Cretaceous amber of North Myanmar (Kachin State) and assigned to the genus Phenolia. The type species of the new subgenus, Phenolia (Palaeoronia) haoranae subgen. et sp. nov., is characterized by [...] Read more.
A new subgenus, Palaeoronia subgen. nov., is described from the Cretaceous amber of North Myanmar (Kachin State) and assigned to the genus Phenolia. The type species of the new subgenus, Phenolia (Palaeoronia) haoranae subgen. et sp. nov., is characterized by a rather ‘archaic’ aspect. A discussion of the diagnostic and structure of the Soronia-complex of genera (together with the Phenolia-complex of genera) (Nitidulinae, Nitidulini) is proposed. Reasons for the ‘conservatism’ of this group during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic are discussed. The position of the Apophisandridae stat. nov. (type genus Apophisandra) and the transfers of the following genera into this family: Cretaretes, Electrumeretes, Furcalabratum, Pelretes, Polliniretes, Protokateretes, Protonitidula, and Scaporetes, from the Kateretidae, Nitidulidae or Cerambycidae are grounded. The relations of the family Parandrexidae (with inclusion of the genus Cretoparacucujus, transferred from Boganiidae with a proposal of the subfamily Cretoparacucujinae subfam.nov.), Martynoposis and Parandrexis are considered. The genus Antirhelus gen. nov. (type species Heterhelus buzina) is assigned to the new subfamily, Antirhelinae subfam. nov. in the family Kateretidae. The fossil records of the ‘nitidulid’ group of families (Apophisandridae stat. nov., Kateretidae, Nitidulidae, Parandrexidae, Smicripidae and possibly Boganiidae) are reviewed. The relationship of the family Boganiidae, some aspects of pollination and pollinophagy, and also changes in beetle diet in the past are discussed. The lectotype of Parandrixis parvula is designated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Systematics, Phylogeny and Evolution)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

22 pages, 17463 KiB  
Article
A Taxonomic Revision of the Genus Cionus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) from the Oriental Region
Insects 2023, 14(7), 646; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14070646 - 18 Jul 2023
Viewed by 704
Abstract
Oriental species of the genus Cionus are herein revised for the first time. Eight species are recognized as distinct based on morphological characters of adults. One species is described as new: C. ottomerkli sp. nov., from India, whereas the name vossi (nom. nov.) [...] Read more.
Oriental species of the genus Cionus are herein revised for the first time. Eight species are recognized as distinct based on morphological characters of adults. One species is described as new: C. ottomerkli sp. nov., from India, whereas the name vossi (nom. nov.) is proposed for Cionus flavoguttatus Voss, 1957 (not Stierlin, 1893). The following new synonymy is established: Cionus indicus Desbrochers des Loges, 1890 (=Cionus albosparsus Faust, 1898 syn. nov.). Lectotypes of Cionus albosparsus Faust, 1898; Cionus flavoguttatus Voss, 1957; Cionus indicus Desbrochers des Loges, 1890; Cionus obesus Pascoe, 1883; and Cionus tonkinensis Wingelmüller, 1915, are designated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Systematics, Phylogeny and Evolution)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 4428 KiB  
Article
Precision and Accuracy of Field Versus Laboratory Bioassay Insecticide Efficacy for the Control of Immature Bemisia tabaci
Insects 2023, 14(7), 645; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14070645 - 18 Jul 2023
Viewed by 947
Abstract
Ecotoxicological studies often result in reports on the limitation and sometime failures of biological assay data to predict field response to similar treatments. Nevertheless, it is widely accepted that controlled bioassays can better quantify the specific mortality response of a target pest species [...] Read more.
Ecotoxicological studies often result in reports on the limitation and sometime failures of biological assay data to predict field response to similar treatments. Nevertheless, it is widely accepted that controlled bioassays can better quantify the specific mortality response of a target pest species to a specific toxin. To quantify the relationship between whitefly bioassay and field response data, we evaluated a controlled laboratory bioassay and a concurrent cucurbit field trial method to assess insecticide efficacy for controlling the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). This was based on oviposition and nymphal development. We specifically tested the assumptions that a maximum dose bioassay would more precisely measure insecticide efficacy as compared with a comparable field spray test evaluation, and the response would be equal between the bioassay and the field as a measure of control accuracy for both adult oviposition and development of nymphal stages. To make a direct comparison, we tested the same whitefly population subsamples from 352 plots in eight cucurbit field experiments in Georgia, USA, in 2021 and 2022. The bioassays provide significantly precision for estimating proportional whitefly response. As expected, treatment-specific nonequivalence in immature whitefly counts between the bioassay and field, i.e., a lack of accuracy, only occurred with insecticides that were not highly toxic to all growth stages of whiteflies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 3124 KiB  
Article
Possible Regulation of Larval Juvenile Hormone Titers in Bombyx mori by BmFAMeT6
Insects 2023, 14(7), 644; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14070644 - 17 Jul 2023
Viewed by 769
Abstract
Juvenile hormone (JH) plays a vital role in the growth, development, and reproduction of insects and other arthropods. Previous experiments have suggested that BmFAMeT6 could affect the duration of the silk moth’s larval stage. In this study, we established the BmFAMeT6 overexpression strain [...] Read more.
Juvenile hormone (JH) plays a vital role in the growth, development, and reproduction of insects and other arthropods. Previous experiments have suggested that BmFAMeT6 could affect the duration of the silk moth’s larval stage. In this study, we established the BmFAMeT6 overexpression strain and BmFAMeT6 knockout strain using the GAL4/UAS binary hybrid system and CRISPR/Cas 9 system, respectively, and found that the larval stage of the overexpression strain was shorter, while the knockout strain was longer. Our results exhibited that both the JH titers and BmKr-h1 levels in the larvae of the third instar were reduced significantly by BmFAMeT6 overexpression, but were increased obviously by BmFAMeT6 knockout. In addition, injection of farnesoic acid induced changes in the JH I and JH II levels in the hemolymphs of larvae. This study is the first to directly reveal the role of BmFAMeT6 in the regulation of insect JH titers and the relationship between farnesoic acid and JH (JH I and JH II). This provides a new perspective on regulating the growth and development of insects such as Bombyx mori. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Physiology, Reproduction and Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1326 KiB  
Article
Insecticide Susceptibility and Detoxification Enzyme Activity of Frankliniella occidentalis under Three Habitat Conditions
Insects 2023, 14(7), 643; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14070643 - 17 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1356
Abstract
Frankliniella occidentalis is a highly destructive and invasive agricultural pest that has developed resistance to a variety of insecticide classes. Different planting structures and insecticide use frequency can directly affect the resistance development of F. occidentalis. In this study, the susceptibility of [...] Read more.
Frankliniella occidentalis is a highly destructive and invasive agricultural pest that has developed resistance to a variety of insecticide classes. Different planting structures and insecticide use frequency can directly affect the resistance development of F. occidentalis. In this study, the susceptibility of three field strains of F. occidentalis, collected over one year (April to November) from three habitat conditions (facility agriculture area, FA; open field crop area, OF; agroforestry intersection area, AI), to spinetoram, spinosad, emamectin benzoate, chlorfenapyr, acetamiprid, and imidacloprid were monitored and compared. At the same time, the detoxification enzyme activity of F. occidentalis in different habitats was determined. The results showed that the susceptibility of the F. occidentalis population in FA was significantly lower than that of populations from OF and AI. Among them, the F. occidentalis population in FA had developed low levels of resistance to spinetoram (RR = 9.18-fold), emamectin benzoate (RR = 5.47-fold), chlorfenapyr (RR = 6.67-fold), and acetamiprid (RR = 7.49-fold), and had developed moderate level resistance to imidacloprid (RR = 11.67-fold), while still being relatively sensitive to spinosad. The population of F. occidentalis from OF had developed low level resistance to spinetoram (RR = 5.24-fold) but was still relatively sensitive to the other five insecticides. The resistance of F. occidentalis from AI to six insecticides was at relatively sensitive levels. The results of the enzyme activities of detoxification enzymes, including carboxylesterase (CarE), glutathione S-transferase (GST), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and the cytochrome P450 enzyme system (CYP450), revealed that the activities of the FA population of F. occidentalis were significantly higher than those of the other two populations. The change of CarE activity in F. occidentalis was consistent with that of spinetoram resistance, indicating that CarE may be involved in the metabolic resistance of F. occidentalis to spinetoram. Among the three populations, the resistance and detoxification enzyme activities of F. occidentalis of the FA population to six insecticides were higher than those of the other two populations. Our findings, along with other strategies, are expected to help with the resistance management of F. occidentalis in different habitats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Pest and Vector Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 9923 KiB  
Article
First Discovery of the North American Leaf-Mining Moth Chrysaster ostensackenella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in Russia: The Genetic Diversity of a Novel Pest in Invaded vs. Native Range
Insects 2023, 14(7), 642; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14070642 - 15 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1144
Abstract
Here, we report the first detection of the North American leaf-mining moth Chrysaster ostensackenella (Fitch, 1859) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) on North American black locust Robinia pseudoacacia (Fabaceae) in Primorsky Krai (the Russian Far East) in July 2022. Overall, six moths were reared from the [...] Read more.
Here, we report the first detection of the North American leaf-mining moth Chrysaster ostensackenella (Fitch, 1859) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) on North American black locust Robinia pseudoacacia (Fabaceae) in Primorsky Krai (the Russian Far East) in July 2022. Overall, six moths were reared from the leaf mines and identified based on adult morphology (forewing pattern and male genitalia) and three of them were DNA barcoding. Description of the leaf mines that allowed us to distinguish the damage of Ch. ostensackenella from other gracillariids associated with R. pseudoacacia is provided. The phylogeographic analysis comparing the DNA barcodes from Russia with those from other invaded countries in Europe (Italy) and East Asia (South Korea and Japan) and from the native range (North America) was performed. Intraspecific genetic diversity reached 3.29%. Altogether, 10 haplotypes were revealed among 21 studied specimens in the Holarctic. The detection of one haplotype common for Japan and the USA (North Carolina) suggests that the invasion to East Asia could have happened from the USA directly, rather than through Europe. A shared haplotype defined for Japan and the Russian Far East points at a possible moth species’ spread to Primorsky Krai from earlier invaded Hokkaido. Further distribution of Ch. ostensackenella in East Asia and Europe is expected, bearing in mind the wide planting of R. pseudoacacia in these continents. Furthermore, an accidental introduction of the moth to the Southern Hemisphere, where black locust was introduced, is not ruled out. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 1106 KiB  
Article
Effects of Temperature on the Developmental and Reproductive Biology of North American Bean Thrips, Caliothrips fasciatus (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae: Panchaetothripinae)
Insects 2023, 14(7), 641; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14070641 - 15 Jul 2023
Viewed by 932
Abstract
North American bean thrips, Caliothrips fasciatus, native to California U.S., has been detected inside the navels of navel oranges exported from California for more than 120 years. Despite this long history of accidental movement into new areas, this thrips has failed to [...] Read more.
North American bean thrips, Caliothrips fasciatus, native to California U.S., has been detected inside the navels of navel oranges exported from California for more than 120 years. Despite this long history of accidental movement into new areas, this thrips has failed to establish populations outside of its native range. The cold accumulation hypothesis postulates that increasing levels of cold stress experienced by thrips overwintering inside navels is compounded when harvested fruit is shipped under cold storage conditions. Consequently, the fitness of surviving thrips is compromised, which greatly diminishes invasion potential. At the time this study was conducted, the effects of temperature on C. fasciatus fitness were unknown. To address this shortcoming, the effects of nine fluctuating temperatures that averaged 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 32, 35, and 37 °C over a 24 h period on the developmental and reproductive biology of C. fasciatus were evaluated. One linear and five nonlinear regression functions were fit to egg-to-adult development rate data for parent and offspring thrips to characterize thermal performance curves. Estimates of minimum, optimal, and maximum temperature thresholds for development were in the ranges of −4.37–6.52 °C (i.e., Tmin), 31.19–32.52 °C (i.e., Topt), and 35.07–37.98 °C (i.e., Tmax), respectively. Degree day accumulation to complete development, estimated from linear regression, ranged 370.37–384.61. Average development times for eggs, first and second instar larvae, propupae, pupae, and adult longevity, and mean lifetime fecundity of females were significantly affected by temperature. These biological responses to temperature may provide insight into how this abiotic variable affects the invasion potential of C. fasciatus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Physiology, Reproduction and Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

33 pages, 15574 KiB  
Article
Embryonic Development of Parthenogenetic and Sexual Eggs in Lower Termites
Insects 2023, 14(7), 640; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14070640 - 15 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1067
Abstract
Worldwide, termites are one of few social insects. In this research, the stages of embryonic development in the parthenogenetic and sexual eggs of Reticulitermes aculabialis and R. flaviceps were observed and described. In R. flaviceps, the egg development of the FF and [...] Read more.
Worldwide, termites are one of few social insects. In this research, the stages of embryonic development in the parthenogenetic and sexual eggs of Reticulitermes aculabialis and R. flaviceps were observed and described. In R. flaviceps, the egg development of the FF and FM groups happened during the early phases of development, whereas in R. aculabialis, this appeared mainly during the late phase of development. The variance in the number of micropyles between the R. flaviceps FF colony type and the R. aculabialis FF colony type was statistically significant. Five stages of egg development were found in both types of R. aculabialis but only the sexual eggs of R. flaviceps. In R. flaviceps, 86% of the parthenogenetic eggs stopped growing during the blastoderm development, with the yolk cell assembling frequently in the center of the egg. According to the results of the single-cell transcriptome sequencing, we investigated the egg-to-larval expression level of genes (pka, map2k1, mapk1/3, hgk, mkp, and pax6) and indicated that the levels of essential gene expression in RaFF were considerably higher than in RfFF (p < 0.05). We also discovered that the oocyte cleavage rate in the FF colony type was considerably lower in R. flaviceps compared to R. aculabialis, which gave rise to a smaller number of mature oocytes in R. flaviceps. During ovulation in both species, oocytes underwent activation and one or two cleavage events, but the development of unfertilized eggs ceased in R. flaviceps. It was shown that termite oocyte and embryonic development were heavily influenced by genes with significant expressions. Results from the databases KEGG, COG, and GO unigenes revealed the control of numerous biological processes. This study is the first to complete a database of parthenogenetic and sexual eggs of R. flaviceps and R. aculabialis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Societies and Sociality)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2477 KiB  
Article
The Spatiotemporal Distribution, Abundance, and Seasonal Dynamics of Cotton-Infesting Aphids in the Southern U.S.
Insects 2023, 14(7), 639; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14070639 - 15 Jul 2023
Viewed by 993
Abstract
Cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV) is an emerging aphid-borne pathogen infecting cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in the southern United States (U.S.). The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, infests cotton annually and is the only known vector to transmit CLRDV to cotton. Seven other [...] Read more.
Cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV) is an emerging aphid-borne pathogen infecting cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in the southern United States (U.S.). The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, infests cotton annually and is the only known vector to transmit CLRDV to cotton. Seven other species have been reported to feed on, but not often infest, cotton: Protaphis middletonii Thomas, Aphis craccivora Koch, Aphis fabae Scopoli, Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas, Myzus persicae Sulzer, Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale Sasaki, and Smynthurodes betae Westwood. These seven have not been studied in cotton, but due to their potential epidemiological importance, an understanding of the intra- and inter-annual variations of these species is needed. In 2020 and 2021, aphids were monitored from North Carolina to Texas using pan traps around cotton fields. All of the species known to infest cotton, excluding A. fabae, were detected in this study. Protaphis middletonii and A. gossypii were the most abundant species identified. The five other species of aphids captured were consistently low throughout the study and, with the exception of R. rufiabdominale, were not detected at all locations. The abundance, distribution, and seasonal dynamics of cotton-infesting aphids across the southern U.S. are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Pest and Vector Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 657 KiB  
Review
Influences of Microbial Symbionts on Chemoreception of Their Insect Hosts
Insects 2023, 14(7), 638; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14070638 - 14 Jul 2023
Viewed by 982
Abstract
Chemical communication is widespread among insects and exploited to adjust their behavior, such as food and habitat seeking and preferences, recruitment, defense, and mate attraction. Recently, many studies have revealed that microbial symbionts could regulate host chemical communication by affecting the synthesis and [...] Read more.
Chemical communication is widespread among insects and exploited to adjust their behavior, such as food and habitat seeking and preferences, recruitment, defense, and mate attraction. Recently, many studies have revealed that microbial symbionts could regulate host chemical communication by affecting the synthesis and perception of insect semiochemicals. In this paper, we review recent studies of the influence of microbial symbionts on insect chemoreception. Microbial symbionts may influence insect sensitivity to semiochemicals by regulating the synthesis of odorant-binding proteins or chemosensory proteins and olfactory or gustatory receptors and regulating host neurotransmission, thereby adjusting insect behavior. The manipulation of insect chemosensory behavior by microbial symbionts is conducive to their proliferation and dispersal and provides the impetus for insects to change their feeding habits and aggregation and dispersal behavior, which contributes to population differentiation in insects. Future research is necessary to reveal the material and information exchange between both partners to improve our comprehension of the evolution of chemoreception in insects. Manipulating insect chemoreception physiology by inoculating them with microbes could be utilized as a potential approach to managing insect populations. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1520 KiB  
Article
Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Abundance Is Influenced by Livestock Host Species and Distance to Hosts at the Micro Landscape Scale
Insects 2023, 14(7), 637; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14070637 - 14 Jul 2023
Viewed by 537
Abstract
The vector/host ratio and host preference are important parameters for the modelling of vector-borne livestock diseases. It can be anticipated that Culicoides abundance is not homogeneously distributed in the landscape. We investigated the influence of host species (dairy cow, sheep, and a light-trap [...] Read more.
The vector/host ratio and host preference are important parameters for the modelling of vector-borne livestock diseases. It can be anticipated that Culicoides abundance is not homogeneously distributed in the landscape. We investigated the influence of host species (dairy cow, sheep, and a light-trap (LT) as a surrogate host) and distance of measurement to hosts on Culicoides abundance using a randomized block-design with 12 measuring days and seven 3-min aerial sweep-netting sessions per whole hour at three distances to the host (0, 10, and 25 m), from five hours before to and including one hour after sunset. Dairy cows were found to be a far stronger attractor of Culicoides midges than sheep, while both hosts were far stronger attractors of midges than the LT. Culicoides abundance declined significantly with increasing distance from the livestock hosts; this phenomenon was much stronger for dairy cows than for ewes. In contrast, Culicoides abundance increased with increasing distance from the LT, pin-pointing the apparent shortcomings of the LT as a surrogate host to lure midges. Our data indicate that livestock host species and the distance from these hosts have a profound effect on Culicoides abundance in the landscape. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medical and Livestock Entomology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 3388 KiB  
Article
Essential Oils and Their Components Control Behaviour of Yellow Mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) Larvae
Insects 2023, 14(7), 636; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14070636 - 14 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1026
Abstract
Beetle Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) is a well-known pest of grain and flour in food stores and grocery shops. Recently, commercial cultivation of the insect was started for human food and animal feed. Behaviour control of this insect using natural repellents is [...] Read more.
Beetle Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) is a well-known pest of grain and flour in food stores and grocery shops. Recently, commercial cultivation of the insect was started for human food and animal feed. Behaviour control of this insect using natural repellents is promising both for grain protection and commercial cultivation. We analysed if natural products of plant origin, namely essential oils (EOs), could be used for this purpose. Behavioural tests were performed using EOs of six plants: thymus (Thymus vulgaris), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), spearmint (Mentha spicata), lavandin (Lavandula × hybrida), East-Indian lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus), and clove (Eugenia caryophyllus). The most effective repellent for mealworm larvae was EO of spearmint, moderate activity showed that of clove and the least repellent were EOs of lemongrass thymus and lavandin. EO of eucalyptus caused almost no or very low effect. Six of the most abundant compounds of the EOs were selected for testing. The most effective single compounds were terpinene-4-ol and carvone, low-effective cis-sabinene hydrates and those of no significant activity were limonene, myrcene and γ-terpinene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Pest and Vector Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop